Now showing items 41-60 of 7182

    • Short, frequent high-intensity physical activity breaks reduce appetite compared with a continuous moderate-intensity exercise bout

      Maylor, Benjamin David; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Orton, Charlie J.; Bailey, Daniel Paul; University of Bedfordshire; Leicester General Hospital; Brunel University London (2022-12-06)
      A single exercise session can affect appetite-regulating hormones and suppress appetite. The effects of short, regular physical activity breaks across the day on appetite are unclear. This study investigated the effects of breaking up sitting with high-intensity physical activity versus a single bout of moderate-intensity exercise and prolonged sitting on appetite control. In this randomised crossover trial, 14 sedentary, inactive adults (seven women) completed three, 8-h experimental conditions: 1) prolonged sitting (SIT); 2) 30-min of moderate-intensity exercise followed by prolonged sitting (EX-SIT), and 3) sitting with 2 min 32 s of high-intensity physical activity every hour (SIT-ACT). Physical activity energy expenditure was matched between EX-SIT and SIT-ACT. Subjective appetite was measured every 30-min with acylated ghrelin and total peptide-YY (PYY) measured hourly in response to two standardised test meals. An ad libitum buffet meal was provided at the end of each condition. Based on linear mixed model analysis, total area under the curve for satisfaction was 16% higher (p=0.021) and overall appetite was 11% lower during SIT-ACT versus EX-SIT (p=0.018), with no differences between SIT-ACT and SIT. Time series analysis indicated that SIT-ACT reduced subjective appetite during the majority of the post-lunch period compared with SIT and EX-SIT, with some of these effects reversed earlier in the afternoon (p<0.05). Total PYY and acylated ghrelin did not differ between conditions. Relative energy intake was 760 kJ lower during SIT-ACT versus SIT (p=0.024). High-intensity physical activity breaks may be effective in acutely suppressing appetite; yet, appetite-regulating hormones may not explain such responses.
    • Different people, different backgrounds, different identities’: filling the vacuum created by policy views of ‘cultural capital’

      Connolly, Steve M.; Bates, Gareth; (Wiley, 2022-12-05)
      The notion of cultural capital, defined in its Arnoldian sense, of “the best that has been thought and said”, has been at the centre of the England’s education policy for the last five years. While it is clear that this version of cultural capital – different from the sense in which it was used by Pierre Bourdieu, who popularised the term – has been deployed to valorise certain types of social, educational and cultural knowledge, it is not clear at all what use teachers make of the term or indeed, how they view it. This article presents data from an evaluation of a programme for disadvantaged students in English primary and secondary schools that sought to make a focus on cultural capital, and tries to assess how teachers perceive and use the term. The article posits that teachers see exhortations to accumulate cultural capital as part of their role, but in much broader terms than the government does, and that they seek to fill the “vacuum” created by the current policy perspective on cultural capital.
    • A study of search user interface design based on Hofstede’s six cultural dimensions

      Chessum, Karen; Liu, Haiming; Frommholz, Ingo; University of Bedfordshire; University of Southampton; University of Wolverhampton (Scitepress Digital Library, 2022-11-09)
      An information seeker’s cultural background could influence their preference for search user interface (UI) design. To study cultural influences Geert Hofstede’s cultural dimensions have been applied to website design for a number of years. In this paper, we examine if Hofstede’s six cultural dimension can be applied to inform the design of search engine user interfaces. The culturally designed search user interfaces have been evaluated in a study with 148 participants of different cultural backgrounds. The results have been analysed to determine if Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are appropriate for understanding users’ preferences on search user interface design. Whilst the key findings from the study suggest Hofstede cross-cultural dimensions can be used to model users’ preferences on search interface design, further work is still needed for particular cultural dimensions to reinforce the conclusions.
    • Finger-prick autologous blood (FAB) eye drops for dry eye disease: single masked multi-dentre randomised controlled trial

      Hassan, Ali; Balal, Shafi; Cook, Erica Jane; Dehbi, Hakim-Moulay; Pardhan, Shahina; Bourne, Rupert Richard Alexander; Ahmad, Sajjad; Sharma, Anant; Moorfields Eye Hospital; UCL Institute of Ophthalmology; et al. (Dove Medical Press, 2022-12-02)
      Purpose: To investigate the quantitative and qualitative efficacy of finger-prick autologous blood (FAB) eye drops versus conventional medical therapy for the treatment of severe dry eye disease (DED). Methods: Two centre, single masked, randomised controlled trial. Sixty patients in total were recruited with thirty patients (sixty eyes) treated with FAB eye drops four times per day in addition to their conventional DED treatment, and thirty patients (fifty-eight eyes) served as control subjects on conventional treatment alone. Ocular surface disease index (OSDI), Schirmer’s test, fluorescein ocular staining grade (OCSG) Oxford schema and fluorescein tear film break-up time (TBUT), were performed at baseline, at 4 and 8 weeks. Results: OSDI scores significantly decreased in the FAB arm by greater than −17.68 (−37.67 to −2.96, p=0.02) compared to the control arm. There were greater improvements in OCSG and TBUT in the FAB arm but these were non-significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: This feasibility study demonstrates adding FAB eye drops to conventional medical therapy for DED improves mean OSDI symptom score compared to conventional medical therapy alone. It may have particular use in settings where serum is unobtainable. An adequately powered and well-designed randomised trial is needed to further evaluate the long-term clinical benefit of FAB.
    • ViMRT: a text-mining tool and search engine for automated virus mutation recognition

      Tong, Yuantao; Tan, Fanglin; Huang, Honglian; Zhang, Zeyu; Zong, Hui; Xie, Yujia; Huang, Danqi; Cheng, Shiyang; Wei, Ziyi; Fang, Meng; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2022-11-07)
      Virus mutation is one of the most important research issues which plays a critical role in disease progression and has prompted substantial scientific publications. Mutation extraction from published literature has become an increasingly important task, benefiting many downstream applications such as vaccine design and drug usage. However, most existing approaches have low performances in extracting virus mutation due to both lack of precise virus mutation information and their development based on human gene mutations.
    • What roles does physical activity play following the death of a parent as a young person? a qualitative investigation

      Williams, Jane; Howlett, Neil; Shorter, Gillian; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Chater, Angel M.; University of Bedfordshire; University of Hertfordshire; Queens University Belfast; University College London (Biomed Central, 2022-11-25)
      Background: Physical activity benefits physical and mental health. However, limited research investigates if physical activity can improve outcomes from the grieving process following the death of a parent. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 individuals (n = 8 female; age M = 31.2 years), who had experienced the death of a parent when they were aged between 10-24 years old, using retrospective recall. Data were analysed inductively using thematic analysis. Results: Six themes were identified. Physical activity was seen as; 1) ‘Therapeutic’; providing an 2) ‘Emotional Outlet’ and created a strong sense of 3) ‘Social Support’. Alongside it 4) ‘Builds Confidence’, and led to 5) ‘Finding Yourself’ and 6) ‘Improved Health’ (physical and psychological). Conclusion: Physical activity has the potential to provide positive experiences following a parental bereavement. It can provide a sense of freedom and was seen to alleviate grief outcomes, build resilience, enable social support and create a stronger sense of self. Bereavement support services for young people who have experienced death of a parent should consider physical activity as a viable intervention to support the grieving process. Keywords: Physical Activity, Exercise, Parental Bereavement, Death, Grief, Social Support, Resilience
    • Adaptive agency: some surviving and some thriving in the ‘interesting times' of English teaching

      Goodwyn, Andrew; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald Group Holdings Ltd., 2019-08-29)
      Purpose: This paper aims to introduce the concept of adaptive agency and illustrate its emergence in the field of English teaching in a number of countries using England over the past 30 years as a case study. It examines how the exceptional flexibility of English as school subject has brought many external impositions whilst its teachers have evolved remarkable adaptivity. Design/methodology/approach: It proposes several models of agency and their different modes, focussing finally on adaptive agency as a model that has emerged over a 30-year period. It considers aspects of this development across a number of countries, mostly English speaking ones, but its chief case is that of England. It is principally a theoretical paper drawing on Phenomenology, Critical Realism and later modernist interpretations of Darwinian Theory, but it is grounded by drawing on two recent empirical projects to illustrate English teachers’ current agency. It offers a fresh overview of how agency and accountability have interacted within a matrix of official policy and constraint. Findings: Adaptive agency has become a necessary aspect of teacher expertise. Such a mode of working creates great emotional strains and tensions, leading to many teachers leaving the profession. However, many English teachers whilst feeling controlled in the matrix of power and the panopticon of surveillance, remain resilient and positive about the future of the subject. Research limitations/implications: This is to some extent a personal and reflexive account of a lived history, supported by research and other evidence. Practical implications: Adaptive agency enables teachers to conceptualise the frustrations of the role but to celebrate how they expertly use their agency where they can. It makes their work and struggle more comprehensible. In providing the concept of harmonious practice, it offers the hope of a return to more satisfying professional lives. Originality/value: This paper offers an original concept, adaptive agency, and discusses other valuable conceptualisations of agency and accountability. It combines a unique individual perspective with a fresh overview of the past three decades as experienced by English teachers in England.
    • Only disconnect: rereading Margaret Meek–of policies and practices

      Goodwyn, Andrew (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2022-06-21)
      This article reviews Margaret Meek Spencer’s body of work in relation to the various policies that she critiqued from the Bullock Report in 1974 to the National Literacy Strategy in 2004. She analysed increasingly conservative moves to promote a dominant, elitist version of school literacy. A Critical Realist perspective aligns with Margaret Meek Spencer’s view of a highly structuring political movement to maintain a model of merely functional literacy. She focused on the agentive, engaged reader from birth and some of the intellectual and societal structures that hampered the development of authentic, independent readers. Several of her major themes are reviewed, including her rich and complex view of literacy and its relationship to literary competence, a personal growth view that emphasised the centrality of children’s literature and finally her emphasis on the role of reading in fostering human dignity and self-esteem.
    • The attrition of the expertise of teachers of English: from the rich pedagogy of personal and social agency to the poverty of the powerful knowledge heritage model

      Goodwyn, Andrew (Taylor and Francis, 2022-11-30)
      This chapter reviews conceptualisations of the developing expertise of English teachers and uses, as a lens, the history of selected professional development initiatives over the last 40 years, some local, some national, some international. One major purpose is to record the enduring values of English teachers as experts in how literature and language authentically and affectively are at the heart of education for all students. A “personal growth and social agency” model is an emancipatory view of English and focuses on developing nascent and maturing individual agents, constantly fostering their growing critical powers. The chapter summarises a number of research/development projects over the last 30 years that illustrate the tenacity of the Personal Growth and Social Agency model model for the majority of that period and then reveal the emergence of the Powerful Knowledge Heritage model. The rise of ‘Scientism’ and neoliberal notions of ‘Powerful Knowledge’ may come to dominate English teachers.
    • International perspectives on English teacher development: from initial teacher education to highly accomplished professional

      Goodwyn, Andrew; Manuel, Jacqueline; Roberts, Rachel; Scherff, Lisa; Sawyer, Wayne; Durrant, Cal; Zancanella, Don (Taylor and Francis, 2022-11-30)
      The fourth volume in the successful IFTE series provides an international perspective on the knowledge and professional development of the English teaching workforce. It provides a state-of-the-art review of English teaching and teachers and how they are developed over time. With contributions from leading scholars around the world, this volume is divided into four sections that follow the journey of an English teacher from being a student, to the latter stages of professional development and becoming a teacher. It sheds light on how different elements such as school culture, professional development, higher-level qualifications, professional associations and government policies contribute or detract from retention and job satisfaction. International Perspectives on English Teacher Development serves as ideal reading for the research and teacher education community along with teachers and student teachers globally.
    • Introduction: the remarkable careers of English teachers

      Goodwyn, Andrew (Taylor and Francis, 2022-11-30)
      This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book demonstrates how English teachers have struggled and resisted these pressures, holding on to their personal and professional integrity and maintaining their expertise. It focuses on the ongoing uncertainty about the relationship between English Literature departments in universities and teacher education programs. The book reveals an especially fraught scenario where persistent government intervention over more than 30 years has seen constant demands and constraints and an underlying move to drive ITE out from universities and into schools exclusively. It offers radical visions for the future of Canadian English Language Arts Teachers. The book reviews New Zealand’s model of teacher education to reveal similar pressures on the schools beginning English teachers must work in via assessment demands and heavy pressure on teacher autonomy.
    • Leaders, CSR and the role of religion in decision-making processes in Middle Eastern organisations

      Koleva, Petya Milhaylova; Ocler, Rodolphe; Saylors, Rohny G. (Academy of Management, 2018-07-09)
      Despite numerous publications on the role of religion on individual and organisational ethical behaviour, academic literature seems to lack a comprehensive understanding of how religion affects the decision- making of leaders and ethical behaviour of organisations. This gap seems to be even more significant with regard to developing countries and was addressed in the present study by conducting twenty-two interviews with leaders from the public and private sectors of three Middle Eastern countries. The study used Grounded Theory approach for data analysis which identified how Islamic moral postulates and ethics impact on leaders’ ethical behaviour, decision-making and consequently translate to organisational CSR behaviour. With this study, we contribute to the CSR literature by providing empirical evidence on how the repetitive interactions of social actors with religious affiliations create behavioural expectations which, when repeated and consequently internalized, become a constituent part of leaders’ identity and shape how they interact with the surrounding environment.
    • Using constructivist grounded theory to construct a substantive theory for corporate social responsibility

      Koleva, Petya Milhaylova; Ocler, Rodolphe (Springer International Publishing, 2018-01-24)
      Grounded Theory strategy (GT) has been introduced almost 50 years ago as the approach developed significantly since that time and contributed to emergence of variety of GT strategies. One of these variations is the constructive turn of Kathy Charmaz. In this paper we demonstrate (1) the potential of Constructive Grounded Theory (CGT) into scientific inquiry on CSR and (2) how the approach was implemented in order to build a substantive theory for CSR by utilising a practical example from a recently completed doctoral study by the lead author.
    • Chapitre 107. Lever le voile d’une illusion managériale par l’apport du "SIOFHIS" (Système d’Informations Opérationnelles et Fonctionnelles Humainement Intégrées et stimulantes)

      Delattre, Miguel; Ocler, Rodolphe ({EMS} Editions, 2021-01-12)
      Organisation et information sont indissociables en sciences de gestion, pour autant, le manque d’explicitation des hypothèses mobilisées conduit parfois à entretenir un flou sur la nature du lien concernant leur rapprochement ainsi que des biais de représentations pour la prise de décisions. La notion de Système d’informations opérationnelles et fonctionnelles humainement intégrées et stimulantes propose une perspective féconde pour ne pas céder à la facilité d’un discours managérial trop normatif.
    • Analysing the effects of oil price shocks on government expenditure in the Iranian economy

      Pazouki, Azadeh; Pazouki, Mohammad Reza; University of Southampton; Islamic Azad University (World Scientific Pub Co, 2014-06-30)
      The Iranian economy is closely associated with the oil industry as a key player in the global oil market. Accordingly, oil price spikes have a major influence on government spending with oil revenues being a major source for financing different expenditure categories such as social security, education, arts and culture, and health care. Moreover, recently there have been economic sanctions imposed on Iran owing to the nuclear program which has greatly restricted Iranian oil exports and caused significant distress to government revenue which in turn has spill over effects on Iran's allocations for investment in the energy industry, and more importantly in government spending on care, education, culture and arts, and social security. This paper aims to analyse these overall effects and the impact of oil price spikes on Iranian government expenditure. In order to achieve our objective we rely on a VAR econometric model using data from 1965–2011. The results show that Iranian government social spending does not appear to be significantly affected by oil price shocks.
    • A new method for optimal location of FACTS devices in deregulated electricity market

      Qadikolai, Mohammad Majidi; Afsharnia, Saeed; Ghazizadeh, Mohammad Sadegh; Pazouki, Azadeh; University of Tehran; Power and Water University of Technology, Tehran; Alzahra University (IEEE, 2009-01-27)
      Under deregulated environment, transmission networks are operated close to their constraints. In this situation, FACTS devices can be useful in secure system operation. Private investorpsilas goal is maximizing their investment surpluses. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for optimal location of FACTS devices that the objective function is maximizing FACTS device ownerpsilas surplus. According to this algorithm, maximum FACTS device capacities in transmission network are found which are acceptable economically and the priority of all acceptable projects are determine by calculating the rate of annual revenue and annual cost. The proposed algorithm has been implemented for optimal placement of TCSC on a nine buses test system and the results have been compared with other optimal location methods based on congestion management and increasing system load ability.
    • Enhancing innovation performance: how do IC-enhancing HR practices work?

      Ghaleh, Hossein Heidarian; Pazouki, Azadeh; Moradi, Mohammad; Mehralian, Gholamhossein (Academy of Management, 2022-06-07)
      Scholars debate over departing away from the standard and human capital-centered HR practices and paying attention to the social and organizational side of an HR system, highlighting the concept of intellectual capital (IC)-enhancing HR practices. To improve our understanding of how IC-enhancing HR practices help firms achieve innovation performance, we develop and empirically test a framework investigating the joint effects of IC- enhancing HR practices, innovative work behavior (IWB), transformational leadership (TL), and innovation performance. We designed rigorous time-lagged research with three waves of data gathering from CEOs, R&D employees, and R&D managers. Analysis of 279 manufacturing companies in the healthcare industry demonstrates that individual-level IWB positively and significantly mediates the relationship between IC-enhancing HR practices and innovation performance. More conspicuously, we found that the effect of IC-enhancing HR practices on IWB is higher when TL exists. We discuss outright novel theoretical and empirical insights that our study offers.
    • Environmental treaties’ impact on the environment in resource-rich and non-resource-rich countries

      Zakari, Abdulrasheed; Adedoyin, Festus Fatai; Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad; Pazouki, Azadeh (Springer Science and Business Media {LLC}, 2023-02-02)
      This paper examines the impact of environmental treaties on the environment across 74 countries: 50 resource-rich and 24 non-resource-rich countries. Using data spanning over 35 years, we find a negative and significant association between environmental treaties and environmental quality in resource-rich countries. On the contrary, we find environmental treaties positively and significantly affect the environment in non-resource-rich countries. Our results suggest that the environmental treaties signed by resource-rich countries may lead them to achieve sustainable development growth by 2030. Therefore, our results extend the environment literature and inform policymakers of the need to pay attention to the effects of signing environmental treaties on environmental protection.
    • The dynamic impact among oil dependence volatility, the quality of political institutions, and government spending

      Pazouki, Azadeh; Zhu, Xiaoxian; University of Bedfordshire; Teesside University (Elsevier, 2022-11-02)
      This paper empirically examines the direct and indirect effect of the role of democracy, and, in turn, the effect of oil dependence volatility on governmental expenditure in oil exporting countries. To achieve this aim, we apply a panel Vector Auto-Regressive (PVAR) model along with panel impulse response functions from the period 1983 to 2016. The findings show that the quality of political institutions, it is observed that in democratic countries an increase in oil volatility leads to an increase in government expenditure. In contrast, in non-democratic countries, governments respond to oil volatility fluctuating between the positive and negative depending on the quality of political institutions; the more some attributes of democracy are seen, the greater the expenditure. This difference in response between them can be attributed to a variation in institutional quality. Therefore, an improvement in strategic risk planning together with greater government transparency could lead to institutional quality improvement.
    • Co-benefits of physical activity: assisting cardiometabolic disease prevention and climate change mitigation by active travel to school

      Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; University of Bedfordshire (2022-08-22)
      With many children and adolescents at risk of developing cardiometabolic disease (e.g. type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease) due to their low physical activity levels (Steene-Johannessen et al., 2020) and global concerns of climate change placing uncertainty on their futures (Gasparri et al., 2022), research on the co-benefits of physical activity for human and planetary health is highly topical and of interest to these young populations. A recent harmonised analysis (n=47,497) reported that around two-thirds of European children and adolescents aged 2–18 years are not sufficiently active, defined as less than an average of 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day (WHO, 2020), when measured objectively, with higher inactivity in girls versus boys and with increasing age (Steene-Johannessen et al., 2020). Targeting young people to aid disease prevention rather than focusing efforts towards treatment in later life may also be of planetary benefit due to reduced greenhouse gas emissions associated with disease either directly via, for example, blood analysis consumables, drug manufacturing and clinical waste disposal associated with diagnosis and treatment, or indirectly via disease effects on lifestyle, among other things (Eckelman et al., 2018).