Now showing items 41-60 of 6976

    • Enacting whole-school relationships and sexuality education in England: context matters

      Bragg, Sara; Ponsford, Ruth; Meiksin, Rebecca; Lohan, Maria; Melendez-Torres, G. J.; Hadley, Alison; Young, Honor; Barter, Christine; Taylor, Bruce; Bonell, Chris; et al. (Wiley, 2022-03-30)
      Evidence from intervention evaluations suggests that achieving meaningful and lasting social, behavioural and attitudinal change from relationships, sex and health education (RSHE) in schools requires more than just a curriculum. Whole-school approaches appear particularly promising since they work at multiple levels. For instance, they may: engage with carers, communities and local services; address iniquitous cultures and norms; change school policies and practices; and actively involve young people themselves. They have also been advocated to tackle sexual harassment and abuse in schools. Currently, however, such approaches have not been rigorously evaluated in the UK. This article focuses on the whole-school elements of two recent RSHE pilot studies conducted in English secondary schools. We describe how these elements were variably enacted in different settings. We analyse contextual factors that help account for these differences, including: teacher and departmental professional identity and autonomy; broader education policy including high-stakes testing and school inspection judgements; the significance of support staff; and staff–student relationships and partnerships. We argue that the likely impact of whole-school approaches and RSHE in schools more generally will depend on attending to all of these factors. The paper contributes firstly to debates about the theory and practice of RSHE by highlighting the significance of processes and cultures beyond the classroom in enabling or constraining positive change. Secondly it contributes to scholarship that elucidates the role of contexts, broadly defined, in understanding the enactment of policy and practice.
    • Editorial: Special issue on "Bright ICT: security, privacy and risk issues"

      Lawrence, Victor B.; Ayaburi, Emmanuel W.; Andoh-Baidoo, Francis Kofi; Dwivedi, Yogesh Kumar; Lal, Banita (Springer, 2022-04-02)
      Bright ICT, a 2015 initiative of the Association of Information Systems introduced by Prof J.K. Lee, refers to the grand vision of a bright society enabled by ICT. Bright ICT research involves taking a holistic view at the design of ICT enabled future society (Lee, 2016; Lee et al., 2018). This concept entails the development of relevant technologies, business models, public policies, social norms, international agreements, metrics for measuring national progress and preventing undesirable activities on the Internet. It is also at the center of discussions on adoption or modification of technologies, policies, and organizations from which new business models—that create a bright safe internet—can evolve. As a double edge sword, technology creates huge benefits such as the use of mobile phones for healthcare access but create challenges such as delayed access to healthcare providers (Haenssgen & Ariana, 2017). Legal frameworks such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and opt-in/out rules that are promulgated to protect individuals’ private data have dual effect of reducing users’ information sharing intentions and giving power to a few Tech market players (Johnson et al., 2020).
    • Review of: Engaging with linguistic diversity: a study of educational inclusion at an Irish primary school

      Mistry, Malini Tina (Taylor and Francis, 2022-04-18)
      review of Engaging with linguistic diversity: a study of educational inclusion at an Irish primary school edited by David Little, Deirdre Kiwan, Victoria Pugh and Daniel Hughes, London, Bloomsbury, 2019, 190 pp., £26.00 (paperback), ISBN: 978-1-350-07203-9
    • Book review: Assessing speaking in context: expanding the construct and its applications

      Taylor, Lynda (SAGE, 2022-02-16)
      review of Salaberry MR, Burch AR (2021) Assessing speaking in context: expanding the construct and its applications, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, ISBN 9781788923804
    • Learning from safeguarding adult reviews about Transitional Safeguarding: building an evidence base

      Preston-Shoot, Michael; Cocker, Christine; Cooper, Adi; University of Bedfordshire; University of East Anglia; Adult Social Care and Safeguarding (Emerald Group Holdings Ltd., 2022-04-12)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out the evidence base to date for Transitional Safeguarding to support authors of Safeguarding Adult Reviews (SARs) where Transitional Safeguarding is a key theme in the review. Design/methodology/approach: This paper draws on key evidence from several published sources about Transitional Safeguarding in England. This evidence is presented in this paper as a framework for analysis to support SAR authors. It follows the same four domains framework used in other adult safeguarding reviews: direct work with individuals; team around the person; organisational support for team members; and governance. This framework was then applied to two SARs written by two of the article’s authors. Findings: The framework for analysis for Transitional Safeguarding SARs was applied as part of the methodology of two separate SARs regarding three young people. Key reflections from applying the framework to both SARs are identified and discussed. These included: providing an effective framework for analysis which all participants could use and a contribution for developing knowledge. Whilst many issues arising for safeguarding young people are similar to those for other adults, there are some unique features. The ways in which the gaps between children and adults systems play out through inter-agency and multi-professional working, as well as how “lifestyle choices” of young people are understood and interpreted are key issues. Practical implications: This paper presents an evidence base regarding Transitional Safeguarding for SAR authors who are tasked with completing a SAR where Transitional Safeguarding is a key theme. Originality/value: This paper draws together key literature and evidence about Transitional Safeguarding practice with young people. This paper argues that this framework for analysis provides SAR authors with a useful tool to support their analysis in this complex area of practice.
    • Sustainable arts and health: the role of a university in facilitating an intergenerational, interdisciplinary community arts project

      Farrer, Rachel; Douse, Louise Emma; Aujla, Imogen; University of Bedfordshire (University of Georgia, 2022-03-31)
      There is growing interest in the use of intergenerational practice in arts and health to support psychological well-being and community cohesion. However, little research has addressed the facilitation of such projects, or how higher education institutions can support them. Here we examine the role of the University of Bedfordshire in Generations Dancing, an 11-week dance and photography project for older adults and young people in Bedford. Focus groups were conducted with the older adults, young people, artists, independent living centre leaders, and schoolteachers involved. Inductive content analysis highlighted the university’s role in brokering between community sectors, promoting the project, and offering resources. These factors appeared to play a significant part in enabling the project to develop beyond what smaller organizations working independently might have achieved, and in facilitating a sustainable model for its perpetuation.
    • Workplace intervention for reducing sitting time in sedentary workers: protocol for a pilot study using the Behavior Change Wheel

      Ojo, Samson Oluseye; Bailey, Daniel Paul; Chater, Angel M.; Hewson, David; University of Bedfordshire; Northampton General Hospital NHS Trust; Brunel University; University College London (Frontiers, 2022-04-12)
      The workplace is a major contributor to excessive sitting in office workers. There are a wide array of adverse effects of high volumes of sitting time, including an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and depression. Active workstations can be used in effective interventions to decrease workplace sitting. However, there are a lack of interventions that have been developed using a systematic process that is informed by participant needs and a framework for identifying the most appropriate content for the intervention. Applying these methods could increase adherence and potential effectiveness of the intervention. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study is to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a tailored workplace intervention to reduce and break up sitting in office workers that has been developed using the Behavior Change Wheel and the APEASE (Acceptability, Practicability, Effectiveness/cost-effectiveness, Affordability, Safety/side-effects, Equity) criteria. This article reports the protocol for this study that is currently ongoing. Participants will be cluster-randomized (by offices) to control and intervention groups. The evaluation of the intervention includes determining feasibility by assessing participant recruitment, retention and data completion rates. Adherence to the intervention will be assessed based on daily sitting and standing time relative to guidelines provided to participants as part of the intervention. Outcome measures also include productivity measured using Ecological Momentary Assessment, absenteeism, presenteeism, cardiometabolic risk markers, and wellbeing. The findings of this study will inform the effective design and implementation of interventions for reducing and breaking up sitting in office workers.
    • Exploring the potential benefits of Ethanol Direct Injection (EDI) timing and pressure on particulate emission characteristics in a Dual-Fuel Spark Ignition (DFSI) engine

      Li, Xiang; Li, Dayou; Liu, Jingyin; Ajmal, Tahmina; Aitouche, Abdel; Mobasheri, Raouf; Rybdylova, Oyuna; Pei, Yiqiang; Peng, Zhijun; ; et al. (Elsevier, 2022-04-26)
      Nowadays, particulate matter emitted by vehicles severely impacts environmental quality and human health. In this paper, the potential benefits of Ethanol Direct Injection (EDI) timing and pressure on particulate emission characteristics in a Dual-Fuel Spark Ignition (DFSI) engine were initially and systematically explored. The experimental results illustrate that by delaying EDI timing from -340 ºCA to -300 ºCA, there is a significant benefit in both particulate number and mass concentration. Furthermore, the size distribution curve of particulate number changes from bimodal to unimodal, meantime size distribution curves of particulate mass consistently concentrate on the accumulation mode. By increasing EDI pressure from 5.5 MPa to 18 MPa, the droplet size of ethanol spray can be effectively reduced. The benefit of increasing EDI pressure is more apparent in reducing particulate number is than particulate mass. The concentration of number and mass for total particulates have a reduction of 51.15% and 22.64%, respectively. In summary, it was demonstrated that an appropriate EDI timing or high EDI pressure could be a practical and efficient way to reduce particulate emissions in a DFSI engine.
    • ER stress in COVID-19 and Parkinson's Disease: in vitro and in silico evidences

      Chaudhry, Zahara Latif; Gamal, Mahmoud; Ferhati, Ingrid; Warda, Mohamad; Ahmed, Bushra Y.; ; University of Bedfordshire; Cairo University (MDPI, 2022-04-16)
      The outbreak of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) signifies a serious worldwide concern to public health. Both transcriptome and proteome of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells synergize the progression of infection in host, which may exacerbate symptoms and/or progression of other chronic diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Oxidative stress is a well-known cause of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress observed in both SARS-CoV-2 and PD. In the current study, we aimed to explore the influence of PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) stress pathway under SARS-CoV-2-mediated infection and in human cell model of PD. Furthermore, we investigated whether they are interconnected and if the ER stress inhibitors could inhibit cell death and provide cellular protection. To achieve this aim, we have incorporated in silico analysis obtained from gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), a literature review and laboratory data. The neurotoxin, 6-hydroxy dopamine (6OHDA), was used to mimic the biochemical and neuropathological characteristics of PD by inducing oxidative stress in dopamine-containing neurons differentiated from ReNVM cell line (dDCNs). Furthermore, we explored if ER stress influences activation of caspases-2, -4 and -8 in SARS-CoV-2 and in stressed dDCNs. Our laboratory data using Western blot, immunocytochemistry and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) analyses indicated that 6OHDA-induced toxicity triggered activation of caspases-2, -4 and -8 in dDCNs. Under SARS-CoV-2 infection of different cell types, GSEA revealed cell-specific sensitivities to oxidative and ER stresses. Cardiomyocytes and type II alveolar epithelial-like cells were more vulnerable to oxidative stress than neural cells. On the other side, only cardiomyocytes activated the unfolded protein response, however, the PERK pathway was operative in both cardiomyocytes and neural cells. In addition, caspase-4 activation by a SARS-CoV-2 was observed via in silico analyses. These results demonstrate that the ER stress pathway under oxidative stress in SARS-CoV-2 and PD are interconnected using diverse pathways. Furthermore, our results using the ER stress inhibitor and caspase specific inhibitors provided cellular protection suggesting that the use of specific inhibitors can provide effective therapeutic approaches for the treatment of COVID-19 and PD.
    • Accounting perspectives on the business value ‎of big data during and beyond the Covid-19 ‎pandemic

      Saeudy, Mohamed; Gerged, Ali Meftah; Albitar, Khaldoon; University of Bedfordshire; De Montfort Universit; Misurata University; University of Portsmouth (Editura ASE, 2022-04-22)
      Research Question: How can business organizations develop accounting practices to use big data to create competitive intelligence advantages to survive during and beyond the Covid-19 conditions? Motivation: We aim to provide new accounting perspectives for using big data techniques in business organizations beyond the covid-19. Idea: We argue that the massive reduction in business capacity and operations will interpose the accounting and financial practices beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a crucial need to uncover the underlying business practices and market circumstances toward the radical shifts in business and society. Date: Our paper uses a desk study method to investigate companies' possible challenges and opportunities to use big data analytics as a survival method during and beyond the Covid-19 conditions. Tools: Critical contingencies represent one of the leading business strategies to manage the shift in customer demand and business risks. Big data can be used in this sense as a valuable intangible asset to create these critical contingencies and help a business survive beyond this pandemic. Findings: This study provides policy and practitioner implications in relation to establishing new accounting perspectives on big data analytics in the context of achieving economic sustainability for corporations during and beyond the Covid-19 pandemic. It offers new forms of trust, accountability and governance practices to integrate big data into accounting practices to create more competitive intelligence for businesses.
    • Bi-layered disulfiram-loaded fiber membranes with antibacterial properties for wound dressing

      Xie, Chenchen; Yan, Jin; Cao, Siyuan; Liu, Ri; Sun, Baishun; Xie, Ying; Qu, Kaige; Zhang, Wenxiao; Weng, Zhankun; Wang, Zuobin; et al. (Springer, 2021-10-29)
      In this study, the bi-layered disulfiram-loaded fiber membranes with the antibacterial activity and different surface wettabilities are prepared using electrospinning technology. In the application of wound dressing, the hydrophilic surface of fiber membranes is beneficial for cell adhesion and drug release to heal the wound. Meanwhile, the outside hydrophobic surface is able to block water penetration to reduce the probability of wound infection. The obtained bi-layered drug-loaded fiber membranes are composed of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) bottom surface and disulfiram (DSF)/polylactic acid (PLA) top surface. To modify the top surface wettability, the oxygen plasma modification of bi-layered membranes was carried out. The morphology, wettability, and chemical compositions of bi-layered drug-loaded fiber membranes were analyzed using the scanning electronic microscope (SEM), drop shape analysis instrument, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS). The bi-layered disulfiram-loaded membranes showed the potent antibacterial activity in vitro against both Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive). It was found that the bi-layered membranes had good biocompatibility with L929 cells. Thus, the obtained bi-layered disulfiram-loaded fiber membranes are suitable for wound dressing application.
    • Regulation of cell cycle and differentiation markers by pathogenic, non-pathogenic and opportunistic skin bacteria

      Younis, Sidra; Deeba, Farah; Fatima Saeed, Rida; Mothana, Ramzi A.; Ullah, Riaz; Faheem, Muhammad; Javed, Qamar; Blumenberg, Miroslav; National University of Medical Sciences, Pakistan; Quaid-e-Azam University; et al. (Elsevier B.V., 2021-11-02)
      Skin is the first line of defense against the physical, chemical and the biological environment. It is an ideal organ for studying molecular responses to biological infections through a variety of skin cells that specialize in immune responses. Comparative analysis of skin response to pathogenic, non-pathogenic, and commensal bacteria would help in the identification of disease specific pathways for drug targets. In this study, we investigated human breast reduction skin responses to Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), and TLR1/2 agonist using Affymetrix microarray chips. The Pam3CSK4 solution and bacterial cultures were prepared and inoculated in steel rings, that were placed on the acetone treated epidermis in a petri dish. After 24 h incubation, 8 mm punch biopsies were taken from the center of the ring, and RNA was extracted. The genome-wide expression was then analyzed using Affymetrix HG-133A gene chip microarray. We found that the C. acnes and S. aureus boosted the production of extracellular matrix components and attenuated the expression of differentiation markers. The above responses were mediated through the TLR2 pathway. Skin also responded to S. aureus and C. acnes by inducing the genes of the cell cycle machinery; this response was not TLR2-dependent. S. aureus induced, whereas C. acnes suppressed the genes associated with apoptosis; this was also not TLR2-dependent. Moreover, S. epidermis apparently did not lead to changes in gene expression. We conclude that the breast reduction skin is a very useful model to study the global gene expression in response to bacterial treatments.
    • An investigation of the policies and crucial sectors of Smart Cities based on IoT application

      Razmjoo, Armin; Gandomi, Amirhossein; Mahlooji, Maral; Astiaso Garcia, Davide; Mirjalili, Seyedali; Rezvani, Alireza; Ahmadzadeh, Sahar; Memon, Saim; Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya; University of Technology Sydney; et al. (MDPI, 2022-03-04)
      As smart cities (SCs) emerge, the Internet of Things (IoT) is able to simplify more sophisti-cated and ubiquitous applications employed within these cities. In this regard, we investigate seven predominant sectors including the environment, public transport, utilities, street lighting, waste management, public safety, and smart parking that have a great effect on SC development. Our findings show that for the environment sector, cleaner air and water systems connected to IoT-driven sensors are used to detect the amount of CO2, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen to monitor air quality and to detect water leakage and pH levels. For public transport, IoT systems help traffic management and prevent train delays, for the utilities sector IoT systems are used for reducing overall bills and related costs as well as electricity consumption management. For the street-lighting sector, IoT systems are used for better control of streetlamps and saving energy associated with urban street lighting. For waste management, IoT systems for waste collection and gathering of data regarding the level of waste in the container are effective. In addition, for public safety these systems are important in order to prevent vehicle theft and smartphone loss and to enhance public safety. Finally, IoT systems are effective in reducing congestion in cities and helping drivers to find vacant parking spots using intelligent smart parking.
    • Life-course influence of adolescent behaviour problems on type 2 diabetes in midlife: results from 1958 British Birth Cohort Study

      Saad, Sadiq M.; Iwundu, Chukwuma; Ibrahim, Musa Saulawa; Randhawa, Gurch; Pang, Dong; ; University of Bedfordshire (Dove Press, 2022-03-29)
      To assess whether there is a long-term relationship between childhood behaviour problems and type 2 diabetes in midlife. The study will also investigate whether any of such relationship is independent of other factors which may be associated with type 2 diabetes. Cohort study. A total of 9377 members of the 1958 British birth cohort participated in the biomedical survey at age 45 years. The cohort has been followed up at regular intervals in childhood (age 7, 11 and 16 years) and adulthood (23, 33, 42 and 45 years). Information regarding childhood behaviour collected during follow-ups at ages 7, 11 and 16 years. Type 2 diabetes assessed using HbA1c at age 45 years. Unadjusted estimates show that teachers reported adolescent behaviour problems at age of 16 are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in midlife. After adjustment for potential confounders and mediators in childhood and adulthood, a relationship was observed between the severity of adolescent behaviour problems and type 2 diabetes risk in midlife (mild behaviour problems: OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.11-4.23; severe behaviour problems: OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.14-16.99). However, no such relationship was observed between behaviour problems at 7 and 11 years and type 2 diabetes in midlife. There is an association between adolescent behaviour problems and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in midlife. Further molecular/genetic studies are required to understand the biological basis for this observed association.
    • Development and validation of a simple risk model for predicting metabolic syndrome (MetS) in midlife: a cohort study

      Ibrahim, Musa Saulawa; Pang, Dong; Randhawa, Gurch; Pappas, Yannis; ; University of Bedfordshire (Dove Press, 2022-12-30)
      To develop and validate a simple risk model for predicting metabolic syndrome in midlife using a prospective cohort data. Prospective cohort study. A total of 7626 members of the 1958 British birth cohort (individuals born in the first week of March 1958) participated in the biomedical survey at age 45 and have completed information on metabolic syndrome. Variables utilised were obtained prospectively at birth, 7, 16, 23 and 45 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to develop a total of ten (10) MetS risk prediction models taking the life course approach. Measures of discrimination and calibration were used to evaluate the performance of the models. A pragmatic criteria developed was used to select one model with the most potential to be useful. The internal validity (overfitting) of the selected model was assessed using bootstrap technique of Stata. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the NCEP-ATP III clinical criteria. There is high prevalence of MetS among the cohort members (19.6%), with males having higher risk as compared to females (22.8% vs 16.4%, P < 0.001). Individuals with MetS are more likely to have higher levels of HbA1c and low HDL-cholesterol. Similarly, regarding the individual components of MetS, male cohort members are more likely to have higher levels of glycaemia (HbA1c), BP and serum triglycerides. In contrast, female cohort members have lower levels of HDL-cholesterol and higher levels of waist circumference. Furthermore, a total of ten (10) MetS risk prediction models were developed taking the life course approach. Of these, one model with the most potential to be applied in practical setting was selected. The model has good accuracy (AUROC 0.91 (0.90, 0.92)), is well calibrated (Hosmer-Lemeshow 6.47 (0.595)) and has good internal validity. Early life factors could be included in a risk model to predict MetS in midlife. The developed model has been shown to be accurate and has good internal validity. Therefore, interventions targeting socioeconomic inequality could help in the wider prevention of MetS. However, the validity of the developed model needs to be further established in an external population.
    • A systematic review of the evidence on the effect of parental communication about health and health behaviours on children's health and wellbeing

      Grey, E.B,; Atkinson, L.; Chater, Angel M.; Gahagan, A,; Tran, A.; Gillison, Fiona B.; ; University of Bath; Aston University; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Elsevier, 2022-04-08)
      Parents report feeling unsure how best to talk with their children about sensitive health topics and may avoid such conversations; yet if children have questions or concerns about their health, talking to a parent could enhance their health and wellbeing. We investigated the effects of parental communications about health and health behaviours on children's health and wellbeing, and explored what strategies can encourage parents to communicate about health. We conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis of research published between January 2008 and April 2020 from five databases. Of 14,007 articles identified, 16 met inclusion criteria focusing on five topics: diet and weight (n = 5), body image (n = 2), sexual health (n = 7), physical activity (n = 1) and bullying (n = 1). Positive child outcomes were associated with positive general parent-child communication characterised by warmth, openness and allowing children choice. Conversely, hostility, negative and inconsistent messaging were associated with poorer outcomes. Interventions to increase parent-child communication could be classified as providing single directive messages, media campaigns or intensive support. Single messages increased communication frequency; media campaigns and intensive interventions showed mixed outcomes. No differences in outcomes were found according to child's gender or socio-economic status. Generally, parents were less confident in initiating, rather than continuing, conversations and were more likely to initiate conversations when they felt they had good topic knowledge. While the relatively small, diverse sample limits the strength of these findings, this review provides provisional support for approaches to promote positive parent-child communication about health that are associated with better child health and wellbeing.
    • Emoji identification and emoji effects on sentence emotionality in ASD-diagnosed adults and neurotypical controls

      Hand, Christopher J.; Kennedy, Ashley; Filik, Ruth; Pitchford, Melanie; Robus, Christopher M.; ; University of Glasgow; Glasgow Caledonian University; University of Nottingham; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Springer, 2022-04-12)
      We investigated ASD-diagnosed adults' and neurotypical (NT) controls' processing of emoji and emoji influence on the emotionality of otherwise-neutral sentences. Study 1 participants categorised emoji representing the six basic emotions using a fixed-set of emotional adjectives. Results showed that ASD-diagnosed participants' classifications of fearful, sad, and surprised emoji were more diverse and less 'typical' than NT controls' responses. Study 2 participants read emotionally-neutral sentences; half paired with sentence-final happy emoji, half with sad emoji. Participants rated sentence + emoji stimuli for emotional valence. ASD-diagnosed and NT participants rated sentences + happy emoji as equally-positive, however, ASD-diagnosed participants rated sentences + sad emoji as more-negative than NT participants. We must acknowledge differential perceptions and effects of emoji, and emoji-text inter-relationships, when working with neurodiverse stakeholders.
    • Nothing about me without me

      Hill, N.; Warrington, Camille (Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2022-04-19)
      This chapter aims to provide an overview of how participation and empowerment-focused approaches can promote improved relational practice and outcomes for young people in safeguarding . It builds on learning from emerging practice in interrelated disciplines such as youth and community work, social work, youth justice and adult safeguarding.
    • Effects and mechanism of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

      Hu, Yu; Wang, Shu-Xiang; Wu, Fu-Yu; Wu, Ke-Jia; Shi, Rui-Ping; Qin, Li-Hong; Lu, Chun-Feng; Wang, Shu-Qiu; Wang, Fang-Fang; Zhou, Shaobo; et al. (Hindawi, 2022-03-08)
      Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) have renal protection effect but there was no study on the diabetic nephropathy. This study was designed to investigate its effect and mechanism using a diabetic rat model induced by streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, i.p.). The diabetic rats were treated with GLP (300 mg/kg/day) for 10 weeks. The blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, body weight, and the levels of blood creatinine, urea nitrogen, and urine protein were assessed. And renal pathologies were assessed by the tissue sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson’s trichome, and periodic acid-Schiff. The expression of phosphorylated phosphoinositide 3 kinase (p-PI3K), phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt), and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR), the autophagy proteins beclin-1, LC3-II, LC3-I, and P62; the apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3 and caspase-9; and the inflammation markers IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-ɑ were assessed. Results showed that GLP alleviated the impairment of renal function by reducing urinary protein excretion and the blood creatinine level and ameliorated diabetic nephropathy. The expression of p-PI3K, p-Akt, and p-mTOR in the diabetic kidney were significantly reduced in the GLP treatment group compared to the without treatment group. GLP treatment activated the autophagy indicators of beclin-1 and the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I but reduced p62 and also inhibited the expression of caspase-3, caspase-9 and IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-ɑ. In conclusion, the effect of GLP amelioration diabetic nephropathy may be via the PI3k/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway by inhibition of the apoptosis and inflammation and activation of the autophagy process.
    • Study on the association of dietary fatty acids intake and serum lipid profiles with cognition in aging subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

      Li, Pengfei; Gao, Yanyan; Ma, Xiaojun; Zhou, Shaobo; Guo, Yujie; Xu, Jingjing; Wang, Xixiang; Van Halm-Lutterodt, Nicholas; Yuan, Linhong; Capital Medical University, Beijing; et al. (Frontiers, 2022-03-31)
      Background: The correlation between dietary fatty acid (FA) intake and serum lipid profile levels with cognition in the aged population has been reported by previous studies. However, the association of dietary FA intake and serum lipid profile levels with cognition in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is seldom reported. Objective: A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the correlation between dietary FA intake and serum lipid profiles with cognition in the aged Chinese population with T2DM. Methods: A total of 1,526 aged Chinese subjects were recruited from communities. Fasting blood samples were collected for parameter measurement. The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) method was applied for a dietary survey. Cognition was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test. Dietary FA intake and serum lipid levels were compared between subjects with T2DM and control subjects. A logistic regression analysis was carried out for analyzing the association of FA intake and serum lipid levels with the risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in subjects with T2DM and control subjects. Results: There was a significant difference in the serum lipid level between the T2DM group and the control group. Results of the logistic regression analysis demonstrated the potential associations of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intake with the risk of MCI in subjects with T2DM, but the associations were not observed in control subjects. Conclusion: The T2DM phenotype might affect the relationship between dietary FA intake, circulating lipids, and cognitive performance. Large prospective cohort studies are needed to uncover the underlying mechanism of how dietary FA intake and serum lipid levels affect cognition in aged subjects with T2DM.