Now showing items 21-40 of 5948

    • A prostate cancer care process example of using data from internet of things

      Effiok, Emmanuel; Liu, Enjie; Yu, Hong Qing; Hitchcock, Jonathan James; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-12-28)
      In this research, we use prostate cancer as an example to describe the idea of using Internet of Things (IoT) technology as part of the care process for chronic diseases. IoT provides ways to monitor and collect critical risk elements data that relate to the causes and development of the disease and its comorbidities, on a real time basis over a long period of time by sensing and communication capacity. The risk models and their evidences are gathered from the literature, and they will be semantically described to support the knowledge to be used by other applications. The personal data collected by IoT devices combined with risk models will provide individual risk prediction. The prediction can be used by patients in self-managing their chronic disease, and also help medical professionals to take in-sight look into the progression of the disease for the individual patient, in order to prescribe the best suitable care plan and treatment.
    • Improving reliability of message broadcast over internet of vehicles (IoVs)

      Eze, Elias Chinedum; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-12-28)
      With the envisioned era of Internet of Things (IoTs), all aspects of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) will be connected to improve transport safety, relieve traffic congestion, reduce air pollution, enhance the comfort of transportation and significantly reduce road accidents. In IoVs, regular exchange of current position, direction, velocity, etc., enables mobile vehicles to predict an upcoming accident and alert the human drivers in time or proactively take precautionary actions to avoid the accident. The actualization of this concept requires the use of channel access protocols that can guarantee reliable and timely broadcast of safety messages. This paper investigates the application of network coding concept to increase content of every transmission and achieve improved broadcast reliability with less number of retransmission. In particular, we proposed Code Aided Retransmission-based Error Recovery (CARER) scheme, introduced an RTB/CTB handshake to overcome hidden node problem and reduce packets collision rate. The performance of CARER is clearly shown with detailed theoretical analysis and further validated with simulation experiments.
    • RECMAC: reliable and efficient cooperative cross-layer MAC scheme for vehicular communication based on random network coding technique

      Eze, Elias Chinedum; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; Nweso, Emmanuel N.; Eze, Joy C.; University of Bedfordshire; Ebonyi State University (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-10-24)
      In an unreliable cluster-based, broadcast-oriented vehicular network setting, we investigate the transmission reliability and throughput performance of random network coding (RNC) as a function of the packet generate rate. Our proposed model consists of a source vehicle broadcasting packets to a set of receivers (i.e. one-to-many) over independent broadcast erasure channels. The source vehicle performs RNC on N packets and broadcasts the encoded message to a set of receivers. In each hop, several vehicles form a cluster and cooperatively transmit the encoded or re-encoded packet. The combination of RNC, cluster based, and cooperative communications enables RECMAC to optimally minimize data redundancy, which means less overhead, and improve reliability as opposed to existing coding-based solutions. Theoretic analyses and simulation results show that RECMAC scheme can achieve optimal performance in terms of transmission reliability and throughput.
    • Cognitive radio aided Vehicular ad-hoc networks with efficient spectrum allocation and QoS guarantee

      Eze, Joy C.; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; Theresa, Efor E.; Eze, Elias Chinedum; University of Bedfordshire; Ebonyi State University (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-10-24)
      The increasing demand of diverse vehicular network oriented applications (both safety and non-safety related services would undoubtedly lead to shortage of spectral resource challenge for V2V communication networks. In order to resolve this issue, a novel Adaptive CR Enabled Vehicular NETwork (ACREVNET) framework is proposed in this paper. To avoid heavy overhead usually incurred during spectrum sensing, we developed a novel CR adaptive spectrum sensing (CRASS) scheme that can reduce the spectrum sensing cost and improve sensing performance effectively. We also applied the concept of Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) to guarantee fairness in spectral resources allocation and proposed a generalized non-symmetric NBS (GNNBS) to perform a non-symmetric cognitive inter-cell spectrum allocation in the proposed ACREVNET framework. Simulation results clearly show that the proposed schemes can acquire additional spectral resource for vehicular communication by applying CR technology, and reduce the message transmission delay and blocking probability significantly.
    • A cell range expansion framework for closed access Femtocell networks

      Tariq, Faisal; Dooley, Laurence S.; Allen, Ben; Poulton, Adrian S.; Liu, Enjie; University of Bedfordshire; Open University (Springer New York LLC, 2014-12-17)
      While femtocell networks represent a promising solution for extending high data-rate wireless services in indoor environments, despite their many benefits the short coverage distances involved can lead to frequent handovers being triggered resulting in overloading the macrocells. This handover problem is further exacerbated for users operating at the cell boundary. One solution is to keep the mobile station (MS) connected to the femtocell access points (FAP) by applying a handover bias to expand the femtocells coverage, though arbitrarily increasing the cell range can have a detrimental effect on system performance as the received interference will increase and may exceed tolerable levels. Many disparate factors including: FAP deployment density; resource constraints; and cell range expansion (CRE) influence the crucial interference-system performance nexus, and this was the motivation to analyse this relationship in order to facilitate successful FAP deployment. This paper critically analyses the impact of femtocell range expansion with a system-level simulation being undertaken for cooperative and non-cooperative resource allocation strategies. A new CRE framework for femtocell networks is then proposed, which takes cognisance of the interplay between key system parameters, with results confirming the cooperative model consistently outperforms the non-cooperative approach so affording enhanced system flexibility in terms of FAP range expansion.
    • Spectrum requirement for efficient wireless communication over vehicular networks∗

      Eze, Elias Chinedum; Eze, Joy C.; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; Ebonyi State University; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019-07-01)
      This paper studied the required amount of radio spectral resource enough to support timely and reliable vehicular communication via vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs). The study focused on both DSRC/WAVE and the European standard ITS-G5 that are based on recently approved IEEE 802.11p specification, which uses a simplified version of CSMA/CA as MAC protocol, and an STDMA MAC recently proposed by European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The paper further carried out a feasibility analysis of radio spectrum requirement for timely and reliable vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. In the feasibility analysis, synchronized STDMA MAC is compared with the CSMA/CA MAC protocol, which 802.11p is based on. Message Reception Failure (MRF) probability is used as a performance metric to investigate and ascertain the minimum spectrum requirement for efficient, timely, and reliable V2V communication. Simulation results show that even at the same allocation of 10MHz channel bandwidth, STDMA MAC outperforms the CSMA/CA based MACs due to the fact that STDMA based MACs provide a structured shared medium access and prevent negative impact of unhealthy contention for shared channel access. The results further show that up to 40MHz channel bandwidth over 5.9GHz band would be required to guarantee optimal reliability of safety packets exchange in vehicular networks as opposed to 10MHz allocated in US.
    • Radio spectrum support for timely and reliable communication over vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs)

      Eze, Elias Chinedum; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; Eze, Joy C. (SciTePress, 2017-04-24)
      This paper studied the required amount of radio spectral resource enough to support timely and reliable vehicular communication via vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs). The study focussed on both DSRC/WAVE and the European standard ITS-G5 that are based on recently approved IEEE 802.11p specification, which uses a simplified version of CSMA/CA as MAC protocol, and an STDMA MAC recently proposed by European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The paper further carried out a feasibility analysis of radio spectrum requirement for timely and reliable vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. In the feasibility analysis, synchronized STDMA MAC is compared with the CSMA/CA MAC protocol, which 802.11p is based on. Message Reception Failure (MRF) probability is used as a performance metric to investigate and ascertain the minimum spectrum requirement for efficient, timely, and reliable V2V communication. Simulation results show that even at the same allocation of 10MHz channel bandwidth, STDMA MAC outperforms the CSMA/CA based MACs due to the fact that STDMA based MACs provide a structured shared medium access and prevent negative impact of unhealthy contention for shared channel access. The results further show that up to 40MHz channel bandwidth over 5.9GHz band would be required to guarantee optimal reliability of safety packets exchange in vehicular networks as opposed to 10MHz allocated in US.
    • Design optimization of resource allocation in OFDMA-based cognitive radio-enabled internet of vehicles (IoVs)∗

      Eze, Joy C.; Eze, Elias Chinedum; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019-11-11)
      The problem of joint optimal subcarrier and transmit power allocation with quality of service (QoS) guarantee for enhanced packet transmission over a cognitive radio-enabled IoVs network system is considered in this paper. A novel Symmetric Nash bargaining solution (SNBS) based wireless radio resource scheduling scheme in orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) cognitive radio (CR)-enabled IoVs network systems is proposed. Furthermore, a novel approach which uses Lambert-W function characteristics is introduced and by applying time-sharing variable transformation, closed-form analytical solutions were obtained. To avoid the iterative processes associated with searching the optimal solution numerically through iterative programming methods, this study developed a low-complexity algorithm. Theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate that under similar conditions, the proposed solutions outperform reference scheduler schemes.
    • An adaptive and reliable communication method for road safety applications of VANET

      Aredla, Jyothi; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019-11-11)
      Recent technological developments have resulted in the extensive usage of VANET for intelligent transportation and road safety applications. With a road safety application, reliable delivery of altering messages to avoid road accidents is one of the key and highly challenging requirements. This paper proposes an adaptive and reliable communication method called Adaptive Byte Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (AB-HARQ) to improve reliability of safety messages transmitted over VANET. To ensure recoverability of the errors in transmitted packets over VANET, error recovery probability of AB-HARQ method is calculated as Precovery. The effectiveness of the proposed AB-HARQ method in assuring reliable data transmission for VANET is evaluated using simulation studies with results of the simulations given in this paper. This evaluation has identified the effectiveness of AB-HARQ in having higher success probability and error recovery probability when compared with HARQ method.
    • Achieving reliable communication in vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs): A survey

      Eze, Elias Chinedum; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; Muhammad, Shehu; Eze, Joy C.; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017-10-26)
      With the envisioned era of Internet of Vehicles (IoVs), all aspects of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) will be connected to improve transport safety, relieve traffic congestion, reduce air pollution, enhance the comfort of transportation and significantly reduce road accidents. In IoVs, regular exchange of current position, direction, velocity, etc., enables mobile vehicles to predict an upcoming accident and alert the human drivers in time or proactively take precautionary actions to avoid the accident. The actualization of this concept requires the use of robust error recovery approaches that can guarantee optimum reliability in terms of message delivery in vehicular networks. This paper surveys the error recovery potentials of different classical error control approaches such as automatic repeat request, forward error correction, and hybrid ARQ mechanism. The paper also explored new error recovery methods like network coding (NC) concept which consists of error recovery through NC with reception status information (RSI), and without RSI. Additionally, other error recovery techniques like repetition based approach for vehicular networks is discussed.
    • Permeating the social justice ideals of equality and equity within the context of Early Years: challenges for leadership in multi-cultural and mono-cultural primary schools

      Mistry, Malini Tina; Sood, Krishan; University of Bedfordshire; Nottingham Trent University (Routledge, 2014-01-08)
      This paper explores the ideology of social justice through links between equality and equity within Early Years and what remain the challenges for leadership. Questionnaires and interviews in English multi-cultural and mono-cultural schools with Early Years age phases were conducted. The findings showed that the ideology of social justice, equality and equity was interpreted differently in each Early Years setting. The multi-cultural schools used a variety of activities to embed social justice principles that involved their diverse communities more to enrich the curriculum in contrast to the mono-cultural schools. In mono-cultural schools however, leadership had to be more creative in promoting equality and equity, given the smaller proportion of their diverse pupil and staff population. Our conclusions suggest that most schools are struggling initially with implementing the current changes in Early Years, therefore their vision for permeating this curriculum with an equality and equity focus is at the early stages.
    • Busting the myth of gender bias: views from men and women primary-school trainees and teachers

      Mistry, Malini Tina; Sood, Krishan; University of Bedfordshire; Nottingham Trent University (Routledge, 2014-06-01)
      We explore the ideology associated with gender equality that despite primary schools and initial teacher education (ITE) institutions doing all they can to recruit men into primary education, a huge gender imbalance still exists. We frame our study around the notions of gender equality and professional responsibility. Using a multi-case study approach, this inquiry examined views of men and women from 12 English primary schools and one ITE institution regarding the cause and effect of gender bias. Findings show a differentially large gender gap in the sample schools and that there is good practice where schools are successful in attracting and retaining men teachers. Implications of these findings suggest that leaders in primary schools need to take a more active role to help change and shape the perceptions of men teachers in education. We conclude that leaders also need to help close the teacher gender gap in schools and ITE institutions through collaborative dialogue.
    • How can the skills of Early Years leaders support other leaders in a primary school setting?

      Mistry, Malini Tina; Sood, Krishan; University of Bedfordshire; Nottingham Trent University (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2017-07-31)
      This study investigated the leadership skills Early Years leaders demonstrated through their daily practice of teaching, assessing and teamwork within their setting. It explored how revealing the potential of Early Years leaders could have a positive impact on the leadership practice of other leaders in the same setting to improve pupil outcomes. A qualitative approach using interviews with Early Years leaders in 20 primary settings from the East Midlands and Bedfordshire areas was undertaken by two academics from two different UK based universities. Ethical guidelines ensuring anonymity and trustworthiness were followed. Using verbatim comments, data were analysed in themes against contemporary Early Years literature. Findings showed the skills of Early Years leaders could support pedagogy and practice but some of these skills were not utilized beyond this age phase. Our conclusion suggested that Early Years leaders had a range of leadership skills which were deemed specialist as they were unique to the success of the age phase, but needed to be exposed beyond Early Years for wider success and impact.
    • Why are there still so few men within Early Years in primary schools: views from male trainee teachers and male leaders?

      Mistry, Malini Tina; Sood, Krishan (Routledge, 2013-01-29)
      One of the challenges facing the Early Years (EY) sector is how to encourage more male practitioners to counterbalance a largely feminised workforce. Using case studies of male trainees at different stages of their primary undergraduate Initial Teacher Training course at one university, we attempt to consider data why there is under-representation of men within the leadership strata in EY settings. Questionnaires and interviews were conducted with the male sample groups and male leaders in primary schools to gain an overview regarding gender stereotyping. Our findings suggest that male trainees enjoy working in the EY sector, but they need mentoring by strong leaders to help them overcome the perceived contextual barriers of male stereotypes in that setting. In conclusion, we consider some of these barriers of stereotypes, attitudes, values, beliefs existing and the actions needed in addressing such stereotypes if a long-lasting change is to happen.
    • Examination physical education: adhering to pedagogies of the classroom when coming in from the cold

      Casey, Ashley; O'Donovan, Toni (Routledge, 2013-09-16)
      Background: Green and Thorburn claim that examination physical education now holds a dominant place in both the UK's national discourse and in the lives and careers of many teachers. Despite the move towards the academicisation of physical education and the proliferation of accredited qualifications in a number of countries, both of which have been celebrated by many physical educators, there is little research that investigates the actual process of teaching such courses. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how pedagogical change in examination physical education using collaborative learning was experienced by, and impacted on, pupils and teachers in one school during a year long, assessed unit of Advanced Subsidiary Level physiology and anatomy that formed part of a wider examination course in physical education. Methodology: The study took place in a comprehensive secondary school in the South East of England. With support from his head of department, a teacher attempted to modify his pedagogical approach away from the didactic approach that dominated his classroom-based teaching of AS Level physical education. Interviews were undertaken with the teacher and the head of department (HoD) both before the start of the course and after the exam results were published. Additionally, each student (n = 5) was interviewed and a wiki (which had been set up as a platform for collaborative learning within the group) was analysed for content and usage. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and each was independently analysed by the researchers. Data were subject to inductive analysis and constant comparison and key themes were drawn from this process. Findings: The paper examines the concerns about performance and engagement of pupils with AS physical education and interrogates the teachers' beliefs about the underpinning pedagogical issues in the teaching of this course. The teachers' expressed concern about the pedagogical knowledge and subject matter content knowledge for anatomy and physiology units. The process of changing the traditional teaching styles adopted for this unit is explored from both teacher and pupil perspectives. Finally, we consider the impact of the pedagogical changes on teachers, pupils and examination results.
    • Biometric behavior authentication exploiting propagation characteristics of wireless channel

      Zhao, Nan; Ren, Aifeng; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Zhang, Zhiya; Yang, Xiaodong; Hu, Fangming; Xidian University; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-08-24)
      Massive expansion of wireless body area networks (WBANs) in the field of health monitoring applications has given rise to the generation of huge amount of biomedical data. Ensuring privacy and security of this very personal data serves as a major hurdle in the development of these systems. An effective and energy friendly authentication algorithm is, therefore, a necessary requirement for current WBANs. Conventional authentication algorithms are often implemented on higher levels of the Open System Interconnection model and require advanced software or major hardware upgradation. This paper investigates the implementation of a physical layer security algorithm as an alternative. The algorithm is based on the behavior fingerprint developed using the wireless channel characteristics. The usability of the algorithm is established through experimental results, which show that this authentication method is not only effective, but also very suitable for the energy-, resource-, and interface-limited WBAN medical applications.
    • Human interaction based Robot Self-Learning approach for generic skill learning in domestic environment

      Cao, Tao; Li, Dayou; Maple, Carsten; Qiu, Renxi; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE Computer Society, 2014-04-17)
      Unstructured domestic environments present a substantial challenge to effective robotic operation. Domestic environment requires service robots to deal with unexpected environment changes, novel objects, and user manipulations. We present an approach to enable service robots to actively learn high-level skills in an unstructured environment. This involves using a combination of processing environment changes, recording and learning user manipulation data, setting up meaningful hypothesis, proactively performing test actions and interacting with user feedback, and logic reasoning. We demonstrate our Robot Self-Learning (RSL) approach by using ROS (Robotic Operating System) and Care-O-bot (COB) 3. These methods enable service robots to learn generalized high-level skills in a sophisticated and changing environment. The RSL approach allows robots to learn new actions imposed by a human and action condition from perception changes from the environment. We also present logic based reasoning engine to speed up the self learning process. © 2013 IEEE.
    • Improving the efficiency of robot task planning by automatically integrating its planner and common-sense knowledge base

      Al-Moadhen, Ahmed; Packianather, Michael; Qiu, Renxi; Setchi, Rossi; Ji, Ze; Cardiff School of Engineering (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2015-12-31)
      This chapter presents a newly developed approach for intelligently generating symbolic plans for mobile robots acting in domestic environments, such as offices and houses. The significance of this approach lies in its novel framework which consists of new modelling of high-level robot actions and their integration with common-sense knowledge in order to support robotic task planner. This framework will enable direct interactions between the task planner and the semantic knowledge base. By using common-sense domain knowledge, the task planner will take into consideration the properties and relations of objects and places in its environment, before creating semantically related actions that will represent a plan. A new module has been appended to the framework which is called Semantic Realization and Refreshment Module (SRRM). This module has the ability to discover and select entities in the robot’s world (entities related to robot plan) which are semantically equivalent or have a degree of similarity (where they don’t exceed a predefined threshold) by using techniques and standards (metrics) for similarities. SRRM supports robotic task planning to generate approximate plans to solve its tasks when there is no exact plan can be generated according to initial and goal state by extending initial state and action details with similar or equivalent objects. The extended framework enables direct interactions between task planner, Semantic Action Models (SAMs) and knowledge-base through creating planning domain (or extended planning domain) with predicates (or semantically equivalent or similar predicates) which specify domain features. The proposed framework and approach are tested on some scenarios that cover most aspects of robot planning system.
    • Biomedical applications of capsule and rehabilitation robots

      Zhang, Guangda; Yue, Yong; Liang, Hai-Ning; Li, Dayou; Qiu, Renxi; Wang, Zuobin; Maple, Carsten; Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University; University of Bedfordshire; Changchun University of Science and Technology; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-03-07)
      The rapid development of emerging technologies in the areas of traditional mechanical machinery, electronic engineering and advanced micro-processors, has brought a great opportunity for the development and applications of biomedical engineering instruments with robot technology in traditional medicine. At the same time, because of the progress of human civilisation and improvement of living standards, people have higher and more critical requirements to the bio-medical technology. Under these circumstances, researchers from all over the world have made fruitful achievements in promoting the development of medical robots, medical automation and robotic manipulation. Medical robot engineering is a discipline which applies the latest results of research and development to the medical treatment and rehabilitation. This paper reviews a range of widely-used applications of the micro-robot and rehabilitation robots to provide an overview and understanding of the current development in this area.
    • Text-independent speaker identification using vowel formants

      Almaadeed, Noor; Aggoun, Amar; Amira, Abbes (Springer New York LLC, 2015-05-05)
      Automatic speaker identification has become a challenging research problem due to its wide variety of applications. Neural networks and audio-visual identification systems can be very powerful, but they have limitations related to the number of speakers. The performance drops gradually as more and more users are registered with the system. This paper proposes a scalable algorithm for real-time text-independent speaker identification based on vowel recognition. Vowel formants are unique across different speakers and reflect the vocal tract information of a particular speaker. The contribution of this paper is the design of a scalable system based on vowel formant filters and a scoring scheme for classification of an unseen instance. Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) and Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) have both been analysed for comparison to extract vowel formants by windowing the given signal. All formants are filtered by known formant frequencies to separate the vowel formants for further processing. The formant frequencies of each speaker are collected during the training phase. A test signal is also processed in the same way to find vowel formants and compare them with the saved vowel formants to identify the speaker for the current signal. A score-based scheme allows the speaker with the highest matching formants to own the current signal. This model requires less than 100 bytes of data to be saved for each speaker to be identified, and can identify the speaker within a second. Tests conducted on multiple databases show that this score-based scheme outperforms the back propagation neural network and Gaussian mixture models. Usually, the longer the speech files, the more significant were the improvements in accuracy.