Now showing items 21-40 of 7192

    • Teacher mindset and grit: how do they change by teacher training, gender, and subject taught?

      Kaya, Sibel; Yuksel, Dogan; University of Bedfordshire; Kocaeli University (2022-11-01)
      This study explored the interplay between teacher mindsets and grit levels of Turkish pre-service teachers taking their year of study into account (i.e., first-year vs the fourth year), gender, and the subject taught in a Turkish higher education setting. Student teachers from various programmes at a public university in Turkey participated in the study (N = 321). The participants completed the Teacher Mindset Scale and Grit Scale online after receiving the approval of the university’s ethics committee and signing the consent forms. The correlations between the components of teacher mindset and grit demonstrated that as growth teacher mindset scores increased, and effort scores also increased significantly. Furthermore, as fixed teacher mindset scores increased, interest scores decreased. First-year pre-service teachers had significantly higher fixed teacher mindset scores than the fourth year. In terms of grit, fourth-year pre-service teachers showed greater effort than the first year. There was no difference between female and male pre-service teachers regarding fixed teacher mindset. However, female pre-service teachers scored significantly higher on growth teacher mindset, interest, and effort scales. As for the subject taught, the Mathematics Education programme showed higher levels of fixed teacher mindset and the English Language Teaching programme showed lower levels of grit. Practical implications of our findings and limitations of the study are shared accordingly.
    • The Frail-LESS (LEss Sitting and Sarcopenia in Frail older adults) intervention to improve sarcopenia and maintain independent living via reductions in prolonged sitting: a randomised controlled feasibility trial protocol

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Kilbride, Cherry; Harper, Jamie H.; Victor, Christina; Brierley, Marsha Lynn; Hewson, David; Chater, Angel M.; (Biomed Central, 2023-01-07)
      Background Sarcopenia is a progressive and generalised loss of muscle mass and function with advancing age and is a major contributor to frailty. These conditions lead to functional disability, loss of independence, and lower quality of life. Sedentary behaviour is adversely associated with sarcopenia and frailty. Reducing and breaking up sitting should thus be explored as an intervention target for their management. The primary aim of this study, therefore, is to examine the feasibility, safety, and acceptability of conducting a randomised controlled trial (RCT) that evaluates a remotely delivered intervention to improve sarcopenia and independent living via reducing and breaking up sitting in frail older adults. Methods This mixed-methods randomised controlled feasibility trial will recruit 60 community-dwelling older adults aged ≥ 65 years with very mild or mild frailty. After baseline measures, participants will be randomised to receive the Frail-LESS (LEss Sitting and Sarcopenia in Frail older adults) intervention or serve as controls (usual care) for 6 months. Frail-LESS is a remotely delivered intervention comprising of tailored feedback on sitting, information on the health risks of excess sitting, supported goal setting and action planning, a wearable device that tracks inactive time and provides alerts to move, health coaching, and peer support. Feasibility will be assessed in terms of recruitment, retention, and data completion rates. A process evaluation will assess intervention acceptability, safety, and fidelity of the trial. The following measures will be taken at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months: sitting, standing, and stepping using a thigh-worn activPAL4 device, sarcopenia (via hand grip strength, muscle mass, and physical function), mood, wellbeing, and quality of life. Discussion This study will determine the feasibility, safety, and acceptability of evaluating a remote intervention to reduce and break up sitting to support improvements in sarcopenia and independent living in frail older adults. A future definitive RCT to determine intervention effectiveness will be informed by the study findings.
    • Cardiac structure and function in resistance-trained and untrained adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Saunders, Abigail M.; Jones, Rebecca; Richards, Joanna C.; ; University of Bedfordshire; University of Lincoln (Taylor and Francis, 2022-11-18)
      Variations in the haemodynamic demands of specific training modalities may explain characteristic differences in cardiac structure and function amongst athletes. However, current consensus regarding these adaptations in highly resistance-trained athletes is yet to be established. The current invetsigation aimed to collate research investigating cardiac structure and function in resistance-trained athletes, exploring the defining characteristics of Athlete’s Heart within these individuals. Seven electronic databases were searched. Studies which examined at least one measure of cardiac structure or function, included healthy, normotensive male or females (>18 years) and compared athletes engaged in a resistance training programme (>12 months) to an untrained group engaged in no structured training programme were included. Systematic selection and quality appraisal of articles was performed by two reviewers, with a random effects meta-analysis model applied to suitable studies. Studies were limited to orginal peer-reviewed articles published in English. Resistance-trained athletes (n = 949) demonstrated greater cardiac dimensions compared to their untrained counterparts (n = 1053). No clear impairments to systolic or diastolic cardiac function were observed in athletic population studied here. Resistance-trained athletes display some characteristics of the Athlete's Heart phenomenon, including greater wall thickening and chamber dilation compared to their untrained counterparts.
    • Deep sea mining for renewable technologies: a case study for using Big Data

      Crabbe, M. James C.; Oxford University; University of Bedfordshire; Shanxi University (World Scientific Publishing Company, 2022-10-18)
      Depleting terrestrial deposits and rising demand for metals in this time of climate change are stimulating interest in the deep sea — the area of the ocean below 200m — with commercial mining of mineral deposits imminent. Environmental impact assessments, effective regulation and mitigation strategies are needed to limit the impacts of deep-sea mining. This is a potential catastrophe for marine biodiversity, and use of Big Data will be needed to follow mining activities as well as chart impacts on known and unknown marine species and their habitats.
    • Knowledge, perceived risk, and attitudes towards COVID-19 protective measures amongst ethnic minorities in the UK: a cross-sectional study

      Cook, Erica Jane; Elliott, Elizabeth; Donald, Louisa; Gaitan, Alfredo; Randhawa, Gurch; Cartwright, Sally; Waqar, Muhammad; Egbutah, Chimeme; Nduka, Ifunanya; Guppy, Andy; et al. (Frontiers, 2023-01-13)
      Background: Minority ethnic groups are at increased risk of COVID-19 related mortality or morbidity yet continue to have a disproportionally lower uptake of the vaccine. The importance of adherence to prevention and control measures to keep vulnerable populations and their families safe therefore remains crucial. This research sought to examine the knowledge, perceived risk, and attitudes toward COVID-19 among an ethnically diverse community. Methods: A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire was implemented to survey ethnic minority participants purposefully recruited from Luton, an ethnically diverse town in the southeast of England. The questionnaire was structured to assess participants knowledge, perceived risk, attitudes toward protective measures as well as the sources of information about COVID-19. The questionnaire was administered online via Qualtrics with the link shared through social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and WhatsApp. Questionnaires were also printed into brochures and disseminated via community researchers and community links to individuals alongside religious, community and outreach organisations. Data were analysed using appropriate statistical techniques, with the significance threshold for all analyses assumed at p = 0.05. Findings: 1,058 participants (634; 60% females) with a median age of 38 (IQR, 22) completed the survey. National TV and social networks were the most frequently accessed sources of COVID-19 related information; however, healthcare professionals, whilst not widely accessed, were viewed as the most trusted. Knowledge of transmission routes and perceived susceptibility were significant predictors of attitudes toward health-protective practises. Conclusion/recommendation: Improving the local information provision, including using tailored communication strategies that draw on trusted sources, including healthcare professionals, could facilitate understanding of risk and promote adherence to health-protective actions.
    • Can a chatbot enhance hazard awareness in the construction industry?

      Zhu, Xiaoe; Li, Rita Yi Man; Crabbe, M. James C.; Sukpascharoena, Khunanan; ; Rajamangala University of Technology Tawan-Ok; Hong Kong Shue Yan University; Oxford University; University of Bedfordshire; Shanxi University (Frontiers, 2022-11-30)
      Safety training enhances hazard awareness in the construction industry. Its effectiveness is a component of occupational safety and health. While face-to-face safety training has dominated in the past, the frequent lockdowns during COVID-19 have led us to rethink new solutions. A chatbot is messaging software that allows people to interact, obtain answers, and handle sales and inquiries through a computer algorithm. While chatbots have been used for language education, no study has investigated their usefulness for hazard awareness enhancement after chatbot training. In this regard, we developed four Telegram chatbots for construction safety training and designed the experiment as the treatment factor. Previous researchers utilized eye-tracking in the laboratory for construction safety research; most have adopted it for qualitative analyses such as heat maps or gaze plots to study visual paths or search strategies via eye-trackers, which only studied the impact of one factor. Our research has utilized an artificial intelligence-based eye-tracking tool. As hazard awareness can be affected by several factors, we filled this research void using 2-way interaction terms using the design of experiment (DOE) model. We designed an eye-tracking experiment to study the impact of site experience, Telegram chatbot safety training, and task complexity on hazard awareness, which is the first of its kind. The results showed that Telegram chatbot training enhanced the hazard awareness of participants with less onsite experience and in less complex scenarios. Low-cost chatbot safety training could improve site workers’ danger awareness, but the design needs to be adjusted according to participants’ experience. Our results o􀀀er insights to construction safety managers in safety knowledge sharing and safety training.
    • Sedentary behaviour : a target for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease

      Bell, Abbie C.; Richards, Joanna C.; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Bailey, Daniel Paul; ; University of Bedfordshire; Brunel University London (MDPI, 2022-12-28)
      Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is highly prevalent and can lead to disability and premature mortality. Sedentary behaviour, defined as a low energy expenditure while sitting or lying down, has been identified as an independent risk factor for CVD. This article discusses (1) the association of total sedentary time and patterns of accumulating sedentary time with CVD risk markers, CVD incidence and mortality; (2) acute experimental evidence regarding the acute effects of reducing and breaking up sedentary time on CVD risk markers; and (3) the effectiveness of longer-term sedentary behaviour interventions on CVD risk. Findings suggest that under rigorously controlled laboratory and free-living conditions, breaking up sedentary time improves cardiovascular risk markers in individuals who are healthy, overweight or obese, or have impaired cardiovascular health. Breaking up sedentary time with walking may have the most widespread benefits, whereas standing breaks may be less effective, especially in healthy individuals. There is also growing evidence that sedentary behaviour interventions may benefit cardiovascular risk in the longer term (i.e., weeks to months). Reducing and breaking up sedentary time may, therefore, be considered a target for preventing and managing CVD. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of sedentary behaviour interventions over the long-term to appropriately inform guidelines for the management of CVD. Keywords: sedentary behaviour; cardiovascular disease; prolonged sitting; cardiovascular risk markers
    • Changes in peak force output, rate of force development, and jump performance across a full season in elite English rugby union players

      Chrismas, Bryna C.; Fletcher, Iain M.; Hogben, Patrick; Qatar University; University of Bedfordshire (Sport Performance & Science Reports, 2020-03-31)
      Rugby union is a high-intensity invasion game characterised by contact events (most frequently the tackle and ruck). Success in key defining moments (i.e. tackle breaks, turnovers, scrums) in elite level rugby union is therefore largely dependent on technical characteristics, and physical qualities including strength and speed (1). Understanding changes in force characteristics across the full English professional rugby union season is therefore important for creating and monitoring strength and conditioning programmes. The aim of this study was to examine changes in force output, rate of force development (RFD), and jump performance across the full season in elite male English rugby union players.
    • Effects of active warm-up & warm-up massage on agility, perceived exertion & flexibility in tennis players

      Bedford, S.; Robbins, D.; Fletcher, Iain M. (Society for Tennis Medicine and Science, 2018-12-31)
    • The effects of kicking leg preference on balance ability in elite soccer players

      Fletcher, Iain M.; Long, Christopher S.; University of Bedfordshire (SciTechnol, 2013-07-15)
      with leg asymmetry linked to this injury occurrence. Screening for balance deficits is used as a predictor of potential injury; therefore the aim of this study was to determine whether static and dynamic balance differs in elite soccer players preferred kicking and nonpreferred kicking legs. Fifteen male professional soccer players were tested for static balance; standing on one leg, and dynamic balance, a hop and hold task and a kicking task. Balance ability was assessed by measuring centre of pressure deviation. Results indicated that static balance and hop and hold tests were not significantly different (p>0.05) when dominant and non-dominant kicking legs were compared. The kicking balance task indicated a significant increase (p≤0.05) in balance ability for the player’s nondominant limbs. Further, left sided players had significantly better (p≤0.05) dominant leg balance when compared to right sided players. These findings suggest that the static and dynamic balance tasks employed in this study were not specific enough to establish possible balance asymmetries in professional elite soccer players, while the passing dynamic balance test seems to be sensitive enough to show dominant and non-dominant leg discrepancies. It is therefore suggested that balance tasks, used to screen players, need to mimic the actions linked to injuries within soccer in order to explore dominant and non-dominant asymmetry.
    • The acute effects of combined static and dynamic stretch protocols on 50m sprint performance in track and field athletes

      Fletcher, Iain M.; Anness, Ruth; ; University of Luton (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2007-05-31)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of manipulating the static and dynamic stretch components associated with a traditional track-and-field warm-up. Eighteen experienced sprinters were randomly assigned in a repeated-measures, within-subject design study with 3 interventions: active dynamic stretch (ADS), static passive stretch combined with ADS (SADS), and static dynamic stretch combined with ADS (DADS). A standardized 800-m jogged warm-up was performed before each different stretch intervention, followed by two 50-m sprints. Results indicated that the SADS intervention yielded significantly (p < or = 0.05) slower 50-m sprint times then either the ADS or DADS intervention. The decrease in sprint time observed after the ADS intervention compared to the DADS intervention was found to be nonsignificant (p > 0.05). The decrease in performance post-SADS intervention was attributed to a decrease in the musculotendinous unit (MTU) stiffness, possibly due to a reduction in muscle activation prior to ground contact, leading to a decrease in the MTU's ability to store and transfer elastic energy after the use of passive static stretch techniques. The improved 50-m sprint performance associated with the ADS and DADS interventions was linked to the rehearsal of specific movement patterns, helping proprioception and preactivation, allowing a more optimum switch from eccentric to concentric muscle contraction. It was concluded that passive static stretching in a warm-up decreases sprint performance, despite being combined with dynamic stretches, when compared to a solely dynamic stretch approach.
    • The effect of different warm-up stretch protocols on 20m-sprint performance in trained rugby union players

      Fletcher, Iain M.; Jones, Bethan; ; University of Luton (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2004-11-30)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different static and dynamic stretch protocols on 20-m sprint performance. The 97 male rugby union players were assigned randomly to 4 groups: passive static stretch (PSS; n = 28), active dynamic stretch (ADS; n = 22), active static stretch (ASST; n = 24), and static dynamic stretch (SDS; n = 23). All groups performed a standard 10-minute jog warm-up, followed by two 20-m sprints. The 20-m sprints were then repeated after subjects had performed different stretch protocols. The PSS and ASST groups had a significant increase in sprint time (p ≤ 0.05), while the ADS group had a significant decrease in sprint time (p ≤ 0.05). The decrease in sprint time, observed in the SDS group, was found to be nonsignificant (p ≥ 0.05). The decrease in performance for the 2 static stretch groups was attributed to an increase in the musculotendinous unit (MTU) compliance, leading to a decrease in the MTU ability to store elastic energy in its eccentric phase. The reason why the ADS group improved performance is less clear, but could be linked to the rehearsal of specific movement patterns, which may help increase coordination of subsequent movement. It was concluded that static stretching as part of a warm-up may decrease short sprint performance, whereas active dynamic stretching seems to increase 20-m sprint performance.
    • The effect of an 8-week combined weights and plyometrics training programme on golf drive performance

      Fletcher, Iain M.; Hartwell, Matthew; ; Exercise Physiology Laboratory; University of Luton (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2004-02-28)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a combined weights and plyometrics program on golf drive performance. Eleven male golfers' full golf swing was analyzed for club head speed (CS) and driving distance (DD) before and after an 8-week training program. The control group (n = 5) continued their normal training, while the experimental group (n = 6) performed 2 sessions per week of weight training and plyometrics. Controls showed no significant (p > or = 0.05) changes, while experimental subjects showed a significant increase (p < or = 0.05) in CS and DD. The changes in golf drive performance were attributed to an increase in muscular force and an improvement in the sequential acceleration of body parts contributing to a greater final velocity being applied to the ball. It was concluded that specific combined weights and plyometrics training can help increase CS and DD in club golfers.
    • Foundations of strength & conditioning

      Archer, E.; Brannigan, J.; Fletcher, Iain M.; Sargent, D. (UK Strength and Conditioning Association, 2022-08-31)
    • Biomechanics of running

      Fletcher, Iain M.; Charalambous, Laura H. (Ivy Press, 2019-02-07)
    • Jenny: specialist needs for the specialising phase

      Harvey, Stephen; Pope, Stacey; Fletcher, Iain M.; Kerner, Charlotte Lynn (Routledge, 2014-12-31)
      Jenny is a 13-year-old field hockey player from Nottingham in England, which is an area with a population of over 600,000 people. Her parents are White-British and they both work full-time, sometimes including the weekends. Together they earn around £30,000 per annum, which puts them in the category of below average earners in England.1 Jenny has one brother who trains at a well known football club’s academy for talented young players. Her mother and father spend much of their spare time supporting him by providing transport to training sessions and, where possible, accompanying him to matches at weekends. Jenny’s parents are wholly supportive of her brother’s aspirations to be a professional football player, but they are less certain about Jenny’s ambitions to play elite level hockey as it does not offer the same financial incentive.
    • RPE-derived work rates can be accurately produced without external feedback or reference to the RPE scale

      Mauger, Alexis R.; Huntley, Tabo; Fletcher, Iain M.; (SAGE, 2014-04-01)
      Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) are used to prescribe exercise intensity. This study assessed whether the accurate production of exercise intensity is affected when the rater cannot see the RPE scale. After completing a graded exercise test, 15 active, male participants (M age = 34, SD = 6.7 yr.; M mass = 73.9, SD = 14.8 kg, M height = 1.74, SD = 0.08 m) completed 3 × 4 min. cycling trials at four randomised RPE-based intensities (RPEs 11, 13, 15, and 17). Participants were allocated to a Full feedback group or a No feedback group (RPEs not in view). On the third trial, No feedback conditions were imposed on the Full feedback group. No statistically significant differences between groups' mean work rates were observed. Changing from Full feedback to No feedback conditions led to a significant overestimation between the trials for power output at RPE 11. Intra-class correlations were significant at RPEs 11, 13, and 17 between all trials for both conditions. Provided adequate familiarisation, active participants can accurately produce RPE derived work rates, even when RPE is not in view.
    • Is BMI alone a sufficient outcome to evaluate interventions for child obesity?

      Kolotourou, Maria; Radley, Duncan; Chadwick, Paul; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Orfanos, Stavros; Kapetanakis, Venediktos; Singhal, Atul; Cole, Tim J.; Sacher, Paul M.; ; et al. (Mary Ann Liebert, 2013-06-15)
      Background: BMI is often used to evaluate the effectiveness of childhood obesity interventions, but such interventions may have additional benefits independent of effects on adiposity. We investigated whether benefits to health outcomes following the Mind, Exercise, Nutrition...Do It! (MEND) childhood obesity intervention were independent of or associated with changes in zBMI. Methods: A total of 79 obese children were measured at baseline; 71 and 42 participants were followed-up at 6 and 12 months respectively, and split into four groups depending on magnitude of change in zBMI. Differences between groups for waist circumference, cardiovascular fitness, physical and sedentary activities, and self-esteem were investigated. Results: Apart from waist circumference and its z-score, there were no differences or trends across zBMI subgroups for any outcome. Independent of the degree of zBMI change, benefits in several parameters were observed in children participating in this obesity intervention. Conclusion: We concluded that isolating a single parameter like zBMI change and neglecting other important outcomes is restrictive and may undermine the evaluation of childhood obesity intervention effectiveness. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2013.
    • Assessing the short-term outcomes of a community-based intervention for overweight and obese children: the MEND 5-7 programme

      Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Chadwick, Paul; Radley, Duncan; Kolotourou, Maria; Gammon, Catherine; Rosborough, J.; Sacher, Paul M.; University College London; MEND (BMJ Publishing Group, 2013-05-03)
      Objective: The aim of this study was to report outcomes of the UK service level delivery of MEND (Mind, Exercise, Nutrition ⋯ Do it!) 5-7, a multicomponent, community-based, healthy lifestyle intervention designed for overweight and obese children aged 5-7 years and their families. Design: Repeated measures. Setting: Community venues at 37 locations across the UK. Participants: 440 overweight or obese children (42% boys; mean age 6.1 years; body mass index (BMI) z-score 2.86) and their parents/carers participated in the intervention. Intervention: MEND 5-7 is a 10-week, family-based, child weight-management intervention consisting of weekly group sessions. It includes positive parenting, active play, nutrition education and behaviour change strategies. The intervention is designed to be scalable and delivered by a range of health and social care professionals. Primary and secondary outcome measures: The primary outcome was BMI z-score. Secondary outcome measures included BMI, waist circumference, waist circumference z-score, children's psychological symptoms, parenting self-efficacy, physical activity and sedentary behaviours and the proportion of parents and children eating five or more portions of fruit and vegetables. Results: 274 (62%) children were measured preintervention and post-intervention (baseline; 10-weeks). Post-intervention, mean BMI and waist circumference decreased by 0.5 kg/m2 and 0.9 cm, while z-scores decreased by 0.20 and 0.20, respectively (p<0.0001). Improvements were found in children's psychological symptoms (-1.6 units, p<0.0001), parent self-efficacy (p<0.0001), physical activity (+2.9 h/week, p<0.01), sedentary activities (-4.1 h/week, p<0.0001) and the proportion of parents and children eating five or more portions of fruit and vegetables per day (both p<0.0001). Attendance at the 10 sessions was 73% with a 70% retention rate. Conclusions: Participation in the MEND 5-7 programme was associated with beneficial changes in physical, behavioural and psychological outcomes for children with complete sets of measurement data, when implemented in UK community settings under service level conditions. Further investigation is warranted to establish if these findings are replicable under controlled conditions.
    • Autonomous vehicles in 5G and beyond: a survey

      Hakak, Saqib; Gadekallu, Thippa Reddy; Maddikunta, Praveen Kumar Reddy; Ramu, Swarna Priya; M, Parimala; De Alwis, Chamitha; Liyanage, Madhusanka; University of New Brunswick; Vellore Institute of Technology; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Elsevier Inc., 2022-11-28)
      Fifth Generation (5G) mobile technology is the latest generation of mobile networks that is being deployed to facilitate emerging applications and services. 5G offers enhanced mobile broadband, massive machine type communication, and ultra reliable low latency communication. Hence, the capabilities of 5G can be harnessed to satisfy the requirements of autonomous vehicles (AV). AVs are developed to offer comfort, safety and efficient driving. However, the capabilities of 5G are yet to be harness by AVs and related technologies. In response, this survey provides a comprehensive review on AVs in the 5G and beyond era. The paper provides a discussion on the current advancements in AVs, automation levels, enabling technologies and the requirement of 5G networks. Furthermore, the paper focuses on emerging technologies enabling the integration of 5G with AVs, the impact of 5G and B5G for AVs and the envisaged security concerns in AVs. The paper also provides a comprehensive understanding of recent developments in terms of standardisation activities and projects on 5G AV technologies. The article also provides lessons learnt, existing challenges, and future research directions to facilitate the development of AV technologies in the 5G and beyond era.