Now showing items 21-40 of 7082

    • The European Union as an object of insecure collective attachment : a response to ‘Brexit: Who is afraid of group attachment? Part I. Europe: What Europe?’ by Arturo Ezquerro

      Sochos, Antigonos; University of Bedfordshire (Sage, 2021-04-07)
      In this commentary I argue that the European Union has been functioning as an insecure object of collective attachment for large parts of the European population for many years. According to attachment theory, in relationships of asymmetrical power insecure attachment is formed as the narrative constructed by the most powerful party overwrites the authentic experience of the weakest, generating conflicted representation of self and the attachment object. That attachment object may be interpersonal or collective. The EU narrative on how it safeguards democracy and citizen well-being contradicts the true experience of many Europeans who struggle to make ends meet in neoliberal Europe. On this basis, an insecure collective bond with the EU is established, as the latter fails to recognize and address the needs of many of its citizens.
    • Biomarkers associated with lower limb muscle function in individuals with sarcopenia: a systematic review

      Jones, Rebecca Louise; Paul, Lorna; Steultjens, Martijn P.M.; Smith, Stephanie Louise; University of Bedfordshire; University of Lincoln; Glasgow Caledonian University; University of Nottingham (Wiley, 2022-08-17)
      Lower limb muscle dysfunction is a key driver for impaired physical capacity and frailty status, both characteristics of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is the key pathway between frailty and disability. Identifying biological markers for early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention may be key to early intervention and prevention of disability particularly mobility issues. To identify biological markers associated with lower limb muscle (dys)function in adults with sarcopenia, a systematic literature search was conducted in AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases from inception to 17 November 2021. Title, abstract, and full-text screening, data extraction, and methodological quality assessment were performed by two reviewers independently and verified by a third reviewer. Depending on available data, associations are reported as either Pearson's correlations, regression R2 or partial R2 , P value, and sample size (n). Twenty eligible studies including 3306 participants were included (females: 79%, males: 15%, unreported: 6%; mean age ranged from 53 to 92 years) with 36% in a distinct sarcopenic subgroup (females: 73%, males: 19%, unreported: 8%; mean age range 55-92 years). A total of 119 biomarkers were reported, categorized into: genetic and microRNAs (n = 64), oxidative stress (n = 10), energy metabolism (n = 18), inflammation (n = 7), enzyme (n = 4), hormone (n = 7), bone (n = 3), vitamin (n = 2), and cytokine (n = 4) markers) and seven lower limb muscle measures predominately focused on strength. Seven studies reported associations between lower limb muscle measures including (e.g. power, force, and torque) and biomarkers. In individuals with sarcopenia, muscle strength was positively associated with free testosterone (r = 0.40, P = 0.01; n = 46). In analysis with combined sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic individuals, muscle strength was positively associated with combined genetic and methylation score (partial R2 = 0.122, P = 0.03; n = 48) and negatively associated with sarcopenia-driven methylation score (partial R2 = 0.401, P < 0.01; n = 48). Biomarkers related to genetics (R2 = 0.001-0.014, partial R2 = 0.013-0.122, P > 0.05; n = 48), oxidative stress (r = 0.061, P > 0.05; n ≥ 77), hormone (r = 0.01, ρ = 0.052 p > 0.05, n ≥ 46) and combined protein, oxidative stress, muscle performance, and hormones (R2 = 22.0, P > 0.05; n ≥ 82) did not report significant associations with lower limb muscle strength. Several biomarkers demonstrated associations with lower limb muscle dysfunction. The current literature remains difficult to draw clear conclusions on the relationship between biomarkers and lower limb muscle dysfunction in adults with sarcopenia. Heterogeneity of biomarkers and lower limb muscle function precluded direct comparison. Use of international classification of sarcopenia and a set of core standardized outcome measures should be adopted to aid future investigation and recommendations to be made.
    • The pioneer transcription factor Foxa2 modulates T helper differentiation to reduce mouse allergic airway disease

      Yánez, Diana C.; Lau, Ching-In; Papaioannou, Eleftheria; Chawda, Mira Manilal; Rowell, Jasmine; Ross, Susan; Furmanski, Anna L.; Crompton, Tessa; ; UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health; et al. (Frontiers, 2022-08-08)
      Foxa2, a member of the Forkhead box (Fox) family of transcription factors, plays an important role in the regulation of lung function and lung tissue homeostasis. FOXA2 expression is reduced in the lung and airways epithelium of asthmatic patients and in mice absence of Foxa2 from the lung epithelium contributes to airway inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia. Here we demonstrate a novel role for Foxa2 in the regulation of T helper differentiation and investigate its impact on lung inflammation. Conditional deletion of Foxa2 from T-cells led to increased Th2 cytokine secretion and differentiation, but decreased Th1 differentiation and IFN-γ expression in vitro. Induction of mouse allergic airway inflammation resulted in more severe disease in the conditional Foxa2 knockout than in control mice, with increased cellular infiltration to the lung, characterized by the recruitment of eosinophils and basophils, increased mucus production and increased production of Th2 cytokines and serum IgE. Thus, these experiments suggest that Foxa2 expression in T-cells is required to protect against the Th2 inflammatory response in allergic airway inflammation and that Foxa2 is important in T-cells to maintain the balance of effector cell differentiation and function in the lung.
    • A scoping review of empirical literature on people with intellectual disability in Nigeria

      Sango, Precious Nonye; Deveau, Roy; ; University of Bedfordshire; University of Kent (MDPI, 2022-08-19)
      Intellectual disability (ID) is an emerging field of research in Nigeria. This review seeks to identify what has been published in order to describe the evidence and to identify the major gaps in knowledge and practice. A systematic search of five databases and an African disability journal yielded 15 papers that reported on empirical studies related to people with ID in Nigeria. Fifteen studies across the databases and journal searched met the inclusion criteria. The participants included adults and children with ID and their families. Twelve of the papers employed quantitative methods, two were qualitative and one was a mixed methods study. There is a paucity of empirical research on people with ID in Nigeria, thus emphasising the need for more primary research about people with ID living in Nigeria. Nigeria is estimated to have the largest population of people with disabilities in Africa; however, this review found limited empirical work regarding their lives, prevalence and care. This limited evidence hinders the understanding of the challenges people with an intellectual disability face and potentially inhibit the creation of policy-oriented solutions to their plights in a globalised world.
    • Looked after young people and CSE: a view from Northern Ireland

      Beckett, Helen (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013-09-06)
      Exploration of relationship between looked after young people and child sexual exploitaiton, drawing on research from Northern Ireland
    • Growing pains: developing safeguarding responses to adolescent harm

      Beckett, Helen; Lloyd, Jenny (Jessica Kingsley, 2022-03-21)
      Overview of the ways in which safeguarding responses to different forms of adolescence can compound or alleviate harm
    • Cultivated hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida var. major) genome sheds light on the evolution of Maleae (apple tribe)

      Zhang, Ti-Cao; Qiao, Qin; Du, Xiao; Zhang, Xiao; Hou, Yali; Wei, Xin; Sun, Chao; Zhang, Rengang; Yun, Quanzheng; Crabbe, M. James C.; et al. (Wiley, 2022-06-24)
      Cultivated hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida var. major) is an important medicinal and edible plant with a long history of use for health protection in China. Herein, we provide a de novo chromosome-level genome sequence of the hawthorn cultivar “Qiu Jinxing.” We assembled an 823.41 Mb genome encoding 40 571 genes and further anchored the 779.24 Mb sequence into 17 pseudo-chromosomes, which account for 94.64% of the assembled genome. Phylogenomic analyses revealed that cultivated hawthorn diverged from other species within the Maleae (apple tribe) at approximately 35.4 Mya. Notably, genes involved in the flavonoid and triterpenoid biosynthetic pathways have been significantly amplified in the hawthorn genome. In addition, our results indicated that the Maleae share a unique ancient tetraploidization event; however, no recent independent whole-genome duplication event was specifically detected in hawthorn. The amplification of non-specific long terminal repeat retrotransposons contributed the most to the expansion of the hawthorn genome. Furthermore, we identified two paleo-sub-genomes in extant species of Maleae and found that these two sub-genomes showed different rearrangement mechanisms. We also reconstructed the ancestral chromosomes of Rosaceae and discussed two possible paleo-polyploid origin patterns (autopolyploidization or allopolyploidization) of Maleae. Overall, our study provides an improved context for understanding the evolution of Maleae species, and this new high-quality reference genome provides a useful resource for the horticultural improvement of hawthorn.
    • Genetically modified metallothionein/cellulose composite material as an efficient and environmentally friendly biosorbent for Cd2+ removal

      Li, Xuefen; Wang, Yuxia; Crabbe, M. James C.; Wang, Lan; Ma, Wenli; Ren, Zhumei; Shanxi University; University of Oxford; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2022-07-25)
      Metallothioneins (MTs) are a class of cysteine-rich metal-binding proteins. Cadmium (Cd) is one of the toxic heavy metal pollutants. In our previous research, the full-length cDNA of MT (Cd specificity) from freshwater crab (Sinopotamon henanense) (ShMT) was cloned and genetically modified to ShMT3 by site-directed mutagenesis to enhance the tolerance for Cd2+, however, it was limited in actual Cd2+ adsorption due to instability. Here, ShMT3-CBM, a novel recombinant fusion protein, was prepared. CBM is a carbohydrate binding module that can specifically bind cellulose while ShMT3 can effectively chelate Cd2+. The biosorbent Cellulose1-ShMT3-CBM was obtained by screening suitable cellulose materials. The selective adsorption experiments showed that Cellulose1-ShMT3-CBM had a preference for Cd2+. In low-concentration Cd2+ solutions, the removal efficiency was >99 %, and the adsorption equilibrium was reached within 15 min. The saturated adsorption capacity of Cellulose1-ShMT3-CBM for Cd2+ is 180.35 ± 4.67 mg/g (Dry Weight). Regeneration experiments showed that adsorption efficiency was maintained after six cycles. The MTT experiment showed that Cellulose1-ShMT3-CBM had low cytotoxicity. Meanwhile, Cellulose1-ShMT3-CBM can preferentially remove Cd2+ in actual water samples and boiler sewage. In this study, an environmentally friendly biosorbent which can adsorb Cd2+ efficiently and quickly was prepared for actual water treatment.
    • Association of ankle sprain frequency with body mass and self-reported function: a pooled multisite analysis

      Rosen, Adam B.; Jaffri, Abbis; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Koldenhoven, Rachel M.; Powden, Cameron J.; Fraser, John J.; Simon, Janet E.; Hoch, Matthew; Burcal, Christopher J.; University of Nebraska; et al. (Human Kinetics, 2022-05-26)
      Context: Ankle sprains result in pain and disability. While factors such as body mass and prior injury contribute to subsequent injury, the association of the number of ankle sprains on body anthropometrics and self-reported function are unclear in this population. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to assess differences in anthropometric measurements and selfreported function between the number of ankle sprains utilizing a large, pooled data set. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Data were pooled from 14 studies (total N = 412) collected by the Chronic Ankle Instability Outcomes Network. Participants were categorized by the number of self-reported sprains. Anthropometric data and self-reported function were compared between those who reported a single versus >1 ankle sprain as well as among groups of those who had 1, 2, 3, 4, and ≥5 ankle sprains, respectively. Results: Those who had >1 ankle sprain had higher mass (P = .001, d = 0.33) and body mass index (P = .002, d = 0.32) and lower Foot and Ankle Ability Measure-Activities of Daily Living (P < .001, r = .22), Foot and Ankle Ability Measure-Sport (P < .001, r = .33), and Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (P < .001, r = .34) scores compared to the single ankle sprain group. Those who had a single ankle sprain weighed less than those who reported ≥5 sprains (P = .008, d = 0.42) and had a lower body mass index than those who reported 2 sprains (P = .031, d = 0.45). Conclusions: Some individuals with a history of multiple ankle sprains had higher body mass and self-reported disability compared to those with a single sprain, factors that are likely interrelated. Due to the potential for long-term health concerns associated with ankle sprains, clinicians should incorporate patient education and interventions that promote physical activity, healthy dietary intake, and optimize function as part of comprehensive patient-centered care.
    • Postprandial glucose responses to standardised meals consumed after moderate- and high-intensity exercise bouts across standard school days in healthy adolescents

      Afeef, Sahar M.O.; Barrett, Laura A.; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Tolfrey, Keith; Loughborough University; King Abdulaziz University; University of Bedfordshire (Lidsen Publishing, 2022-08-15)
      Exercise-induced moderation of postprandial glycaemia in adolescents is unclear and has not been examined under free-living conditions. We assessed the effect of moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) bouts on subsequent postprandial glycaemic responses across three standard school days. Fourteen healthy adolescents (13 ± 1 years) completed three conditions in the following order across consecutive days: MIE, 30-min continuous brisk walking; CON, no-exercise control; HIIE, 30- min of 10 × 30-s sprints interspersed with 2.5-min brisk walking bouts. Participants consumed three standardised meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) at standardised times. Interstitial glucose, energy intake, sedentary time and physical activity were assessed under free-living conditions. Linear mixed models compared glucose outcomes between conditions, and Cohen’s d effect sizes were calculated. Although non-significant, the reduction in postbreakfast glucose iAUC was moderate for MIE (-0.24 mmol·L -1 ; P = 0.59; d = 0.77) and large for HIIE (-0.26 mmol·L -1 ; P = 0.44; d = 0.86) compared with CON. Non-significant, moderate (0.37 mmol·L -1 ; P = 0.22; d = 0.70) and large (0.42 mmol·L -1 ; P = 0.20; d = 0.81) increases in postlunch glucose iAUC were observed for MIE and HIIE compared with CON. Nevertheless, the 24-h mean glucose was stable at ~5.4 mmol·L -1 across conditions. The glycaemic variability indices calculated over 24-h after the onset of exercise for each condition including standard deviation (P = 0.59) and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (P = 0.82) were not different between conditions. Thirty-minute bouts of MIE and HIIE did not change postprandial glycaemia or 24-h glycaemic variability significantly in the small sample of healthy adolescents. However, the moderate and large effect sizes suggest both MIE and HIIE reduced breakfast glucose iAUC compared with CON, yet led to increases in post-lunch iAUC in the two exercise conditions. The mismatch between the probability values and effect sizes was a consequence of our COVID-reduced sample. The ramifications of these exercise effects are unclear and need to be confirmed in a larger sample of adolescents.
    • ‘They need to see the people they are affecting by their decision-making’: developing participatory advocacy with young people on sexual violence in Albania, Moldova and Serbia : monitoring and evaluation report

      Bovarnick, Silvie; Cody, Claire; University of Bedfordshire; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2020-05-01)
      In 2019, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) celebrated its 30th anniversary. The UNCRC grants children the right to participation, to have a say on matters affecting them, and to be heard. On 18 November 2019 – the European Day on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse – the Council of Europe prioritised ‘children’s participation’, emphasising the importance of ‘empowering children to stop sexual violence’. Children and young people’s participation are high on the international policy agenda. The reality frequently lags behind such political aspirations. In practice, the right to participation is not extended to all children and young people equally. The significant practical and ethical challenges associated with engaging vulnerable groups in participatory initiatives mean that children and young people affected by sexual violence are often sidelined from such opportunities. As a result, the highly relevant perspectives of ‘experts by experience’ tend to be marginalised from processes of knowledge-creation and decision-making. However, their perspectives are key to developing targeted responses that reflect the needs and priorities of those affected by the issue. As professionals and organisations, we need to expand our skill set and knowledge about how to safely involve children and young people with lived experience in participatory work. This requires resources as well as professional capacity and confidence building.
    • Learning from the experts: young people’s views on their mental health and emotional wellbeing needs following sexual abuse in adolescence: briefing paper, March 2021

      Allnock, Debra; Beckett, Helen; Soares, Claire; Warrington, Camille; Hagell, Ann; Starbuck, Lindsay; University of Bedfordshire; Association for Young People's Health (University of Bedfordshire, 2021-03-01)
      There is a recognised gap in knowledge and understanding about how the mental health and emotional wellbeing of young people are affected by experiences of sexual abuse during adolescence. By sexual abuse we mean contact- and noncontact activities, online-facilitated abuse, abuse inside and outside the family, and abuse by adults and other young people. The unique nature of adolescence means that young people experiencing sexual abuse in this phase of life may have different needs to younger children or adults. We need to know better – from them – about what these are and find ways of helping that are sensitive to the impacts of sexual abuse in this life stage and the demands of their everyday lives. This briefing shares some of the key messages that young people who took part in our participatory research told us about their mental health and emotional wellbeing needs following sexual abuse in adolescence.
    • Exploring the role and lived experiences of people with disabilities working in the agricultural sector in northern Nigeria

      Sango, Precious Nonye; Bello, Mohammed; Deveau, Roy; Gager, Kevin; Boateng, Belinda; Ahmed, Hauwa K.; Azam, Mohammed N.; ; University of Bedfordshire; African Centre for Innovative Research and Development; et al. (Aosis, 2022-08-16)
      Background: It is estimated that over 75.0% of households in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in agriculture, and the majority of the poor in rural areas rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. One billion people living with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries are argued to make up the poorest of the poor, yet to our knowledge, no literature has captured the livelihood of people living with disabilities in the context of farming in Nigeria, specifically northern Nigeria where most of the households are involved in agriculture and related activities. Objectives: This article reports on findings from a study that sought to understand disability in the context of northern Nigerian farming, with a particular focus on the role and lived experiences of people living with disabilities working in the agricultural sector. Method: A survey questionnaire was developed and captured the experiences of 1067 people living with disabilities working in the agricultural sector across five states (Adamawa, Bauchi, Jigawa, Kaduna and Yobe) in northern Nigeria. Results: Findings indicate that people with disabilities are actively participating in agricultural activities for several reasons, which specifically included ‘forced to and for survival’. When participants reported needing care, this was predominantly provided by family members. Findings also showed that participants with disabilities experienced several economic and sociocultural challenges because of their impairments. Conclusion: This study adds to the very limited literature on farmers living with disabilities in sub-Saharan Africa and so highlights the need for more research to be conducted with farmers living with disabilities in Nigeria, particularly female farmers living with disabilities. These will provide more evidence pertaining to the experiences of farmers living with disabilities in order to provide effective disability- and gender-inclusive agricultural and entrepreneurship programmes in Nigeria. Contribution: The results of this research reveal important insights relating to the experiences of farmers living with disabilities in northern Nigeria, which can contribute to informing future developmental projects to achieve effective inclusion and actively benefit people living with disabilities.
    • ‘They believe this’ : taking pupils’ religious backgrounds into account in relationship and sex education

      Shuker, Lucie; Beckett, Helen; Faisal, Rehana; Newlands, Fiona; Lynch, Amy; Apeland, Gry; Faiths Against Child Sexual Exploitation; University of Bedfordshire; Youthscape Centre for Research (University of Bedfordshire, 2021-10-01)
      This research explored young people’s experiences of, and views on, the place of religion in Relationships and Sex Education (RSE). We surveyed 157 15-19-year-olds from 29 different secondary schools, including those with and with no religious faith, and spoke to 16 Christians and Muslims aged 18-21 in four online focus groups.
    • There’s something there for everyone : learning about the Lighthouse: young people’s perspectives on London’s Child House

      Beckett, Helen; Soares, Claire; Warrington, Camille; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2022-02-16)
      The Lighthouse, London’s Child House, 1 opened in October 2018. Bringing together a range of organisations under one roof, the Lighthouse’s intention is to be a child friendly, multidisciplinary service for those who have experienced sexual abuse, with the foremost aim to be focused on the child (Conroy et al., 2018). The Child House approach is informed by that of Child Advocacy Centres in the United States and the Barnahus model in Scandinavia. The Lighthouse is a member of the Promise Barnahus Network, 2 a member-led organisation that works to harmonise and consolidate good Barnahus practice across Europe (Parker et al., forthcoming). The Evidence and Insight Unit at MOPAC was commissioned to evaluate the Lighthouse. As part of this evaluation, they commissioned staff from the Safer Young Lives Research Centre (SYLRC) at the University of Bedfordshire to elicit the views of a cohort of children and young people who had engaged with the Lighthouse, in a study entitled ‘Learning about the Lighthouse’. Key learning from young people’s contributions to ‘Learning about the Lighthouse’ has been incorporated into MOPAC’s overall evaluation report (Parker et al., forthcoming). This report provides an accompaniment to that broader report. In line with the Lighthouse’s own aim to be focused on the child, this report provides a distinct space where young people’s views are the sole focus and central source of learning. Though scaffolded by researcher narrative, informed by cumulative analysis of all contributions, young people’s contributions are shared in individual participants’ own words.
    • Adaptations to mindfulness-based interventions for neurological impairment: the SMALL PROMPTS approach

      Finlay, K. A.; Hearn, J.H.; Gillett, J.L.; Ratwatte, P.; Morton-Bye, J.; Chater, Angel M.; ; University of Reading; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Buckingham; et al. (American Psychological Association, 2022-07-07)
      Purpose/Objective: Standardized mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), used for the management of physical and psychological symptoms associated with neurological impairment/injury (NI), have been problematized as lacking accessibility due to their focus on sensory presence and mindful walking. Research is needed to generate formalized recommendations regarding how MBIs may be best adapted to enhance their suitability for people with NI. ResearchMethod/Design: A two-phase qualitative study was completed. First, semistructured interviews were undertaken with eight accredited mindfulness teachers with NI. Interviews reviewed the adaptations participants made in their personal and teaching practice, using thematic analysis, and generated recommendations for adaptations to MBIs specific to people with NI. Second, using the DELPHI method, the adapted practice recommendations were reviewed and revised via three rounds, following cognitive interviews with an expert panel (N = 5 trained mindfulness teachers with NI). Results: Ten core areas for adaptation are proposed and validated, acting as SMALL PROMPTS which can be used to adapt mindfulness-based teaching techniques to the specific requirements of people with NI: (a) Skin/bladder/bowel management; (b) mindful Movement; (c) Accessible training; (d) Language Leadership; (e) Permissive pRactice; (f) Optimizing timelines; (g) Management of posture; (h) inclusion of Pacing; (i) Teaching from experience; and (j) body Scanning. Conclusion/Implications:Mindfulness is a highly applicable approach for people with sensory loss, however significant, specific adaptations are required to improve inclusivity and accessibility. The SMALL PROMPTS adaptations increase the accessibility, applicability, and utility ofMBIs for populations living with NI, enhancing effectivemanagement of physical and psychological wellbeing, and optimizingMBI delivery.
    • Placing care: the impact of the physical environment on experiences of providing and utilizing palliative care

      Agom, David; Sixsmith, Judith; Ominyi, Jude; Onyeka, Tonia; Agom, Joy C.; University of Bedfordshire; University of Dundee; University of Nigeria; Regent College, London (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2022-08-05)
      Environmental design in palliative and end-of-life care is known to improve care outcomes, service-user satisfaction, and the continuation of service uptake. No study in the literature has investigated the influence of the environment on palliative and end-of-life care in Nigeria or other African contexts. This study was designed to explore the impact of the physical environment (i.e., place and people) on staff and service users and how these influence the experiences of providing and using palliative and end-of-life care in a Nigerian hospital context. Ethnographic methodology was employed because this approach facilitates understanding of environmental realities. This study is part of a larger ethnographic research project developed to uncover aspects of organizational complexities related to the provision and use of palliative and end-of-life care in the Nigerian context. Three hundred fifty hours of participant observation was achieved, and semistructured interviews were used to gather data from 26 participants, including 10 patients, 11 members of a palliative care team, and five hospital managers. Informal chats and photographic capture were additional methods used in data collection. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify and analyze patterns within the collected data. Physical space, equipment, and placing staff were the three primary themes identified. The physical environment was untidy, and the ward layout prevented privacy, dignity, or comfort for patients and families. The equipment was old and inadequate, and the context of care was worsened by insufficient staffing and neglect of the environmental needs of the staff. Hospital design for palliative and end-of-life care in Nigeria is "autoinhibitory" (a negative feedback mechanism whereby hospital design detracts rather than promote quality of care), and a physical environment that supports the provision and utilization of care must be implemented to promote palliative and end-of-life care success. Urgent policy action is needed to improve environmental and staffing conditions to advance palliative and end-of-life care in Nigeria.
    • Preparation, purification, and identification of novel antioxidant peptides derived from Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis protein hydrolysates

      Hu, Xiao; Liu, Jing; Li, Jun; Song, Yuqiong; Chen, Shengjun; Zhou, Shaobo; Yang, Xianqing; ; Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences; Jiangsu Ocean University; et al. (Frontiers, 2022-07-22)
      Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (G. lemaneiformis) protein was hydrolyzed with alkaline protease to obtain antioxidant peptides. The enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were optimized through single-factor and orthogonal experiments. The results showed that the optimal process parameters were using 2% of alkaline protease, and substrate concentration of 1 g/100 mL and hydrolyzed 2 h at pH 8.0. Gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC were adopted for isolating and purifying the antioxidant peptides from the G. lemaneiformis protein hydrolysate (GLPH). Three novel antioxidant peptides were identified as LSPGEL (614.68 Da), VYFDR (698.76 Da), and PGPTY (533.57 Da) by nano-HPLC-MS/MS. The results of ABTS free radical scavenging rate demonstrated PGPTY exhibited the best antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.24 mg/mL). Moreover, LSPGEL, VYFDR, and PGPTY were docked with Keap1, respectively. The molecular docking results suggested PGPTY had smaller docking energy and inhibition constants than the other two peptides. Finally, the cell viability assay evidenced the protective effect exerted by the antioxidant peptide on H2O2-induced oxidative damage. Above findings showed the potential of using antioxidant peptides from GLPH as antioxidants.
    • The decolonisation of ‘Africa’ in tourism: the representation and misrepresentation of African being and becoming

      Vellah, Alfred (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2017-08)
      This study starts from the general premise that over recent centuries Africa and Africans have not only been commonly represented under the hegemonic Eurocentric yoke, but the continent and its peoples have been misrepresented under that governing Western/European apparatus. It also holds that over the last century especially, Africa and Africans have been significantly misrepresented (sometimes consciously, sometimes unconsciously) under the projective authority and agency of tourism as it deals in images and narratives either borne within the industrial scripting power of tourism itself, or otherwise from symbolisations in other prescriptive/mediating industries. In order to discursively explore these matters of representation/misrepresentation, the study is scaffolded around two study problems: the first and main purpose of the investigation is to examine how Africa/Africans are signified today by lead African commentators vis-à-vis the way others signify them. The second problem seeks to explore how prominent Indigenous commentators across the world critique the representation of Indigenous populations under the so-called contemporary decolonising moment. The function of the subsidiary study problem is to shed contextual light on the representation/misrepresentation of Africa/Africans through such interleaved mediating industries. This emergent study began as an inquiry into the othering of Africa/Africans, but it gradually evolved into a study not so much of the projected/mediated 'other' but of the cultural or signified 'hybrid', because of ongoing difficulties in coherently determining who Africans were in the past, should be in the present, and could be in the future. This study gravitated into a Deleuzean critique of not so much fixed or preferred identity, but of the intensities today by which tourism, collaborative industries, and Africans themselves each tend to palpate particular lines of-flight declarations of being and becoming in often porous and protean (and not-easily-predictable) ways. This constitutes an interpretive study of Foucauldian governmentality as it seeks to examine texts and discourses that declare what Africa is and who Africans are, and is predominantly informed via social constructivist methodologies emanating from Lincoln and Guba, and from Chilisa, translated to African experiences. This emergent study of the decolonisation of Africa/Africans through tourism and collaborative inscriptive industries comprises an unfurling critique of the juxtaposition of representations of being with African notions of Ubuntu. Sadly, the strictures of time prevented the completion of a multi-term glossary of African interpretations of being and becoming so the unmet aims of the study have been translated into an ongoing research agenda with which the investigator will be engaged over the next decade.
    • An exploratory analysis of shock advertising in the tourism industry: the destination manager and tourist perspective

      Evans, Augusta Ifeanyichukwu (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2021-09)
      Starting since the 80s, shock advertising has gained interest at both academic and marketing levels. Its use lies in the real power of grabbing consumer attention and influencing consumer behaviours. Although shock advertising is transversal to many sectors and industries, studies in tourism are quite rare. However, shock advertising has begun to be used to contrast and prevent tourist misbehaviours such as binge drinking, balconing, prostituting, taking illegal drugs, and so on. A mixed-method approach was implemented, which was based on semi structured interviews with destination managers to see how they understood shock advertising and their willingness to air it on their destinations. Quantitively, questionnaires were employed, and three ads were presented to tourists in Spain and the United Kingdom. The aim of this study is two-fold, firstly, to examine the destination managers’ perceptions of the use of shock advertising in managing tourist misbehaviour and destination image. Destination managers are essential decision makers in the process of designing and planning destination communication campaigns and messages; hence, their perceptions of creative strategies are crucial in understanding the selection of some strategies over others. Then, the study aims to examine tourists’ reaction to the use of shock advertising, their attitude towards such advertisements and most importantly, their behavioural intentions after viewing the ads. Data were inputted into SPSS and ANOVAs were used for data analysis. This was employed to test the hypotheses. The findings confirmed shock advertisements are a useful tool when applied in the right context for changing attitudes and behavioural intentions. This research makes several significant managerial and theoretical contributions and provides preliminary answers to the components of a successful shock ad campaign that can be used in the travel and tourism industries and how it can be implemented. In general, the study also encourages the use of shock ads in the travel and tourism industry and destination management. Finally, implications for both scholars and experts are discussed.