Now showing items 1-20 of 6612

    • Warm-up intensity does not affect the ergogenic effect of sodium bicarbonate in adult men

      Jones, Rebecca Louise; Stellingwerff, Trent; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Saunders, Bryan; Sale, Craig; Swinton, Paul; ; University of Bedfordshire; Canadian Sport Institute–Pacific; University of Victoria; et al. (Human Kinetics, 2021-07-07)
      This study determined the influence of a high (HI) vs. low-intensity (LI) cycling warm-up on blood acid-base responses and exercise capacity following ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB; 0.3 g·kg-1 body-mass (BM)) or a placebo (PLA; maltodextrin) 3-hours prior to warm-up. Twelve men (21±2 years, 79.2±3.6 kg BM, maximum power output (Wmax) 318±36 W) completed a familiarisation and four double-blind trials completed in a counterbalanced order: HI warm-up with SB (HISB); HI warm-up with PLA (HIPLA); LI warm-up with SB (LISB); and LI warm-up with PLA (LIPLA). LI warm-up was 15-minutes at 60%Wmax, while the HI warm-up (typical of elites) featured LI followed by 2 x 30-sec (3-minute break) at Wmax, finishing 30-minute prior to a cycling capacity test at 110%Wmax (CCT110%). Blood bicarbonate and lactate were measured throughout. SB supplementation increased blood bicarbonate (+6.4 [95%CI: 5.7 to 7.1 mmol·L-1]) prior to greater reductions with high intensity warm-up (-3.8 [95%CI: -5.8 to -1.8 mmol·L-1]). However, during the 30-minute recovery, blood bicarbonate rebounded and increased in all conditions, with concentrations ~5.3mmol·L-1 greater with SB supplementation (P<0.001). Blood bicarbonate significantly declined during the CCT110% with greater reductions following SB supplementation (-2.4 [95%CI: -3.8 to -0.90 mmol·L-1]). Aligned with these results, SB supplementation increased total work done during the CCT110% (+8.5 [95%CI: 3.6 to 13.4 kJ], ~19% increase) with no significant main effect of warm-up intensity (+0.0 [95%CI: -5.0 to 5.0 kJ). Collectively, the results demonstrate that SB supplementation can improve HI cycling capacity irrespective of prior warm-up intensity, likely due to blood alkalosis.
    • Unlink the link between COVID-19 and 5G Networks: an NLP and SNA based approach

      Bahja, Mohammed; Safdar, Ghazanfar Ali; University of Birmingham; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-11-18)
      Social media facilitates rapid dissemination of information for both factual and fictional information. The spread of non-scientific information through social media platforms such as Twitter has potential to cause damaging consequences. Situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic provides a favourable environment for misinformation to thrive. The upcoming 5G technology is one of the recent victims of misinformation and fake news and has been plagued with misinformation about the effects of its radiation. During the COVID-19 pandemic, conspiracy theories linking the cause of the pandemic to 5G technology have resonated with a section of people leading to outcomes such as destructive attacks on 5G towers. The analysis of the social network data can help to understand the nature of the information being spread and identify the commonly occurring themes in the information. The natural language processing (NLP) and the statistical analysis of the social network data can empower policymakers to understand the misinformation being spread and develop targeted strategies to counter the misinformation. In this paper, NLP based analysis of tweets linking COVID-19 to 5G is presented. NLP models including Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), sentiment analysis (SA) and social network analysis (SNA) were applied for the analysis of the tweets and identification of topics. An understanding of the topic frequencies, the inter-relationships between topics and geographical occurrence of the tweets allows identifying agencies and patterns in the spread of misinformation and equips policymakers with knowledge to devise counter-strategies.
    • Detecting advance fee fraud using NLP bag of word model

      Hamisu, Muhammad; Mansour, Ali; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2021-05-25)
      Advance Fee Fraud (AFF) is a form of Internet fraud prevalent within the Cybercrimes domain in literature. Evidence shows that huge financial assets are stolen from the global economy as a result of AFF. Consequently, this paper presents a fraudulent email classifier (FEC) that detects and classifies an email as fraudulent or non-fraudulent using Natural Language Process (NLP) model referred to as Bag-of-Words (BoW). The classifier is designed and trained to detect and classify AFF that originate from known sources using Nigeria as a Case study. Dataset is obtained and used for the training while testing the classifier logs. Experimentally, the classifier was trained using various machine learning algorithms with BoW generated as predictors. By selecting the best algorithms, the classifier was tested and found to perform satisfactorily.
    • Analysis of cybercrime in Nigeria

      Hamisu, Muhammad; Idris, Abubakar Muhammad; Mansour, Ali; Olalere, Morufu; University of Bedfordshire; Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2021-05-25)
      Nigeria has both the largest economy and population in Africa, and this contribute to the growth and fast expansion of ICT and the use of Internet in Nigeria. Like other technologies, Internet has been used by both good and bad actors. The use of internet and computer to commit crime is costing global economy the loss of billions of dollars. In Nigeria, the majority of the population use the Internet for good but some few are using it to commit criminal activities such as Fraud. Cybercriminals in Nigeria, widely called Yahoo Boys in the country specialize in Internet fraud that target mostly International victims. The Nigeria government is stepping efforts to bring an end the activities of these criminals as their actions tarnishes the image of the country. While the efforts of the government had yielded some positive results, the threat of Cybercrime in Nigeria is still high, as criminals continue to take advantage of flaws in the law enforcement tactical approach in addressing the crime. This paper discusses an overview of Cybercrime in Nigeria, the common types of Cybercrime that is perpetuated from the country and the reason of doing so. It also discusses the government's success and areas of strength in its fight against Cybercrime and highlight the areas of weaknesses. Recommendations and suggestions are made on how law enforcement and the government at large can improve to tackle Cybercrime better in Nigeria.
    • Contraceptive choice and power amongst women receiving opioid replacement therapy: qualitative study

      Werthern, Helena; Alhusein, Nour; Chater, Angel M.; Scott, Jenny; Family, Hannah; Neale, Joanne; King’s College London; University of New South Wales; University of Bristol; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2021-07-17)
      ABSTRACT Background: Women receiving treatment for opioid use disorder have low levels of contraception use and high rates of unintended pregnancies, abortion and children being adopted or fostered. This paper aims to understand the relationship between contraceptive choice and power amongst women receiving Opioid Replacement Therapy (ORT). Methods: During 2016/17, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 40 women (aged 22–49 years) receiving ORT in the South of England. Data relating to the latent concept of power were inductively coded and analysed via Iterative Categorisation. Findings: The power manifested itself through six interconnected ‘fields’: i. ‘information about fertility and contraception’; ii. ‘access to contraception’; iii. ‘relationships with professionals and services’; iv. ‘relationships with male partners’; v. ‘relationships with sex work clients’; and vi. ‘life priorities and preferences’. Each field comprised examples of women’s powerlessness and empowerment. Even whenwomen appeared to have limited power or control, they sometimes managed to assert themselves. Conclusions: Power in relation to contraceptive choice is multi-faceted and multi-directional, operating at both individual and structural levels. Informed decision-making depends on the provision of clear, non-judgemental information and advice alongside easy access to contraceptive options. Additional strategies to empower women to make contraceptive choices and prevent unplanned pregnancies are recommended.
    • Understanding the disproportionate effects of COVID-19 on nurses from ethnic minority backgrounds

      Qureshi, Irtiza; Garcia, Rebecca; Ali, Nasreen; Randhawa, Gurch; University of Bedfordshire; Open University (RCN Publishing, 2021-07-12)
      People from ethnic minority backgrounds in the UK have been disproportionately affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with higher death rates and suboptimal health outcomes compared with those from white ethnic backgrounds. This trend is reflected in healthcare staff from ethnic minority backgrounds, including nurses, who are disproportionately affected by COVID-19 and have higher death rates from the disease. The theory of intersectionality contends that social categorisations such as gender, race and class can contribute to discrimination and result in disadvantages. In this article, the authors outline several intersecting factors that could be contributing to the disproportionate effects of COVID-19 among nurses from ethnic minority backgrounds, as well as making recommendations for further research in this area.
    • Genetic modifications of metallothionein enhance the tolerance and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Escherichia coli

      Li, Xuefen; Ren, Zhumei; Crabbe, M. James C.; Wang, Lan; Ma, Wenli; Shanxi University; University of Oxford; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2021-07-13)
      Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins that bind to metals. Owing to their high cysteine (Cys) content, MTs are effective mediators of heavy metal detoxification. To enhance the heavy metal binding ability of MT from the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense (ShMT), sequence-based multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and structure-based molecular docking simulation (MDS) were conducted in order to identify amino acid residues that could be mutated to bolster such metal-binding activity. Site-directed mutagenesis was then used to modify the primary structure of ShMT, and the recombinant proteins were further enhanced using the SUMO fusion expression system to yield SUMO-ShMT1, SUMO-ShMT2, and SUMO-ShMT3 harboring one-, two-, and three- point mutations, respectively. The resultant modified proteins were primarily expressed in a soluble form and exhibited the ability to readily bind to heavy metals. Importantly, these modified proteins exhibited significantly enhanced heavy metal binding capacities, and they improved Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ tolerance and bioaccumulation in Escherichia coli (E. coli) in a manner dependent upon the number of introduced point mutations (SUMO-ShMT3 > SUMO-ShMT2 > SUMO-ShMT1 > SUMO-ShMT > control). Indeed, E. coli cells harboring the pET28a-SUMO-ShMT3 expression vector exhibited maximal Cd2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ bioaccumulation that was increased by 1.86 ± 0.02-, 1.71 ± 0.03-, and 2.13 ± 0.02-fold relative to that in E. coli harboring the pET28a-SUMO-ShMT vector. The present study offers a basis for the preparation of genetically engineered bacteria that are better able to bioaccumulate and tolerate heavy metals, thus providing a foundation for biological heavy metal water pollution treatment.
    • Block teaching as the basis for an innovative redesign of the PG suite of programmes in University of Bedfordshire Business School

      Kofinas, Alexander K.; Bentley, Yongmei; Minett-Smith, Cathy; University of Bedfordshire (Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València, 2017-12-31)
      This paper aims to provide a first evaluation of the University of Bedfordshire Business School’s innovative attempt to develop a new suite of Masters Programmes that delivers in terms of academic rigor and employability requirements while providing a rich student learning experience. The new delivery is based on a block delivery model that rationalises the previous offerings by providing a smaller range of standardized large units which are more tightly integrated to each other and are part of courses with particular characteristics such as a four-tier induction system (with inductions being progressively more employabilityfocused as students’ progress from one unit to the next) and the final capstone unit where students have a choice between a traditional dissertation and an experiential final project. That common architecture is coupled with a flipped classroom delivery style, utilization of blended learning and rich peer-to-peer learning opportunities with multiple entry points providing additional students into the cohorts for each unit. Preliminary data is provided here as an early evaluation of the approach’s effectiveness and efficiency in terms of the delivery experience, the assessment strategies, the levels of student engagement and performance, as well as the experience of staff and students.
    • Evidence based approaches to violence reduction: a discussion paper

      Davey, Peter; Bath, Rachel; Staniforth, Rachel; Firmin, Carlene Emma; MacFarlane, Colin; Sebire, Jackie; Cestaro, David; Contextual Safeguarding Network (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2021-03-30)
      This document helps practitioners to understand Public Health, Problem-solving and Contextual Safeguarding approaches as three complementary evidence-based approaches to violence reduction.
    • Towards a contextual response to peer-on-peer abuse: research and resources from MsUnderstood local site work 2013-2016

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Curtis, George; Fritz, Danielle; Olaitan, Paul; Latchford, Lia; Lloyd, Jenny; Larasi, Ikamara; Contextual Safeguarding Network (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2016-06-20)
      This report chronicles the findings and resources on peer-on-peer abuse generated by the MsUnderstood Partnership over the past three years, with specific reference to the tools and knowledge created alongside professionals through local site work. The programme of work was funded by the Esmée Fairbairn Foundation, the Samworth Foundation and Trust for London.
    • Young people who sexually harm peers in groups: a rapid evidence assessment of international literature

      Latchford, Lia; Firmin, Carlene Emma; Fritz, Danielle; Hackett, Simon; Contextual Safeguarding Network (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2016-11-18)
      This literature review was conducted to develop an evidence base on young people who sexually harm in groups, by synthesising existing literature on group harmful sexual behaviour (HSB), wider group offending and group interventions
    • Safeguarding adolescents: a survey of London professionals

      Shuker, Lucie; Contextual Safeguarding Network (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2017-11-16)
      This report presents the findings of a survey of 120 London-based professionals from a range of agencies, on their views and experiences of safeguarding adolescents in the capital. It was undertaken as part of a programme of work for the London Safeguarding Adolescents Steering Group (LSASG) and will inform the development of a new chapter on safeguarding adolescents in the London Child Protection Procedures.
    • Safeguarding during adolescence: the relationship between contextual safeguarding, complex safeguarding and transitional safeguarding

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Horan, Jayne; Holmes, Dez; Hopper, Gail; Contextual Safeguarding Network (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2016-01-09)
      Briefing on the relationship between Contextual Safeguarding, Complex Safeguarding and Transitional Safeguarding
    • Contextual safeguarding: a 2020 update on the operational, strategic and conceptual framework

      Firmin, Carlene; Lloyd, Jenny; Contextual Safeguarding Network; University of Bedfordshire (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2020-05-07)
      This briefing provides an overview of the design and use of the Contextual Safeguarding Framework from 2017 until 2020, and updates the first overview briefing published in 2017.
    • Harmful sexual behaviour in school: a briefing on the findings, implications and resources for schools and multi-agency partners

      Lloyd, Jenny; Walker, Joanne; Bradbury, Vanessa; Contextual Safeguarding Network; University of Bedfordshire (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2020-06-24)
      A briefing that presents findings from a two-year study into harmful sexual behaviour (HSB) in English schools, Beyond Referrals Two. The briefing provides an overview of key thematic findings from the study, organised in relation to: the prevalence of HSB; strengths of responses; disclosure; peer support; parental engagement; and disability and provides 30 recommendations for schools, multi-agency safeguarding partners and the wider field of education.
    • Peer support interventions for safeguarding: a scoping review

      Brodie, Isabelle; Latimer, Katie; Firmin, Carlene Emma; Contextual Safeguarding Network; University of Bedfordshire (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2020-09-22)
      This literature review presents five forms of peer (support) intervention, along with their key features, potential benefits and considerations for practice. This document summarises the research background to the review, and its methodology, before turning to the findings and conclusions. This review was conducted alongside a study with voluntary sector organisation Safer London, to consider the opportunities to develop safeguarding interventions based on peer support.
    • Developing holistic and coordinated strategic approaches to peer-on-peer abuse: extract #5

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Curtis, George; Fritz, Danielle; Olaitan, Paul; Latchford, Lia; Lloyd, Jenny; Larasi, Ikamara; Contextual Safeguarding Network (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2016-06-07)
      In this extract from the report 'Towards a Contextual Response to Peer-on-Peer Abuse: Research and Resources from MsUnderstood local site work 2013-2016', researchers discuss how they helped local sites improve the coordination in their response to safeguarding adolescents in general and peer-on-peer abuse specifically.
    • Engagement of community, specialist and voluntary organisations: extract #4

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Curtis, George; Fritz, Danielle; Olaitan, Paul; Latchford, Lia; Lloyd, Jenny; Larasi, Ikamara; Contextual Safeguarding Network (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2016-06-17)
      This extract from the report 'Towards a Contextual Response to Peer-on-Peer Abuse: Research and Resources from MsUnderstood local site work 2013-2016' highlights researchers' work with community, voluntary and specialist organisations in the response to peer-on-peer abuse. The extract discusses a train-the-trainer programme, a study on detached youth work provision and building awareness and partnerships amongst community sector provision.
    • Responses to young people who abuse their peers: extract #3

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Curtis, George; Fritz, Danielle; Olaitan, Paul; Latchford, Lia; Lloyd, Jenny; Larasi, Ikamara; Contextual Safeguarding Network (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2016-06-19)
      In this extract from the report 'Towards a Contextual Response to Peer-on-Peer Abuse: Research and Resources from MsUnderstood local site work 2013-2016', researchers explain their work in two sites to enhance local responses to harmful sexual behaviour.