Now showing items 1-20 of 5946

    • The "soft" power of Syrian broadcasting

      Halabi, Nour; Mellor, Noha (Routledge, 2020-11-30)
    • Routledge handbook on Arab media

      Mellor, Noha; Miladi, Noureddine (Routledge, 2020-11-30)
      This Handbook provides the first comprehensive reference book in English about the development of mass and social media in all Arab countries. Capturing the historical as well as current developments in the media scene, this collection maps the role of media in social and political movements. Contributors include specialists in the field from North America, Europe, and the Middle East. Each chapter provides an overview of the history, regulatory frameworks and laws governing the press, and socio-political functions of the media. While the geopolitical complexities of the region have been reflected in the expert analyses collectively, the focus is always the local context of each member state. All 37 chapters consider the specific historical, political and media trajectories in each country, to provide a contextual background and foundation for further study about single states or comparative analysis in two or more Arab states. Capturing significant technological developments and the widespread use of social media, this all-inclusive volume on Arab media is a key resource for students and scholars interested in journalism, media and Middle East studies.
    • Improving access to organ donor registration in general practice: a feasibility study

      Penn-Jones, Catrin Pedder; Papadopoulos, Chris; Randhawa, Gurch; Asghar, Zeeshan; (Royal College of General Practitioners, 2020-06-25)
      Background Organ donor registration helps guide decision making for families. UK general practice provides the facility to register on the NHS Organ Donor Register, but only to new patients. An intervention was developed to present a registration opportunity to existing patients in this setting. Aim To assess the feasibility and acceptability of an organ donation intervention implemented in UK general practice. Design and setting The intervention ran in a large practice in Luton in the UK, for 3 months in 2018. A single practice feasibility study was conducted using an embedded experimental mixed methods design. Method Staff were trained to ask patients in consultations if they wished to join the register, and leaflets and posters were displayed in the waiting room. Data on feasibility and acceptability were captured using SystmONE questionnaires, surveys, and focus groups. Results Over 3 months, in 12.4% of face-to-face consultations, patients were asked if they would like to join the register (812 of 6569), and 244 (30.0%) of these patients joined the register. Common reasons staff did not ask patients were due to telephone consultations, lack of time, and it not being appropriate. Nurses and healthcare assistants performed prompted choice more than doctors (23.4%, 17.1%, and 1.6% respectively). Certain clinic types, such as phlebotomy or routine clinics, facilitated asking compared to those where patients presented with unknown or more serious issues. Conclusion The intervention was found to be feasible and acceptable by some staff and patients. Feasibility criteria were met; therefore, the intervention can progress to further testing.
    • Knowledge and attitude of healthcare professionals to frailty screening in primary care: a systematic review protocol

      Okpechi, Ijeoma; Randhawa, Gurch; Hewson, David; University of Bedfordshire (BMJ Publishing Group, 2020-07-02)
      Introduction Frailty is an increasingly common condition in which physiological decline as a result of accumulated deficits renders older people more vulnerable to adverse outcomes. An increasing range of frailty screening programmes have been introduced in primary care to identify frail older people in order to deliver appropriate interventions. However, limited information on the knowledge and attitude of healthcare professionals (HCPs) with respect to frailty screening is known. The aim of this systematic review is to provide evidence on the knowledge and attitude of HCP in terms of frailty screening, and potentially identify barriers and facilitators to frailty screening to improve implementation of frailty screening in primary care. Methods/design A systematic review of qualitative research will be conducted. Databases searched will be MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO and Web of Science from January 2001 to August 2019. Methods will be reported based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Population, interest, context and study design methodology was used to develop inclusion and exclusion criteria with HCPs as population, frailty screening as interest and knowledge or attitude of HCPs to frailty screening as context. Studies with a qualitative methodology or a mixed-method design where the qualitative component is analysed separately will also be included. Quality appraisal will be carried out using the Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal tool for qualitative studies. Data will be extracted from each selected study with thematic framework analysis used to synthesise findings. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review does not require ethical approval as primary data will not be collected. The findings will be disseminated at conferences and in a relevant academic journal. This review will assist HCPs and relevant stakeholders to tackle the challenges of frailty screening in primary care. PROSPERO registration number CRD42019159007.
    • New intuitive metrics for diversity performance evaluation of multi-element antenna systems

      Papamichael, V.C.; Karadimas, Petros (Electromagnetics Academy, 2015-07-31)
      Diversity performance of multi-element antenna (MEA) systems is evaluated using several metrics. The most common are the diversity antenna gain (DAG), the effective diversity gain (EDG) and the actual diversity gain (ADG). These metrics calculate the performance by comparing the MEA system with the reference antenna at a fixed outage probability level, i.e., usually at 1% outage level. As fixed outage levels are just an indication of probability of occurrence of specific signal levels, they provide limited insight into realistic deep-fade cases. Thus, we introduce three novel metrics, namely, the fading mitigation gain (FMG), the reliability percentage (RP) and the generalized diversity antenna gain (GDAG) for characterizing diversity performance when deep fades take place in one or more of the diversity branches. Based on the aforementioned metrics, intuitive knowledge on the diversity performance of MEA systems is provided.
    • Quantisation feasibility and performance of RSS-based secret key extraction in VANETs

      Bottarelli, Mirko; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Ben Ismail, Dhouha Kbair; Karadimas, Petros; al-Khateeb, Haider; University of Bedfordshire; University of Wolverhampton; University of Glasgow (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-12-06)
      Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) has emerged as a unique implementation of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). These networks promise to increase road safety and improve the driving experience by exploiting recent advances in wireless technologies for both intra-vehicle and inter-vehicle communications. Physical layer security is a promising alternative approach to secure communication in VANETs where physical and applications' constraints encourage the use of lightweight and fast cryptographic algorithms. Our work focuses on the quantisation stage of the secret generation process, by reviewing existing schemes in the public domain and associated performance metrics. Evaluations are done through simulation with the aid of a wireless channel model which includes three-dimensional scattering and scatterers' mobility. Preliminary findings show that RSS-based algorithms do not perform efficiently in the proposed vehicular stochastic wireless model. Hence they are not able to satisfy the typical low latency required in safety-related broadcasting messaging. We conclude that more research is desirable to design protocols capable of taking advantage from the nodes' high-mobility and the consequent variability of both coherence intervals and level crossing rates, to further improve secret bit extraction throughput.
    • Token passing techniques to support real time communications on WTPN used for industrial control applications

      Karimireddy, Thanmayee; Zhang, Sijing; Reddy, Manideep; University of Bedfordshire; VIT University (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017-10-26)
      Wireless Token Passing Networks (WTPN) have gained significant attention in the recent times due to the ability of these networks to overcome the challenge of channel access sharing faced by the wireless networks supporting real-time communications. A WTPN is specified as the network implementing token passing techniques in order to share the wireless channel access medium. In the token passing techniques, only the wireless node holding the token acquires the chance to access the channel, which thereby helps in offering guaranteed channel access time to the nodes connected in the WTPN. The efficiency of token passing techniques in offering guaranteed channel access when compared with master-slave and polling mechanisms resulted in the development of several token passing techniques. This paper intends in surveying and simulating the state-of-art token passing techniques that are applicable for supporting real-time communications over WTPN used for industrial control applications. The theoretical and practical comparison of the token passing techniques presented in this paper can help the practitioners in choosing the suitable token passing technique.
    • Timely and efficient multihop broadcast scheme for reliable inter-vehicular communication

      Muhammad, Shehu; Zhang, Sijing; Dyo, Vladimir; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019-07-04)
      Majority of vehicular safety applications such as collision avoidance and blind spot warnings require a limited delay for a message to be transmitted from the abnormal vehicle to the endangered vehicles to avert the occurrence of the accident. This paper proposed a Timely and Efficient Multihop Broadcast (TEMB) Scheme, which combines an adaptive forwarding strategy that depends on the estimated transmission range between moving vehicles on the road. The scheme further combines ARQ with an adaptive Forward Error Correction system to minimise the number of retransmissions while ensuring the reliability of message delivery to the intended recipient. Modifications on the IEEE802.11p data and acknowledgement (feedback) frames are presented. The scheme has been evaluated and compared with the Fast Broadcast scheme, the results have shown that the TEMB scheme has outperformed the Fast Broadcast scheme for reliable and timely message delivery among the moving vehicles on the motorway.
    • The practice of solidarity through the arts: inter-relations and shared moments of creation in Share My Table

      Evans, Catrin; (Royal Conservatoire of Scotland, 2019-07-14)
      In 2017 the Scottish Refugee Council and Tramway embarked on a collaborative participatory arts project seeking to explore the upsurge in media coverage around issues of migration. Share My Table took a multi-artform approach, with performance and visual art providing the foundation for the exploration. This article, written from the position of artist researcher, shifts the lens away from the artistic or performance outputs of this participatory project, and instead reflects and theorises the working practices which emerged throughout the Share My Table project. By drawing on bell hooks’s work on practices of freedom (1994), and James Thompson’s call for a re-focusing towards affect, beauty and care (2011, 2015), the author argues for participatory practice’s radical potential. Ultimately, the how of participatory work, the careful and ethical attention on the doing can activate solidarity in relation to the asylum regime.
    • An adaptive error control approach for reliable industrial automation networks

      Karimireddy, Thanmayee; Zhang, Sijing; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-10-24)
      The need of developing reliable industrial automation networks has increased to a great extent due to the transmission of hard real time control packets over error prone wireless channels. This paper focuses on error control approaches to satisfy strict reliability requirements of industrial automation control applications. In this paper, some of the state of art error control approaches are critically analysed and a novel adaptive error control approach ASM-HARQ is proposed. ASM-HARQ is an adaptive HARQ approach that uses both FEC and ARQ to recover the errors present in each encoding unit which is sub-MSDU. Simulation results show that ASM-HARQ outperforms other MAC layer error control approaches through its ability to satisfy reliability requirements even for time critical applications.
    • Optimization of real-time transmission reliability on wireless industrial automation networks

      Karimireddy, Thanmayee; Zhang, Sijing; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019-07-01)
      Reliable transmission of the control packets is one of the key requirements of deploying an Industrial Wireless Network (IWN) for automation purposes. The use of error-prone wireless channel, transmission of control packets having hard real-time traffic over IWN have made reliable transmission assurance highly challenging. This paper intends in addressing this challenge through reliability optimization of the hard real-time traffic transmitted over IWN. ReliaMAC is a novel scheme that is proposed to support reliable transmission of hard real-time traffic using redundancy bits added to each double MAC frame. Optimization of transmission reliability is used to identify the optimum number of nodes in an IWN that can support reliable transmission of the hard real-time traffic to a maximum extent. Network simulation results revealed the effectiveness of ReliaMAC in improving reliability of hard real-time communication on IWNs.
    • A hybrid method for secure and reliable transmission on industrial automation and control networks in industry 4.0

      Karimireddy, Thanmayee; Zhang, Sijing; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019-11-11)
      Industry 4.0 initiated the need of networking the factory automation, control and manufacturing facilities by forming industrial automation and control networks. These industrial networks transmit control packets with stringent security and reliability requirements. In this paper, a hybrid method is proposed to ensure secure and reliable transmission of the packets on these industrial automation and control networks. This method is based on hybrid cryptography and reliable properties are incorporated into it to ensure both secure and reliable delivery of the packets to the receiver. Evaluation of the proposed method is undertaken in this report based on the simulation studies.
    • An efficient interference mitigation approach via quasi-access in two-tier macro-femto heterogeneous networks

      Xiao, Zhu; Li, Zhongfeng; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Enjie; Yi, Kechu (John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2013-12-16)
      Two-tier heterogeneous networks, where the current cellular networks, that is, macrocells, are overlapped with a large number of randomly distributed femtocells, can potentially bring significant bene fits to spectral utilization and system capacity. In a two-tier network, the cross-tier interference needs to be handled properly. Unlike the downlink interference, the uplink (UL) interference at femtocell caused by macrocell user equipment (MUE) has not been addressed sufficiently. When an MUE is located near the coverage of femtocell, its transmit power may cause UL interference to the femtocell receiver, especially for the closed subscriber group femtocells that share the entire frequency spectrum with macrocell. We propose a novel quasi-access strategy, which allows the interfering MUE to connect with the interfered femtocell access point (FAP) while only via UL. It can significantly alleviate the UL interference at the FAP as well as its neighbors, in the meantime, benefit the macro-tier.
    • Estimation of collision probability in a saturated vehicular Ad-Hoc networks

      Eze, Elias Chinedum; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-10-26)
      It is envisioned that WAVE standard, the technology for future DSRC communication in vehicular environments will support vehicular communication networks in order to provide safety and infotainment services as part of ITS. However, the defined parameter set for the EDCA used in 802.11p is capable of prioritizing messages, and when number of vehicles sending AC3 increases, packet collision probability will undeniably increase significantly. Since transmission collisions can only be detected after a transmission if at all, high percentage of packet collision probability will lead to many dead channel access times with no useful data exchange. We proposed CODER scheme which uses network coding to increase packet content and mitigate the problem of high collision probability which is inherent in WAVE standard by minimizing contention. Results of the theoretical analysis and simulation experiments show that CODER scheme has a performance gain over WAVE in terms of reduced collision rate.
    • Message dissemination reliability in vehicular networks

      Eze, Elias Chinedum; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-11-02)
      Prior to wide deployment of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) in public motorways, amongst the key challenges that must be adequately resolved is safety message dissemination reliability in the presence of error-prone wireless channel, propagation delays, extremely dynamic network topology, frequent network fragmentation and high vehicle mobility. In this paper, we investigate the application of network coding concept to achieve improved message dissemination reliability as well as increased bandwidth efficiency for efficient vehicular communication system. In particular, we proposed an efficient error recovery scheme which employs network coding concept to increase safety message broadcast reliability with a minimized number of encoded packet retransmissions. The benefits of the proposed scheme over simple error correction based on retransmission are clearly shown with detailed theoretical analysis and further validated with simulation experiments.
    • A prostate cancer care process example of using data from internet of things

      Effiok, Emmanuel; Liu, Enjie; Yu, Hong Qing; Hitchcock, Jonathan James; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-12-28)
      In this research, we use prostate cancer as an example to describe the idea of using Internet of Things (IoT) technology as part of the care process for chronic diseases. IoT provides ways to monitor and collect critical risk elements data that relate to the causes and development of the disease and its comorbidities, on a real time basis over a long period of time by sensing and communication capacity. The risk models and their evidences are gathered from the literature, and they will be semantically described to support the knowledge to be used by other applications. The personal data collected by IoT devices combined with risk models will provide individual risk prediction. The prediction can be used by patients in self-managing their chronic disease, and also help medical professionals to take in-sight look into the progression of the disease for the individual patient, in order to prescribe the best suitable care plan and treatment.
    • Improving reliability of message broadcast over internet of vehicles (IoVs)

      Eze, Elias Chinedum; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-12-28)
      With the envisioned era of Internet of Things (IoTs), all aspects of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) will be connected to improve transport safety, relieve traffic congestion, reduce air pollution, enhance the comfort of transportation and significantly reduce road accidents. In IoVs, regular exchange of current position, direction, velocity, etc., enables mobile vehicles to predict an upcoming accident and alert the human drivers in time or proactively take precautionary actions to avoid the accident. The actualization of this concept requires the use of channel access protocols that can guarantee reliable and timely broadcast of safety messages. This paper investigates the application of network coding concept to increase content of every transmission and achieve improved broadcast reliability with less number of retransmission. In particular, we proposed Code Aided Retransmission-based Error Recovery (CARER) scheme, introduced an RTB/CTB handshake to overcome hidden node problem and reduce packets collision rate. The performance of CARER is clearly shown with detailed theoretical analysis and further validated with simulation experiments.