A study on psychosocial and cultural factors influencing early retirement among Saudi female teachers
AuthorsAlshaer, Hanouf Abdulrahman
Subject Categories::X300 Academic studies in Education
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AbstractBackground: Early retirement among female teachers is concerning education policy-makers in Saudi Arabia, due to the risk of losing the balance among teachers in terms of experience and it is against the current reform movement which aims at empowering women and increasing females’ participation in the workplace. Teaching can be deemed as stressful job and the risk of burnout is high, which could affect teachers’ decision to leave the profession. Aims: Investigate number of factors such as Neuroticism, mental health, social support and cultural values, may play a role in teachers’ ability to cope with work related stress and burnout. Method: The study consisted mixed methodologies. The qualitative data were collected first, using a semi-structured interview which included metaphor inventories which was conducted among 40 teachers, 20 newly employed and 20 early retired. Then, the quantitative study was conducted, using seven pre-existing questionnaires among 542 teachers from four different groups (NE, no intent, with intent and ER teachers). Results and Conclusion: The findings showed that ER teachers described different aspects of the job by using metaphors relating to darkness, being lost, burning, being broken or being locked in whereas NE teachers described teaching using more positive views such as high position and bright future. In addition, work related stress and burnout are the best predictors of early retirement among female teachers along with years of experience, work family conflict, psychological distress. In addition, it showed that Saudi female teachers who have applied, or intend to apply, for early retirement have highest burnout levels compared with the other groups. The metaphors supported the quantitative results in terms of exploring other sources of workrelated stress and burnout among the respondents who had negative feelings about their work experience, among which are restricted roles in the educational system, bureaucratic culture and multiple roles. However, the study has investigated that social support and neuroticism moderate the relationship between work stress and early retirement status, gender role moderates the relationship between burnout and early retirement status and work family conflict moderate the relationship between gender role attitudes and retirement status. These findings indicate that interventions of significant factors need to be considered by the government and policy-makers, among which are: bureaucracy and routine, restricted roles, raising awareness on mental health and empowering women to have their choice over their career by raising awareness on mental health in the society, in order to improve the work environment to reduce the numbers of female teachers applying for early retirement.
CitationAlshaer, A. (2019) 'A Study on Psychosocial and Cultural Factors Influencing Early Retirement Among Saudi Female Teachers'. PhD thesis. University of Bedfordshire.
PublisherUniversity of Bedfordshire
TypeThesis or dissertation
DescriptionA thesis submitted to the University of Bedfordshire, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
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