Effectiveness of interventions to manage difficulties with breastfeeding for mothers of infants under six months with growth faltering: a systematic review update
AffiliationIndian Institute of Public Health Gandhinagar
Christian Medical College
University of Bedfordshire
MetadataShow full item record
Abstract(1) Background: The current evidence on management of infants under six months (u6m) with growth faltering is limited and of low quality. This review aimed at updating an existing review to inform the WHO guideline update on prevention and management of growth faltering in infants u6m. The objective is to synthesise evidence on interventions to manage breastfeeding difficulties in mothers or caregivers of infants u6m with growth faltering to improve breastfeeding practices and breastmilk intake. (2) Methods: We searched PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library from December 2018 to December 2021 for experimental studies. Using RoB 2.0 and ROBINS-I tools, we assessed study quality and results were synthesised narratively. Using the GRADE approach, we assessed the quality of evidence for four outcome domains-breastfeeding (critical), anthropometric (important), mortality (important), and morbidity (important). (3) Results: We identified seven studies, conducted among neonates (mainly preterm, n = 14 to 607), and assessed the following interventions: (a) non-nutritive sucking (NNS) on breast (n = 2) and (b) alternative supplemental feeding techniques (n = 5, cup feeding, spoon feeding, supplemental feeding tube device, and syringe feeding), and reported breastfeeding and anthropometric outcomes. None of the studies reported mortality and morbidity outcomes. The reported breastfeeding outcomes included LATCH (Latch, Audible swallowing, Type of nipple, Comfort, Hold) total score, PIBBS (Preterm Infants Breastfeeding Behaviour Scale) total score, EBF (exclusive breastfeeding) at various time points and time to transition to full breastfeeding, and reported anthropometric outcomes included weight gain and weight at different time points. Studies had 'serious' indirectness and 'serious' to 'very serious' risks of bias. From the limited studies we found, NNS on breast compared to NNS on finger may have some benefits on PIBBS total score; NNS on breast compared to NNS on pacifier may have some benefits on EBF at discharge; and cup feeding compared to bottle feeding may have some benefits on EBF at discharge, at three months and at six months. (4) Conclusions: Evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to manage breastfeeding difficulties in mothers or caregivers of infants u6m with growth faltering to improve breastfeeding practices and increase breastmilk intake is 'limited' and of 'low' to 'very low' quality. As the majority of the infants in the included studies were neonates, no new recommendations can be made for infants from one to six months due to lack of evidence in this population. We need more studies targeting infants from one to six months of age. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022309001).
CitationMohandas S, Rana R, Sirwani B, Kirubakaran R, Puthussery S (2023) 'Effectiveness of interventions to manage difficulties with breastfeeding for mothers of infants under six months with growth faltering: a systematic review update', Nutrients, 15 (4), 988
PubMed Central IDPMC9961185
SponsorsThis research was funded by the World Health Organization (WHO), grant number APW202806146 and the APC was funded by the WHO.
The following license files are associated with this item:
- Creative Commons
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Green - can archive pre-print and post-print or publisher's version/PDF