Artificial intelligence robot safety: a conceptual framework and research agenda based on new institutional economics and social media
robot operating system
culturally competent robots
Subject Categories::H671 Robotics
MetadataShow full item record
Other TitlesCurrent State of Art in Artificial Intelligence and Ubiquitous Cities
AbstractAccording to "Huang's law", Artificial intelligence (AI)-related hardware increases in power 4 to 10 times per year. AI can benefit various stages of real estate development, from planning and construction to occupation and demolition. However, Hong Kong's legal system is currently behind when it comes to technological abilities, while the field of AI safety in built environments is still in its infancy. Negligent design and production processes, irresponsible data management, questionable deployment, algorithm training, sensor design and/or manufacture, unforeseen consequences from multiple data inputs, and erroneous AI operation based on sensor or remote data can all lead to accidents. Yet, determining how legal rules should apply to liability for losses caused by AI systems takes time. Traditional product liability laws can apply for some systems, meaning that the manufacturer will bear responsibility for a malfunctioning part. That said, more complex cases will undoubtedly have to come before the courts to determine whether something unsafe should be the manufacturer's fault or the individual's fault, as well as who should receive the subsequent financial and/or non-financial compensation, etc. Since AI adoption has an inevitable relationship with safety concerns, this project intends to shed light on responsible AI development and usage, with a specific focus on AI safety laws, policies, and people's perceptions. We will conduct a systematic literature review via the PRISMA approach to study the academic perspectives of AI safety policies and laws and data-mining publicly available content on social media platforms such as Twitter, YouTube, and Reddit to study societal concerns about AI safety in built environments. We will then research court cases and laws related to AI safety in 61 jurisdictions, in addition to policies that have been implemented globally. Two case studies on AI suppliers that sell AI hardware and software to users of built environment will also be included. Another two case studies will be conducted on built environment companies (a contractor and Hong Kong International Airport) that use AI safety tools. The results obtained from social media, court cases, legislation, and policies will be discussed with local and international experts via a workshop, then released to the public to provide the international community and Hong Kong with unique policy and legal orientations.
CitationLi RYM, Crabbe MJC (2022) 'Artificial intelligence robot safety: a conceptual framework and research agenda based on new institutional economics and social media', in Li RYM, Chau KW, Ho DCW (ed(s).). Current State of Art in Artificial Intelligence and Ubiquitous Cities, Singapore: Springer pp.41-61.
SponsorsGrant from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. UGC/IIDS15/E01/19).
The following license files are associated with this item:
- Creative Commons
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Test moment determination design in active robot learningZhao, Danchen (University of Bedfordshire, 2009-11)In recent years, service robots have been increasingly used in people's daily live. These robots are autonomous or semiautonomous and are able to cooperate with their human users. Active robot learning (ARL) is an approach to the development of beliefs for the robots on their users' intention and preference, which is needed by the robots to facilitate the seamless cooperation with humans. This approach allows a robot to perform tests on its users and to build up the high-order beliefs according to the users' responses. This study carried out primary research on designing the test moment determination component in ARL framework. The test moment determination component is used to decide right moment of taking a test action. In this study, an action plan theory was suggested to synthesis actions into a sequence, that is, an action plan, for a given task. All actions are defined in a special format of precondition, action, post-condition and testing time. Forward chaining reasoning was introduced to establish connection between the actions and to synthesis individual actions into an action plan, corresponding to the given task. A simulation environment was set up where a human user and a service robot were modelled using MATLAB. Fuzzy control was employed for controlling the robot to carry out the cooperative action. In order to examine the effect of test moment determination component, simulations were performed to execute a scenario where a robot passes on an object to a human user. The simulation results show that an action plan can be formed according to provided conditions and executed by simulated models properly. Test actions were taken at the moment determined by the test moment determination component to find the human user's intention.
Embedding ethics in the design of culturally competent socially assistive robotsBattistuzzi, Linda; Sgorbissa, Antonio; Papadopoulos, Chris; Papadopoulos, Irena; Koulouglioti, Christina; University of Genoa; University of Bedfordshire; Middlesex University (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019-01-07)Research focusing on the development of socially assistive robots (SARs) for the care of older adults has grown in recent years, prompting a great deal of ethical analysis and reflection on the future of SARs in caring roles. Much of this ethical thinking, however, has taken place far from the settings where technological innovation is practiced. Different frameworks have been proposed to bridge this gap and enable researchers to handle the ethical dimension of technology from within the design and development process, including Value Sensitive Design (VSD). VSD has been defined as a 'theoretically grounded approach to the design of technology that accounts for human values in a principled and comprehensive manner throughout the design process'. Inspired in part by VSD, we have developed a process geared towards embedding ethics at the core of CARESSES, an international multidisciplinary project that aims to design the first culturally competent SAR for the care of older adults. Here we describe that process, which included extracting key ethical concepts from relevant ethical guidelines and applying those concepts to scenarios that describe how the CARESSES robot will interact with individuals belonging to different cultures. This approach highlights the ethical implications of the robot's behavior early in the design process, thus enabling researchers to identify and engage with ethical problems proactively.
A statistical approach to a verb vector task classifierJiang, ZiPeng (University of Bedfordshire, 2010-11)How to enable a service robot to understand its user's intention is a hot topic of research today. Based on its understanding, the robot can coordinate and adjust its behaviours to provide desired assistance and services to the user as a capable partner. Active Robot Learning (ARL) is an approach to the development of the understanding of human intention. The task action bank is part of the ARL which can store task categories. In this approach, a robot actively performs test actions in order to obtain its user's intention from the user's response to the action. This thesis presents an approach to verbs clustering based on the basic action required of the robot, using a statistical method. A parser is established to process a corpus and analyse the probability of the verb feature vector, for example when the user says "bring me a cup of coffee", this means the same as "give me a cup of coffee". This parser could identify similar verbs between "bring" and "give" with the statistical method. Experimental results show the collocation between semantically related verbs, which can be further utilised to establish a test action bank for Active Robot Learning (ARL).