Single enrichment systems possibly underestimate both exposures and biological effects of organic pollutants from drinking water
Andersen, Melvin E.
Crabbe, M. James C.
Subject Categories::H122 Water Quality Control
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AbstractComprehensive enrichment of contaminants in drinking water is an essential step for accurately determining exposure levels of contaminants and testing their biological effects. Traditional methods using a single absorbent for enriching contaminants in water might not be adequate for complicated matrices with different physical-chemical profiles . To examine this hypothesis, we used an integrated enrichment system that had three sequential stages-XAD-2 resin, poly (styrene–divinylbenzene) and activated charcoal to capture organic pollutants and disinfection by-products (DBPs) from drinking water in Shanghai. Un-adsorbed Organic Compounds in Eluates (UOCEs) named UOCEs-A, -B, and-C following each adsorption stage were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectromet ry to evaluate adsorption efficiency of the enrichment system . Meanwhile, biological effects such as cytotoxicity, effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and glutathione (GSH) depletion were determined in human LO2 cells to identify potential adverse effects on exposure to low dose contaminants. We found that poly-styrene–divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) and activated charcoal (AC) could still partly collect UOCEs-A and-B that the upper adsorption column incompletely captured, and that potential carcinogens like 2- naphthamine were present in all eluates. UOCEs-A at (1-4000), UOCEs-B at (1000-4000), and UOCEs-C at (2400-4000) folds of the actual concentrations had significant cytotoxicity to LO2 cells. Additionally, ROS and GSH change in cells treated with UOCEs indicated the potential for long-term effects of exposure to some mixtures of contaminants such as DBPs at low doses . These results suggested that an enriching system with a single adsorbent would underestimate the exposure level of pollutants and the biological effects of organic pollutants from drinking water. Effective methods for pollutants’ enrichment and capture of drinking water should be given priority in future studies on accurate evaluation of biological effects exposed to mixed pollutants via drinking water.
CitationYang L, Zhou Y, Chen L, Chen H, Liu W, Zheng W, Andersen ME, Zhang Y, Hu Y, Crabbe MJC, Qu W (2022) 'Single enrichment systems possibly underestimate both exposures and biological effects of organic pollutants from drinking water', Chemosphere, 292, 133496.
SponsorsThis research was supported by grants from National Natural Science Fund Committee [No. 81630088, 81930094 & 81325017], Changjiang Scholars Program, Chinese Ministry of Education [T2014089], Shanghai Municipal Health Bureau Three Years Action Plan [No. 08GWD14], and Leadership Project [No. 2017] Leadership Project of Shanghai Municipal Government, National Key Basic Research Program of China [No. 2017YFC1600200], and Natural High- Technology R&D 863 Program [No. 2013AA065204].
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