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dc.contributor.authorRegmi, Krishna
dc.contributor.authorLwin, Cho Mar
dc.date.accessioned2021-04-19T08:02:55Z
dc.date.available2021-04-18T00:00:00Z
dc.date.available2021-04-19T08:02:55Z
dc.date.issued2021-04-17
dc.identifier.citationRegmi K, Lwin CM (2021) 'Factors associated with the implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions for reducing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review', International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18 (4274), pp.1-26.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1661-7827
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/ijerph18084274
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10547/624906
dc.description.abstractThere has been much discussion recently about the importance of implementing nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to protect the public from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) infection. Different governments across the world have adopted NPIs (e.g., social distancing, quarantine, isolation, lockdowns, curfews, travel restrictions, closures of schools and colleges). Two fundamental strategies, namely a strict containment strategy—also called suppression strategy— and a mitigation strategy have been adopted in different countries, mainly to reduce the reproduction number (R) to below one and hence to reduce case numbers to low levels or eliminate humanto-human transmission, as well as to use NPIs to interrupt transmission completely and to reduce the health impact of epidemics, respectively. However, the adoption of these NPI strategies is varied and the factors impacting NPI are inconsistent and unclear. This study, therefore, aimed to review the factors associated with the implementation of NPIs (social distancing, social isolation and quarantine) for reducing COVID-19. Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched for published and unpublished studies, undertaking a systematic search of: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine, COVID-19 Research, WHO database on COVID-19, and Google Scholar. Thirtythree studies were included in the study. Seven descriptive themes emerged on enablers and barriers to NPIs: the positive impact of NPIs, effective public health interventions, positive change in people’s behaviour and concerns about COVID-19, the role of mass media, physical and psychological impacts, and ethnicity/age associated with COVID-19. This study has highlighted that the effectiveness of NPIs in isolation is likely to be limited, therefore, a combination of multiple measures e.g., SD, isolation and quarantine, and workplace distancing appeared more effective in reducing COVID-19. Studies suggest that targeted approaches alongside social distancing might be the way forward, and more acceptable. Further research to promote country- and context-specific adoption of NPIs to deliver public health measures is needed. Studies comparing the effectiveness of interventions and strategies will help provide more evidence for future pandemics.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was not supported by any financial granten_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherMDPIen_US
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/8/4274en_US
dc.rightsGreen - can archive pre-print and post-print or publisher's version/PDF
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/*
dc.subjectsocial distancingen_US
dc.subjectisolationen_US
dc.subjectNPIsen_US
dc.subjectSARS-CoV-2en_US
dc.subjectnon-pharmaceutical interventionsen_US
dc.subjectquarantineen_US
dc.subjectCOVID-19 pandemicen_US
dc.subjectCOVID-19en_US
dc.subjectsystematic reviewen_US
dc.subjectSubject Categories::H123 Public Health Engineeringen_US
dc.titleFactors associated with the implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions for reducing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic reviewen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.eissn1660-4601
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Bedfordshireen_US
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Dundeeen_US
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Medicine Mandalayen_US
dc.identifier.journalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Healthen_US
dc.date.updated2021-04-19T07:58:38Z
dc.description.noteopen access


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