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dc.contributor.authorErasmus, Brittanyen
dc.date.accessioned2019-07-01T11:50:30Z
dc.date.available2019-07-01T11:50:30Z
dc.date.issued2014-04
dc.identifier.citationErasmus, B. (2014) 'The effects of contrast water therapy and hot water immersion on the signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage following a downhill run'. MSc thesis. University of Bedfordshire.en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10547/623341
dc.descriptionA thesis submitted to the University of Bedfordshire, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science by Research.en
dc.description.abstractEccentric exercise typically induces muscle damage that can cause detrimental effects on an athlete’s performance. Therefore, it is vital to find a recovery strategy that will increase the rate of recovery, alleviate the signs and symptoms associated with exercise-induced muscle damage, and return the athlete to peak performance levels as quickly as possible. Water immersion, in the form of cold water immersion, hot water immersion and contrast water therapy are becoming increasingly popular interventions used to alleviate the signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage and improve recovery after eccentric exercise. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of contrast water therapy and hot water immersion on the signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage using indirect markers of muscle damage. These markers of muscle damage include; perceived muscle soreness, pressure pain threshold, squat jump, range of motion, flexibility, creatine kinase and limb circumference and are used in this study as a measure of the signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage. The purpose of Chapter 4 (Study 1) was to determine the reproducibility of these indirect markers of muscle damage. Overall, no systematic bias was found for any of the variables apart from creatine kinase. However, several performance and functional measurement tools; creatine kinase, flexibility, perceived soreness and pressure pain threshold exhibited low reproducibility, whilst creatine kinase, range of motion, perceived muscle soreness, limb circumference, and pressure pain threshold demonstrated good to excellent reliability however, squat jump demonstrated good xv reliability. With several of the indirect markers of muscle damage demonstrating poor to low reliability, discretion is advised when using these measures to detect systematic change, as the low reproducibility may obscure the true experimental results. The purpose of Chapter 5 (Study 2) was to determine the effects of contrast water therapy, and hot water immersion on the signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage. There is a plethora of studies aimed at determining the effects of cold water immersion and contrast water therapy on the signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage (Bailey et al., 2007, Eston and Peter., 1999a, Halson et al., 2008., Ingram et al., 2009, Montgomery et al., 2008, Vaile et al., 2008b). However, limited studies have determined the effects of hot water immersion alone (Kuligowski et al., 1998). All participants in this study completed a muscle damaging protocol which consisted of a 40 minute downhill run. Subsequently, participants were either treated with hot water immersion, contrast water therapy, or no water immersion for 40 minutes at 0 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours post downhill run. Perceived muscle soreness, pressure pain threshold, squat jump, range of motion, flexibility, limb circumference and creatine kinase were measured on five separate occasions (pre-downhill run, immediately post downhill run, 24, 48 and 72 hours post downhill run). Results demonstrated that contrast water therapy had an improved effect on alleviating several signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage. Briefly, peak decrements at 24 hours in creatine kinase, pressure pain threshold, flexibility, squat jump, and perceived muscle soreness were found in the hot water immersion group and contrast water immersion groups, where as peak decrements at 48 hours for pressure pain threshold, flexibility, and squat jump were found in the control group.
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherUniversity of Bedfordshireen
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/*
dc.subjectreproducibilityen
dc.subjectwater immersionen
dc.subjectcontrast water therapyen
dc.subjectcold water immersionen
dc.subjecthot water immersionen
dc.subjectexercise-induced muscle damageen
dc.subjecteccentric exerciseen
dc.subjectC600 Sports Scienceen
dc.titleThe effects of contrast water therapy and hot water immersion on the signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage following a downhill runen
dc.typeThesis or dissertationen
dc.type.qualificationnamePhDen_GB
dc.type.qualificationlevelMasters Degreeen
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Bedfordshireen
html.description.abstractEccentric exercise typically induces muscle damage that can cause detrimental effects on an athlete’s performance. Therefore, it is vital to find a recovery strategy that will increase the rate of recovery, alleviate the signs and symptoms associated with exercise-induced muscle damage, and return the athlete to peak performance levels as quickly as possible. Water immersion, in the form of cold water immersion, hot water immersion and contrast water therapy are becoming increasingly popular interventions used to alleviate the signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage and improve recovery after eccentric exercise. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of contrast water therapy and hot water immersion on the signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage using indirect markers of muscle damage. These markers of muscle damage include; perceived muscle soreness, pressure pain threshold, squat jump, range of motion, flexibility, creatine kinase and limb circumference and are used in this study as a measure of the signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage. The purpose of Chapter 4 (Study 1) was to determine the reproducibility of these indirect markers of muscle damage. Overall, no systematic bias was found for any of the variables apart from creatine kinase. However, several performance and functional measurement tools; creatine kinase, flexibility, perceived soreness and pressure pain threshold exhibited low reproducibility, whilst creatine kinase, range of motion, perceived muscle soreness, limb circumference, and pressure pain threshold demonstrated good to excellent reliability however, squat jump demonstrated good xv reliability. With several of the indirect markers of muscle damage demonstrating poor to low reliability, discretion is advised when using these measures to detect systematic change, as the low reproducibility may obscure the true experimental results. The purpose of Chapter 5 (Study 2) was to determine the effects of contrast water therapy, and hot water immersion on the signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage. There is a plethora of studies aimed at determining the effects of cold water immersion and contrast water therapy on the signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage (Bailey et al., 2007, Eston and Peter., 1999a, Halson et al., 2008., Ingram et al., 2009, Montgomery et al., 2008, Vaile et al., 2008b). However, limited studies have determined the effects of hot water immersion alone (Kuligowski et al., 1998). All participants in this study completed a muscle damaging protocol which consisted of a 40 minute downhill run. Subsequently, participants were either treated with hot water immersion, contrast water therapy, or no water immersion for 40 minutes at 0 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours post downhill run. Perceived muscle soreness, pressure pain threshold, squat jump, range of motion, flexibility, limb circumference and creatine kinase were measured on five separate occasions (pre-downhill run, immediately post downhill run, 24, 48 and 72 hours post downhill run). Results demonstrated that contrast water therapy had an improved effect on alleviating several signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage. Briefly, peak decrements at 24 hours in creatine kinase, pressure pain threshold, flexibility, squat jump, and perceived muscle soreness were found in the hot water immersion group and contrast water immersion groups, where as peak decrements at 48 hours for pressure pain threshold, flexibility, and squat jump were found in the control group.


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