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The (in)visibility of Arab women in political journalismWhile the expansion of the Arab news and media industries over the past two decades has provided unprecedented opportunities for women to access and succeed in the media field, journalists are still not expected to question the political order. Many women have not managed to fend off the newsroom’s discrimination against them because women are often expected to serve as positive role models and representatives of their country, reflecting a modern image of the nation, instead of challenging the government and championing the social reforms so acutely needed. Arab women journalists are generally expected to support rather than challenge the patriarchal order in times of political turbulence, in order to preserve the perceived social stability provided by adhering to the status quo. Those few who defy the status quo may risk putting their future career prospects in jeopardy or be forced to abandon the high-status political beat which is largely dominated by men journalists. This chapter discusses some of these challenges faced by Arab women journalists and demonstrates how recent turmoil and repercussions against political reforms in many Arab countries have exacerbated the challenges.
Working-class women's education in Huddersfield: a case study of the female educational institute library, 1856-1857The Huddersfield Female Educational Institute claimed to be the first in England established for working-class women. It had close ties to the men’s Mechanics’ Institute, and its origins lie in that nineteenth-century movement for British working-class education. The article adds to existing research on gender and library use by examining the factors that shaped working-class women’s education in the 1850s. Using the Female Institute’s library records from 1856 and 1857, the authors analyze the borrowing habits of its members. They compare the origins of the Female Institute with its male equivalent and demonstrate how middle-class definitions of working-class masculinity and femininity shaped education.