• Activating media, memory and resistances: Where were you in 1992?

      Egbe, Amanda; Novakovic, Rastko (2018-07-04)
      This paper will bring to the fore the resisting character of moving image materials situated as tactical and strategic, through their activation by archival and media practices. Where Were You in 1992? is a multi-platform time-based project that contends with the technologies and practices of activism. Starting from the anti-racist struggle in the UK and the resistance to ethno-nationalism in Yugoslavia, it explores the legacy of European 'liberalism', ‘multiculturalism’ and ‘social cohesion’. It contrasts these with notions of solidarity, anti-racism, and anti-authoritarianism. It gathers hitherto unseen or forgotten testimonies, still and moving images, minutes, leaflets, banners and working notes from individuals and organisations. The project uses the open source archive and notation platform pan.do/ra, and an archive established at the MayDay Rooms archive in London. The paper is concerned with how to mobilise audio-visual materials, testimony and metadata to investigate a global historical situation and map parallels between the social spaces of grassroots activism of the 1990s. Specifically the paper will focus on how specific moments of differing scale, such as the shift between analogue and digital (longue durée) on one hand, and the subjective description of political actions (historical events) on the other hand can be brought together in montage.
    • Animating film theory [book review]

      Egbe, Amanda (MIT Press - Journals, 2015-05-18)
      Review of 'Animating Film Theory' edited by Karen Beckman. Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 2014. 376 pp., illus. ISBN: 9780822356523.
    • Books and other media

      Weedon, Alexis (Cambridge University Press, 2019-06-05)
      This chapter tells how in the twentieth century it was to the book industry that the film, radio, television and later media industries turned for stories, scripts, ideas, formats and all forms of creative content. The visual culture which arose in the nineteenth century became the inspiration for the new industries. Graphic magazines with their lithographs and etchings were the first visualisations of characters and storyline and sometimes formed the source material for the mis-en-scene of the silent movies. The new developments in radio, film and tlevision opened up larger audiences for authors and added to their potential revenue streams.  As subsidiary rights proliferated through the growth of new media formats, authors set up companies to control and exploit their intellectual properties.  While the BBC sought to avoid direct competition with the book trade, the trend in other media companies though the century was through acquisition to exploit its content across media. So the electronic media appropriated the book’s core values taking access to education, information, and entertainment beyond the walls of the library or schoolroom into the living room as the television set, and then the personal computer, entered the home. Yet the book retained its status and at the end of the century book publishing in Britain remained an essential part of an interconnected communications system for the commodification of ideas and cultural expressions.
    • Edited special issue on the film Ocho Apellidos Vascos (Eight Basque Names), International Journal of Iberian Studies

      Larrea, Carlota (Intellect, 2018-11-24)
      An edited issue about this romantic comedy which broke box office records in Spain. Including an introduction and four articles by international scholars examining post-ETA poetics, elements of place and nation branding, performative politics of marriage, and simulacrum and hyperreality in the sequel to the film. International Journal of Iberian Studies', 30 (3), pp.155-228.
    • The ethics and intimacies of moving images

      Egbe, Amanda (2016-11-07)
      Firstly consider a way of thinking about the relationships between images as constituted through a media archaeological approach.This archaeology provides a foundation to think about how moving images are duplicated/reproduced. That is it becomes a concern for how moving images constitute multiple modes of reality through the process of duplication, seen through the variable ways in which the optical printer has been utilised as an archival tool, a materialist instrument and tool of special effects. It then reflects upon Jakob von Uexkull’s notion of umwelt to consider an ecology of images, as a problematising practice to allow for the reading of moving images as both apparatus and content overcoming the dichotomy between technological and cultural readings of the moving image. This is done with recourse to Aby Warburg’s assemblage practice of the Mnemosyne Atlas project, but is not the subject of this paper. The paper further problematizes this notion of the relations of moving images as being an ethical relationship. By suggesting that notions of Levinas’s ethics in relation to this tentative practice of moving image archival practice, can illuminate how moving image practices, in their duplication can be perceived beyond their instrumentalising, in their aspect of technological apparatus, but rather as a co-constitution of filmmaker, apparatus and viewer constituting realities.
    • Film adaptation for knowing audiences: analysing fan on-line responses to the end of Breaking Dawn – Part 2 (2012)

      Pearce, Samantha; Weedon, Alexis; University of Bedfordshire (2017-11-30)
      Critics of film adaptations of literary works have historically evaluated the success or failure of the movie on the grounds of its fidelity to the original book. In contrast popular arguments for medium specificity have questioned whether fidelity is possible when adapting one medium to another. This article follows recent academic work which has focused awareness on the processes of adaptation by examining evidence of reading and viewing experience in online and social media forums.      The broader research project explored the online Twilight fan community as an example of a ‘knowing audience’ acquainted with both novel and film. Here we focus on the strong response within fan forums to the surprise ending of the final film adaptation Breaking Dawn – Part 2 (2012). The research uses the forum, blog and facebook page as sites for evidence of reading experience as defined by the Reading Experience Database (RED). The analysis sheds new light on the tensions that exist between fidelity and deviation and the article positions fan audiences as intensive readers who gained unexpected pleasure from a deviation from a canon. It argues that fans are also collaborators within the adaptation process who respect authorial authority and discuss the author’s, scriptwriter’s and director’s interpretation of the novel for the screen. The research identifies the creative and commercial advantages to be gained from a collaborative and open dialogue between adaptors and fans.  Keywords: Adaptation, fandom, online fan communities, Twilight, reading experience, film, audiences, fidelity, canon, collaboration, screenwriting, franchise, Stephenie Meyer, Melissa Rosenberg, Bill Condon
    • The horror of a doppelganger in documentary film

      Piotrowska, Agnieszka (Taylor & Francis, 2013-06-02)
      The paper applies Lacanian psychoanalysis to a well-known phenomenon in documentary practice, namely, that those who appear in films usually violently dislike their representation in the final film. Broadcasting organizations have sets of rules and regulations to deal with this ‘inconvenience’. I put forward a suggestion that the source of this anxiety lies in the notion of the double, which draws from Freud's ‘The Uncanny’ (1910) as recently developed by philosopher Mladen Dolar. I apply it to the process of documentary filmmaking. I give an example of the documentary The Best Job in the World (2009), which I directed for BBC1. In it, the participants were first invited to create their own short digital self-portraits with the material shot by us and edited later. I quote from their reports submitted in due course about their feelings about their portrayal in the film. The issue of control over one's representation seems of crucial importance. It appears that the arrival of ‘the double’, which the contributors had no control over created a sense of deep discomfort, even when that ‘double’ appeared more flattering that the contributors' perceptions of their own selves, suggesting more complicated unconscious processes.
    • Inception : a surrealist tale about lost love

      Piotrowska, Agnieszka (Media Commons, 2017-12-01)
      In the video essay we focus on the similarities between Inception (2010) and the surrealist classic Un Chien Andalou (1929) by Salvador Dali and Luis Bunuel. In particular, it was the filmic language of unattainable desire, love and loss that we wanted to explore in visual terms[1].  Inception has been one of the most successful movies of the last ten years.  The film was a great commercial success but it has had a mixed critical reception. Mark Fisher in Film Quarterly (2011, n. 64. Vol.3), for example, rightly accused it of being, at least in part, a capitalist ‘commodification of the psyche’, both artistically and ideologically.
    • An introduction to Elinor Glyn : her life and legacy

      Weedon, Alexis (Taylor & Francis (Routledge): SSH Titles, 2018-05-25)
      This special issue of Women: A Cultural Review re-evaluates an author who was once a household name, beloved by readers of romance, and whose films were distributed widely in Europe and the Americas. Elinor Glyn (1864–1943) was a British author of romantic fiction who went to Hollywood and became famous for her movies. She was a celebrity figure of the 1920s, and wrote constantly in Hearst's press. She wrote racy stories which were turned into films—most famously, Three Weeks (1924) and It (1927). These were viewed by the judiciary as scandalous, but by others—Hollywood and the Spanish Catholic Church—as acceptably conservative. Glyn has become a peripheral figure in histories of this period, marginalized in accounts of the youth-centred ‘flapper era’. Decades on, the idea of the ‘It Girl’ continues to have great pertinence in the post-feminist discourses of the twenty-first century. The 1910s and 1920s saw the development of intermodal networks between print, sound and screen cultures. This introduction to Glyn's life and legacy reviews the cross-disciplinary debate sparked by renewed interest in Glyn by film scholars and literary and feminist historians, and offers a range of views of Glyn's cultural and historical significance and areas for future research.
    • Listening, looking, acting: archiving resistance against racism and nationalism in the 1990’s, through online audio-visual materials

      Egbe, Amanda; Novakovic, Rastko (2019-09-20)
      The concern of this paper is to reflect upon the movements of anti-racism and anti-nationalism that have been analysed through the moving-image based project Where Were You in 1992? ​ The paper outlines, through a series of case studies (of single screen works, an online archive and interactive moving image panels) between the UK and post/Yugoslavia, how an interdisciplinary framework can be developed to work with audio-visual archives to elaborate new knowledge through old materials. 
    • Mnemosyne moving image archive: ethics and assemblage as a radical archival practice

      Egbe, Amanda (2016-05-20)
      This paper stems from the concern for the relationship between the viewer, the film, and the filmmaker. It is an inquiry looking at how the moving image allows us to create an experience of the world. It is with the awareness that this experience has cultural and political implications, particularly when understood in terms of what is held in film archives, museums and collections. It is concerned with interventionist practices, that may bring to the fore what it is that constitutes the making and viewing of film and how through archival film practices film histories are constituted. The Mnemosyne Moving Image Archive utilises the approach of Warburg's Mnemosyne Atlas, one model in a number of strategies that attempt, through its techniques of assemblage, comparison and disjuncture, to read the image contextually in multiple aspects. Warburg's approach is recast here to take images and sequences from moving image works to read across traditional film studies categories to (reading) the moving image, as form, auteur, spectator, nation etc. to assert the potential relations between the works in order to recover histories, alternative modes of meaning making, and creative and cultural practices.
    • Thomas Edison’s kinetoscope and the campaign to control the film industry

      Egbe, Amanda; Op den Kamp, C. (2016-07-22)
      This paper is concerned with the cultural implications of legal decisions around the invention and patenting of projection technologies. In the early 1900s Thomas Edison won a patent suit against his main competitor Biograph, a decision that stunned the industry, because Biograph seemed to be in the best position to oppose Edison’s dominance. The technical innovator behind Biograph’s technology, W.K.L. Dickson, had originally developed Edison’s own motion picture technology, the Kinetograph and Kinetoscope. If anyone understood how to avoid infringing Edison’s patents, it was Dickson. With a focus on Edison v Biograph and Edison v Lubin, this paper will highlight the surprising shift in intellectual property regimes from patent to copyright that followed. As a counterfactual exercise, this paper will play with the idea of what cinema today would have looked like if Edison’s campaign to control the film industry by controlling the technology would have succeeded. What difference would it have made if films would have been protected under the patent regime as part of the hardware (based on the assumption that projection was an integral element of the film), as opposed to under copyright as part of the software, as they did? And how does that help us understand the role of projection within the history of cinema?
    • Veils and sensors: an artistic intervention with archival moving image material

      Egbe, Amanda (2020-09-15)
      This demonstration showcases experiments, and interventions with moving image archival materials by the author. The outcomes reflect a wider research into duplication practices in digital moving image archival practices. Artistic interventions are utilised to explore the technological and cultural gestures of these practices. The demonstrations are in the form of moving images artworks employing standard projection and mixed reality.
    • Viewing, listening and waiting: explorations of the visual representations of anti-racism, anti-war and anti-nationalist protest

      Egbe, Amanda; Novakovic, Rastko (2019-07-05)
      This presentation further explores the artistic frameworks developed in the project Where Were You in 1992? The project explores anti-racism, anti-fascism,anti war and anti-nationalist political action, beginning with the struggles of antifascism and racism in the UK to anti war and nationalism in Yugoslavia. The project through recourse to media strategies of montage from art historian Aby Warburg, through to artist, filmmaker Jean Luc Goddard, brings audio-visual content together with personal testimony to map the strategies of media activism in the 90’s. The presentation seeks to engage with activists at IIPPE to investigate the media archive of Where Were You in 1992? to explore notions and gestures of “waiting” that permeate political action, connecting their own experiences of activism with those in the archive.
    • Where were you in 1992? : rumours of war

      Egbe, Amanda; Novakovic, Rastko (2018-04-28)
      Singe Screen Short Film, 15mins
    • Where were you in 1992?: fighting racism, fascism and nationalism, activism in the 90s

      Egbe, Amanda; Novakovic, Rastko (2019-02-08)
      Presentation and screening of Where Were You in 1992?: Rumours of War to the Birmingham Centre for Media and Cultural Research, Birmingham City University
    • Where were you in 1992?: surveillance - monitoring

      Egbe, Amanda; Novakovic, Rastko (2019-07-03)
      Singe Screen Short Film, 10 mins