• Routledge handbook on Arab media

      Mellor, Noha; Miladi, Noureddine (Routledge, 2020-11-30)
      This Handbook provides the first comprehensive reference book in English about the development of mass and social media in all Arab countries. Capturing the historical as well as current developments in the media scene, this collection maps the role of media in social and political movements. Contributors include specialists in the field from North America, Europe, and the Middle East. Each chapter provides an overview of the history, regulatory frameworks and laws governing the press, and socio-political functions of the media. While the geopolitical complexities of the region have been reflected in the expert analyses collectively, the focus is always the local context of each member state. All 37 chapters consider the specific historical, political and media trajectories in each country, to provide a contextual background and foundation for further study about single states or comparative analysis in two or more Arab states. Capturing significant technological developments and the widespread use of social media, this all-inclusive volume on Arab media is a key resource for students and scholars interested in journalism, media and Middle East studies.
    • The "soft" power of Syrian broadcasting

      Halabi, Nour; Mellor, Noha (Routledge, 2020-11-30)
    • Veils and sensors: an artistic intervention with archival moving image material

      Egbe, Amanda (2020-09-15)
      This demonstration showcases experiments, and interventions with moving image archival materials by the author. The outcomes reflect a wider research into duplication practices in digital moving image archival practices. Artistic interventions are utilised to explore the technological and cultural gestures of these practices. The demonstrations are in the form of moving images artworks employing standard projection and mixed reality.
    • Between copyright and creativity: Edison’s kinetoscope and technological innovations in optical printing

      Egbe, Amanda (Oxford University Press, 2020-03-17)
      Focusing on Edison’s early cinematic apparatus and the optical printer, this chapter explores how copyright law intersects with creativity, providing an alternative to teleological accounts of moving-image technologies. Thomas Edison attempted to control the film industry through patents and copyright. Edison’s first film experiments were registered as a series of photographs on card by his assistant, W. L. Dickson. In protecting these contact copies as paper prints with copyright, the new medium of motion pictures was being formalized. The necessity to duplicate film to support the development of exhibition and distribution was also necessary for copyright purposes. An archaeological approach is utilized to explore how paper prints enabled innovation in the area of the optical printer, a primary form of duplication in cinema. In developing approaches that could bring to life the remaining examples of early cinema, novel solutions in the form of innovations were required. The overlapping concerns of the copyright clerk, the film entrepreneur, and the film historian thus provide a basis for new materials and new innovations in moving-image technology and film history.
    • Restructuring the knowledge production value chain in publishing

      Weedon, Alexis (UNESCO, 2020-01-27)
      The current system of publishing (i.e. knowledge sharing) values individualism and commodification, restricting our use of existing knowledge. The Western model of knowledge production is not currently inclusive of other forms of knowledge, which inhibits the reuse, adaptation, reinterpretation and development of existing knowledge. The author proposes that knowledge systems be purposefully re-created to prioritize the end users’ needs and value them as co-creators.
    • The smartphone generation of community radio listeners: is FM sustainable?

      Gordon, Janey (Journal of Alternative and Community Media (JOACM) Intellect, 2019-12-19)
      This article examines the current environment of audio transmission services in the UK with particular regard to the community radio sector. Community radio stations in the UK are having to consider the extent to which their audiences choose to listen on an FM analogue signal and whether this is sustainable for them. The number of new platforms that a listener is using to access audio programming now includes DAB, SSDAB, TV carriers and online services. There are also developments to the actual receivers that may be used, in particular the use of smartphones to listen via online Wi-Fi or 4G. Currently there are no plans for an FM turn off in the UK and a hybrid system of transmission and reception is the most likely outcome for the foreseeable future. The consequences of this environment for the broadcasters, the listeners and the audio content are discussed in turn. A sample group of twelve community radio stations have been studied to assess current practices. This group are the remaining stations from the original Access Pilot community radio stations that went on air in 2002 and so are the oldest and most established of the UK stations. This article provides baseline definitions where relevant and uses recent data from national audience research, regulatory and other bodies to assess what people are listening to and how, along with examples from public service and commercial radio, as well as community radio.
    • Machine learning of symbolic compositional rules with genetic programming: dissonance treatment in Palestrina

      Anders, Torsten; Inden, Benjamin; University of Bedfordshire; Nottingham Trent University (PeerJ, 2019-12-16)
      We describe a method for automatically extracting symbolic compositional rules from music corpora. Resulting rules are expressed by a combination of logic and numeric relations, and they can therefore be studied by humans. These rules can also be used for algorithmic composition, where they can be combined with each other and with manually programmed rules. We chose genetic programming (GP) as our machine learning technique, because it is capable of learning formulas consisting of both logic and numeric relations. GP was never used for this purpose to our knowledge. We therefore investigate a well understood case in this study: dissonance treatment in Palestrina’s music. We label dissonances with a custom algorithm, automatically cluster melodic fragments with labelled dissonances into different dissonance categories (passing tone, suspension etc.) with the DBSCAN algorithm, and then learn rules describing the dissonance treatment of each category with GP. Learning is based on the requirement that rules must be broad enough to cover positive examples, but narrow enough to exclude negative examples. Dissonances from a given category are used as positive examples, while dissonances from other categories, melodic fragments without dissonances, purely random melodic fragments, and slight random transformations of positive examples, are used as negative examples.
    • Sage international encyclopedia of mass media & society

      Silverman, Jon (Sage Publications Inc., 2019-12-13)
      The SAGE International Encyclopedia of Mass Media and Society discusses media around the world in their varied forms—newspapers, magazines, radio, television, film, books, music, websites, social media, mobile media—and describes the role of each in both mirroring and shaping society. This encyclopedia provides a thorough overview of media within social and cultural contexts, exploring the development of the mediated communication industry, mediated communication regulations, and societal interactions and effects. This reference work will look at issues such as free expression and government regulation of media; how people choose what media to watch, listen to, and read; and how the influence of those who control media organizations may be changing as new media empower previously unheard voices. The role of media in society will be explored from international, multidisciplinary perspectives via approximately 700 articles drawing on research from communication and media studies, sociology, anthropology, social psychology, politics, and business.
    • Book review: The Arab-Israeli Conflict in the Arab Press: The First Three Decades

      Mellor, Noha (Middle East Institute, 2019-12-01)
      Book review of: The Arab-Israeli Conflict in the Arab Press: The First Three Decades By William W. Haddad Intellect Books 9781783209101
    • Sisters in arms: epic narratives in United Red Army (2007) and The Baader Meinhof Complex (2008)

      Caoduro, Elena (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019-10-02)
      The aim of this chapter is to frame contemporary films about terrorism within inclusive interpretations of the war film genre and discuss the adoption of epic narratives in the depiction of 1970s revolutionary violence. Two recent films have explored the history of notorious left-wing terrorist groups as negative sagas: United Red Army/Jitsuroku Rengo Sekigun (Wakamatsu Koji, 2007) and The Bader-Meinhof Complex/Der Baader-Meinhof Komplex (Uli Edel, 2008). In light of Robert Eberwein’s flexible definition of the ‘war film’ (2010: 45), these biopics meet his criteria by depicting the conflict itself (preparation, aftermath and actual urban guerrilla), the activities off the battlefield (radicalisation, recruitment and propaganda) and the effects on society (impact on families and the state’s response to violence).  Through a comparative contextualisation of terrorism in West Germany and Japan, this chapter also analyses one of the most striking aspects of how left-wing political violence return in the cinema of the new millennium: the high visibility and mediated spectacle of female terrorists. Female participation in politically motivated violence has been consistent in global conflicts, but during the 1970s the number of female terrorists grew rapidly in radical left-wing organisations. In order to understand gendered representational strategies and the legacy of female involvement in the armed struggle, particular attention will be paid to the threatening and threated body of the female terrorists in The Bader-Meinhof Complex and United Red Army.  The representation of terrorists is not homogeneous but tends to follow stereotypical paradigms because female combatants are seen as the worst attack to society and the patriarchal system. In these films, in fact, political violence is blamed on sexually free and naïve youngsters, mentally unstable mothers and emotionally dependant women. It will be suggested that through narratives of female hysteria and supportive of gender imbalance, these films domesticate female violence and reject all forms of action that do not re-inscribe femininity within its normative societal role.
    • Listening, looking, acting: archiving resistance against racism and nationalism in the 1990’s, through online audio-visual materials

      Egbe, Amanda; Novakovic, Rastko (2019-09-20)
      The concern of this paper is to reflect upon the movements of anti-racism and anti-nationalism that have been analysed through the moving-image based project Where Were You in 1992? ​ The paper outlines, through a series of case studies (of single screen works, an online archive and interactive moving image panels) between the UK and post/Yugoslavia, how an interdisciplinary framework can be developed to work with audio-visual archives to elaborate new knowledge through old materials. 
    • Viewing, listening and waiting: explorations of the visual representations of anti-racism, anti-war and anti-nationalist protest

      Egbe, Amanda; Novakovic, Rastko (2019-07-05)
      This presentation further explores the artistic frameworks developed in the project Where Were You in 1992? The project explores anti-racism, anti-fascism,anti war and anti-nationalist political action, beginning with the struggles of antifascism and racism in the UK to anti war and nationalism in Yugoslavia. The project through recourse to media strategies of montage from art historian Aby Warburg, through to artist, filmmaker Jean Luc Goddard, brings audio-visual content together with personal testimony to map the strategies of media activism in the 90’s. The presentation seeks to engage with activists at IIPPE to investigate the media archive of Where Were You in 1992? to explore notions and gestures of “waiting” that permeate political action, connecting their own experiences of activism with those in the archive.
    • Where were you in 1992?: surveillance - monitoring

      Egbe, Amanda; Novakovic, Rastko (2019-07-03)
      Singe Screen Short Film, 10 mins
    • Femininity and psychoanalysis : cinema, culture, theory

      Piotrowska, Agnieszka; Tyrer, Ben (Routledge, 2019-06-11)
      For Freud, famously, the feminine was a dark continent, or a riddle without an answer. This understanding concerns man’s relationship to the question of ‘woman’ but femininity is also a matter of sexuality and gender and therefore of identity and experience. Drawing together leading academics, including film and literary scholars, clinicians and artists from diverse backgrounds, Femininity and Psychoanalysis: Cinema, Culture, Theory speaks to the continued relevance of psychoanalytic understanding in a social and political landscape where ideas of gender and sexuality are undergoing profound changes. This transdisciplinary collection crosses boundaries between clinical and psychological discourse and arts and humanities fields to approach the topic of femininity from a variety of psychoanalytic perspectives. From object relations, to Lacan, to queer theory, the essays here revisit and rethink the debates over what the feminine might be. The volume presents a major new work by leading feminist film scholar, Elizabeth Cowie, in which she presents a first intervention on the topic of film and the feminine for over 20 years, as well as a key essay by the prominent artist and psychoanalyst, Bracha Ettinger. Written by an international selection of contributors, this collection is an indispensable tool for film and literary scholars engaged with psychoanalysts and anybody interested in different approaches to the question of the feminine.
    • Books and other media

      Weedon, Alexis (Cambridge University Press, 2019-06-05)
      This chapter tells how in the twentieth century it was to the book industry that the film, radio, television and later media industries turned for stories, scripts, ideas, formats and all forms of creative content. The visual culture which arose in the nineteenth century became the inspiration for the new industries. Graphic magazines with their lithographs and etchings were the first visualisations of characters and storyline and sometimes formed the source material for the mis-en-scene of the silent movies. The new developments in radio, film and tlevision opened up larger audiences for authors and added to their potential revenue streams.  As subsidiary rights proliferated through the growth of new media formats, authors set up companies to control and exploit their intellectual properties.  While the BBC sought to avoid direct competition with the book trade, the trend in other media companies though the century was through acquisition to exploit its content across media. So the electronic media appropriated the book’s core values taking access to education, information, and entertainment beyond the walls of the library or schoolroom into the living room as the television set, and then the personal computer, entered the home. Yet the book retained its status and at the end of the century book publishing in Britain remained an essential part of an interconnected communications system for the commodification of ideas and cultural expressions.
    • Book review: The Muslim brotherhood and the west. A history of enmity and engagement

      Mellor, Noha; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2019-03-27)
      Review of The Muslim brotherhood and the west. A history of enmity and engagement, by Martyn Frampton, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 2018, 661pp., £25.95 (hardcover), ISBN: 9780674970700