• Stereotyping

      Weedon, Alexis (Princeton University Press, 2021-03-31)
      Expert contribution on stereotyping as a printing and distribution technology in the Princeton University Press reference book.
    • The "soft" power of Syrian broadcasting

      Halabi, Nour; Mellor, Noha (Routledge, 2020-11-30)
    • Routledge handbook on Arab media

      Mellor, Noha; Miladi, Noureddine (Routledge, 2020-11-30)
      This Handbook provides the first comprehensive reference book in English about the development of mass and social media in all Arab countries. Capturing the historical as well as current developments in the media scene, this collection maps the role of media in social and political movements. Contributors include specialists in the field from North America, Europe, and the Middle East. Each chapter provides an overview of the history, regulatory frameworks and laws governing the press, and socio-political functions of the media. While the geopolitical complexities of the region have been reflected in the expert analyses collectively, the focus is always the local context of each member state. All 37 chapters consider the specific historical, political and media trajectories in each country, to provide a contextual background and foundation for further study about single states or comparative analysis in two or more Arab states. Capturing significant technological developments and the widespread use of social media, this all-inclusive volume on Arab media is a key resource for students and scholars interested in journalism, media and Middle East studies.
    • What kind of Italy? the cultural battle waged by Europe’s new populist leader against Brussels

      Rowinski, Paul (Routledge, 2020-11-30)
      This chapter captures the moment communicated in the Italian press, as Europe’s new self-appointed populist leader, then interior minister, Matteo Salvini, waged war on Brussels and the Pope, over immigration. Salvini spoke in Milan, just ahead of the 2019 EU elections, flanked by Europe’s populists, including France’s Marie Le Pen and Holland’s Geert Wilders, all hoping for victory for their European Parliamentary bloc. What is explored is if the coarseness of Salvini’s emotive rhetoric over immigration – a key driver of Euroscepticism, has possibly intensified in the Post-Truth digitally-led media age This is an age in which Salvini and other populists can communicate to millions online, circumnavigating the need to get messages across to the mainstream media. In this world, Post-Truth emotive rhetoric can eclipse the previous sanctity of facts. They count less. This poses many problems for the mainstream press. Proposals for a response conclude the chapter. .
    • WhatsApp in Sierra Leone : burning bridges or building them?

      Silverman, Jon; ; University of Bedfordshire (Indiana University Press, 2020-11-19)
      The text messaging application WhatsApp has been heavily criticized for acting as a vehicle for the spread of misinformation and unsubstantiated rumour, leading, in some parts of the world, to violence and even death. But the closed nature of WhatsApp groups has presented a structural problem as a subject for credible social science research. A collaborative project between the Universities of Bedfordshire (UK) and Sierra Leone has tracked messaging in an experimental student WhatsApp group using critical discourse analysis in order to generate a deeper understanding of discursive influences in a fragile society. It asks whether the affordance of a WhatsApp group necessarily amplifies offline polarizations and explores routes to consensuality in a divided post-conflict state. It concludes that more robust interventions by group administrators could foster free speech while avoiding the need for intrusive regulation from outside agencies. Key words – social media; discourse; rumours; WhatsApp;ethno-regional;divisive
    • Post-truth, post-press, post-Europe: Euroscepticism and the crisis of political communication

      Rowinski, Paul (Palgrave, 2020-09-20)
      This book explores whether a beleaguered press in recent years has been developing an emotive, Eurosceptic post-truth rhetoric of its own – competing for attention with populist politicians. These politicians now by-pass the media, talking directly to their publics in blogs, on Twitter and Facebook. In the post-truth age, objective facts are less influential in shaping opinion than appeals to emotion. Audiences congregate around views they share and want to believe. The author presents a critical discourse analysis of the language used by populist politicians online, on Facebook, and subsequently quoted in the press, which highlights how the political rhetoric of Italian and British politicians is often at its most inflammatory around the issue of immigration. The same goes for the press. The Italian case study focuses on media coverage of the 2014 and 2019 European elections and 2018 general election. The British case study examines press reporting of the 2016 UK referendum on EU membership, the 2017 general election, and the September 2019 parliamentary debate immediately following the UK Supreme Court ruling that proroguing of Parliament was illegal. From the picture that emerges, the author argues that journalists need to change how they report, to challenge the post-truthers, holding them to account and pressing them on the facts while also harnessing the emotions of disaffected publics.
    • Veils and sensors: an artistic intervention with archival moving image material

      Egbe, Amanda (2020-09-15)
      This demonstration showcases experiments, and interventions with moving image archival materials by the author. The outcomes reflect a wider research into duplication practices in digital moving image archival practices. Artistic interventions are utilised to explore the technological and cultural gestures of these practices. The demonstrations are in the form of moving images artworks employing standard projection and mixed reality.
    • The EU migrant: Britain's sense of place in English newspaper journalism

      Rowinski, Paul (UCL Press, 2020-09-04)
      Abstract. EU migrant is the trope investigated, forming a part of the London-based mainstream national newspaper media’s (MSM) discursive construction of England and its Other: Europe, not just ahead of the EU referendum but also more recently, as Brexit starts to happen.The Leave and Remain campaigns were heavily criticised for confusing the public and impoverishing political debate (Sparrow, 2016). The MSM on both sides of the argument arguably did likewise, in a highly polarised referendum (Deacon, 2016). The pervasiveness of English Euroscepticism (Gifford, 2014, Taggart and Szerbiak, 2004, 2008); how English cultural presuppositions have become embedded in discourse (Heer and Wodak, 2008, Reisigl and Wodak, 2001); and how that is both reflected and magnified in the UK press (Weymouth and Anderson, 1999, Garton-Ash, 2005, Rowinski, 2017) is briefly outlined.These Eurosceptic English MSM discourses are decades old. But their intensity and amplification in our Post-Truth digital age (Curtis, 2016, Solon, 2018) are not. MSM are now competing with other voices in a crowded online marketplace (Kueng, 2017, Harrison, 2017), making a bad situation much worse. It is argued and evidenced that the mainstream media is not just giving a platform for Post-Truth politicians, but constructing plenty of Post-Truth rhetoric of its own. A framing (Entman, 1993, 2010), including the absence of EU migrant voices, before the referendum and critical discourse analysis (Wodak and Reisigl, 2001, Wodak, 2015) will explore a possibly coarser presentation of England and its Other: Europe, as articulated through the trope, EU migrant, in the Post-Truth digitally-instigated media age (Coughlan, 2017, Keyes, 2004, Lewis, 2016, Laybats and Tredinnick, 2016). Patterns in discourse will be sought. So what has EU migrant come to mean? Is it a defiant badge of honour for some mainstream media, and a pejorative term for their rivals or something else again?
    • Between copyright and creativity: Edison’s kinetoscope and technological innovations in optical printing

      Egbe, Amanda (Oxford University Press, 2020-03-17)
      Focusing on Edison’s early cinematic apparatus and the optical printer, this chapter explores how copyright law intersects with creativity, providing an alternative to teleological accounts of moving-image technologies. Thomas Edison attempted to control the film industry through patents and copyright. Edison’s first film experiments were registered as a series of photographs on card by his assistant, W. L. Dickson. In protecting these contact copies as paper prints with copyright, the new medium of motion pictures was being formalized. The necessity to duplicate film to support the development of exhibition and distribution was also necessary for copyright purposes. An archaeological approach is utilized to explore how paper prints enabled innovation in the area of the optical printer, a primary form of duplication in cinema. In developing approaches that could bring to life the remaining examples of early cinema, novel solutions in the form of innovations were required. The overlapping concerns of the copyright clerk, the film entrepreneur, and the film historian thus provide a basis for new materials and new innovations in moving-image technology and film history.
    • Restructuring the knowledge production value chain in publishing

      Weedon, Alexis (UNESCO, 2020-01-27)
      The current system of publishing (i.e. knowledge sharing) values individualism and commodification, restricting our use of existing knowledge. The Western model of knowledge production is not currently inclusive of other forms of knowledge, which inhibits the reuse, adaptation, reinterpretation and development of existing knowledge. The author proposes that knowledge systems be purposefully re-created to prioritize the end users’ needs and value them as co-creators.
    • Theatre practices and meta-narratives: a reading of the illustrated gestures in the Chludov Psalter

      Poesio, Giannandrea (Centro Italiano di Studi sull'Alto Medioevo, 2019-12-31)
    • The smartphone generation of community radio listeners: is FM sustainable?

      Gordon, Janey (Journal of Alternative and Community Media (JOACM) Intellect, 2019-12-19)
      This article examines the current environment of audio transmission services in the UK with particular regard to the community radio sector. Community radio stations in the UK are having to consider the extent to which their audiences choose to listen on an FM analogue signal and whether this is sustainable for them. The number of new platforms that a listener is using to access audio programming now includes DAB, SSDAB, TV carriers and online services. There are also developments to the actual receivers that may be used, in particular the use of smartphones to listen via online Wi-Fi or 4G. Currently there are no plans for an FM turn off in the UK and a hybrid system of transmission and reception is the most likely outcome for the foreseeable future. The consequences of this environment for the broadcasters, the listeners and the audio content are discussed in turn. A sample group of twelve community radio stations have been studied to assess current practices. This group are the remaining stations from the original Access Pilot community radio stations that went on air in 2002 and so are the oldest and most established of the UK stations. This article provides baseline definitions where relevant and uses recent data from national audience research, regulatory and other bodies to assess what people are listening to and how, along with examples from public service and commercial radio, as well as community radio.
    • Machine learning of symbolic compositional rules with genetic programming: dissonance treatment in Palestrina

      Anders, Torsten; Inden, Benjamin; University of Bedfordshire; Nottingham Trent University (PeerJ, 2019-12-16)
      We describe a method for automatically extracting symbolic compositional rules from music corpora. Resulting rules are expressed by a combination of logic and numeric relations, and they can therefore be studied by humans. These rules can also be used for algorithmic composition, where they can be combined with each other and with manually programmed rules. We chose genetic programming (GP) as our machine learning technique, because it is capable of learning formulas consisting of both logic and numeric relations. GP was never used for this purpose to our knowledge. We therefore investigate a well understood case in this study: dissonance treatment in Palestrina’s music. We label dissonances with a custom algorithm, automatically cluster melodic fragments with labelled dissonances into different dissonance categories (passing tone, suspension etc.) with the DBSCAN algorithm, and then learn rules describing the dissonance treatment of each category with GP. Learning is based on the requirement that rules must be broad enough to cover positive examples, but narrow enough to exclude negative examples. Dissonances from a given category are used as positive examples, while dissonances from other categories, melodic fragments without dissonances, purely random melodic fragments, and slight random transformations of positive examples, are used as negative examples.
    • Sage international encyclopedia of mass media & society

      Silverman, Jon (Sage Publications Inc., 2019-12-13)
      The SAGE International Encyclopedia of Mass Media and Society discusses media around the world in their varied forms—newspapers, magazines, radio, television, film, books, music, websites, social media, mobile media—and describes the role of each in both mirroring and shaping society. This encyclopedia provides a thorough overview of media within social and cultural contexts, exploring the development of the mediated communication industry, mediated communication regulations, and societal interactions and effects. This reference work will look at issues such as free expression and government regulation of media; how people choose what media to watch, listen to, and read; and how the influence of those who control media organizations may be changing as new media empower previously unheard voices. The role of media in society will be explored from international, multidisciplinary perspectives via approximately 700 articles drawing on research from communication and media studies, sociology, anthropology, social psychology, politics, and business.
    • Book review: The Arab-Israeli Conflict in the Arab Press: The First Three Decades

      Mellor, Noha (Middle East Institute, 2019-12-01)
      Book review of: The Arab-Israeli Conflict in the Arab Press: The First Three Decades By William W. Haddad Intellect Books 9781783209101
    • The origins of the broadbrow: Hugh Walpole and Russian modernism in 1917

      Poesio, Giannandrea; Weedon, Alexis (John Hopkins University Press, 2019-10-23)
      In 1914 the English writer Hugh Walpole travelled to Russia. His diaries, fragments of autobiography and two novels written at the time The Dark Forest and The Secret City vividly record a world of artistic as well as political tension in the theatre, the ballet, circus and wrestling matches he attended in Petrograd and Moscow and of the Eastern front in Galicia while serving in the Russian Red Cross. He went on to establish the Anglo-Russian bureau there to counter German propaganda. Guided by his friends Mikhail Lykiardopoulos and Konstantin Somov, Walpole socialised with some of the leading representatives of Russia’s new culture, such as Sologub, Glazunov, Scriabin and stars such as Tamara Karsavina and attended the famous Moscow Arts Theatre. Walpole’s exposure to the breadth of Russian culture was formative in his definition of the broadbrow and his attitude to cultural production. Firstly, the paper argues that the ‘battle of the brows’ between the lowbrow, highbrow, and middlebrow in periodical press in the 1920s belies the richer qualities of the term whose meaning had deeper resonances in the 19th century and early years of the 20th century. Secondly, it argues that in Walpole’s and H.G. Wells’ definition embraced an aspiration to be open to all experiences and to all knowledge which engendered a noble and broad view of life. Finally, it argues that the term became an important one for the emerging mediums of radio and film as way of engaging and enlightening audiences of every kind. Dedicated to the memory of Dr Giannandrea Poesio, this work is testament to his scholarship in Russian ballet and the arts. The article was completed for publication by Alexis Weedon following the authors’ collaboration on the research, writing and co-presentation of the paper at the Laughing and Coping: Entertainment in WW1 conference March 2016 and the Postgraduate symposium May 2016 University of Bedfordshire. Acknowledgements: Weedon’s archival research in The Henry W. and Albert A. Berg Collection of English and American Literature, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations in 2016 was funded by Research Institute for Media, Art and Performance, University of Bedfordshire, with grateful thanks to Dr Giannandrea Poesio Director of the Institute. Hugh Walpole was one of ten authors identified for the AHRC funded project ‘Cross-media co-operation in Britain in 1920s and 1930s’ (AR 112216) and Weedon’s work here is a follow-on from this project.
    • Sisters in arms: epic narratives in United Red Army (2007) and The Baader Meinhof Complex (2008)

      Caoduro, Elena (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019-10-02)
      The aim of this chapter is to frame contemporary films about terrorism within inclusive interpretations of the war film genre and discuss the adoption of epic narratives in the depiction of 1970s revolutionary violence. Two recent films have explored the history of notorious left-wing terrorist groups as negative sagas: United Red Army/Jitsuroku Rengo Sekigun (Wakamatsu Koji, 2007) and The Bader-Meinhof Complex/Der Baader-Meinhof Komplex (Uli Edel, 2008). In light of Robert Eberwein’s flexible definition of the ‘war film’ (2010: 45), these biopics meet his criteria by depicting the conflict itself (preparation, aftermath and actual urban guerrilla), the activities off the battlefield (radicalisation, recruitment and propaganda) and the effects on society (impact on families and the state’s response to violence).  Through a comparative contextualisation of terrorism in West Germany and Japan, this chapter also analyses one of the most striking aspects of how left-wing political violence return in the cinema of the new millennium: the high visibility and mediated spectacle of female terrorists. Female participation in politically motivated violence has been consistent in global conflicts, but during the 1970s the number of female terrorists grew rapidly in radical left-wing organisations. In order to understand gendered representational strategies and the legacy of female involvement in the armed struggle, particular attention will be paid to the threatening and threated body of the female terrorists in The Bader-Meinhof Complex and United Red Army.  The representation of terrorists is not homogeneous but tends to follow stereotypical paradigms because female combatants are seen as the worst attack to society and the patriarchal system. In these films, in fact, political violence is blamed on sexually free and naïve youngsters, mentally unstable mothers and emotionally dependant women. It will be suggested that through narratives of female hysteria and supportive of gender imbalance, these films domesticate female violence and reject all forms of action that do not re-inscribe femininity within its normative societal role.