• Disrupting historical mis-representations and constructions: Talawa Theatre, Tiata Fahodzi and representations of polyphonic Africa on contemporary London stage

      Ukaegbu, Victor (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018-12-31)
      Historically, the representations of Africa on the London stage mirror the prevailing socio-political conditions of different periods of Africa-British encounters. Each period is characterised by a distinctive socio-culturally motivated system of thought that both defined and shaped the resulting encounters. In the words of art critic and novelist David Dabydeen, early representations of Africa on the London stage showed an Africa many would not recognise today; theatrically Africa was cast as under-developed, a curiosity and aesthetic foil in which the humanity of the characters and continent were effaced. After WW2, Africa and Black were rolled into one socio-cultural category globally and remained that way from the late 1950s to the early days of postcolonial writings when playwrights and critics such as Wole Soyinka, Athol Fugard, and Stuart Hall began to de-stabilize cultural classifications about monolithic Africa and Black cultures. The subsequent rise of issue-based theatre companies and small venues hosting and producing a more mixed offering of plays on Africa and African characters led to a significant shift in representations of Africa on the London stage, enabling outfits such as Talawa and Fahodzi Theatres and a newer generation of playwrights such as Maria Oshodi, Tunde Ikoli, Dipo Agboluaje to highlight a wide range of characters and different African and Black British cultural nationalities on London stages.
    • Book review: The Arab-Israeli Conflict in the Arab Press: The First Three Decades

      Mellor, Noha (Middle East Institute, 2019-12-01)
      Book review of: The Arab-Israeli Conflict in the Arab Press: The First Three Decades By William W. Haddad Intellect Books 9781783209101
    • Machine learning of symbolic compositional rules with genetic programming: dissonance treatment in Palestrina

      Anders, Torsten; Inden, Benjamin; University of Bedfordshire; Nottingham Trent University (PeerJ, 2019-12-16)
      We describe a method for automatically extracting symbolic compositional rules from music corpora. Resulting rules are expressed by a combination of logic and numeric relations, and they can therefore be studied by humans. These rules can also be used for algorithmic composition, where they can be combined with each other and with manually programmed rules. We chose genetic programming (GP) as our machine learning technique, because it is capable of learning formulas consisting of both logic and numeric relations. GP was never used for this purpose to our knowledge. We therefore investigate a well understood case in this study: dissonance treatment in Palestrina’s music. We label dissonances with a custom algorithm, automatically cluster melodic fragments with labelled dissonances into different dissonance categories (passing tone, suspension etc.) with the DBSCAN algorithm, and then learn rules describing the dissonance treatment of each category with GP. Learning is based on the requirement that rules must be broad enough to cover positive examples, but narrow enough to exclude negative examples. Dissonances from a given category are used as positive examples, while dissonances from other categories, melodic fragments without dissonances, purely random melodic fragments, and slight random transformations of positive examples, are used as negative examples.
    • Thomas Edison’s kinetoscope and the campaign to control the film industry

      Egbe, Amanda; Op den Kamp, C. (2016-07-22)
      This paper is concerned with the cultural implications of legal decisions around the invention and patenting of projection technologies. In the early 1900s Thomas Edison won a patent suit against his main competitor Biograph, a decision that stunned the industry, because Biograph seemed to be in the best position to oppose Edison’s dominance. The technical innovator behind Biograph’s technology, W.K.L. Dickson, had originally developed Edison’s own motion picture technology, the Kinetograph and Kinetoscope. If anyone understood how to avoid infringing Edison’s patents, it was Dickson. With a focus on Edison v Biograph and Edison v Lubin, this paper will highlight the surprising shift in intellectual property regimes from patent to copyright that followed. As a counterfactual exercise, this paper will play with the idea of what cinema today would have looked like if Edison’s campaign to control the film industry by controlling the technology would have succeeded. What difference would it have made if films would have been protected under the patent regime as part of the hardware (based on the assumption that projection was an integral element of the film), as opposed to under copyright as part of the software, as they did? And how does that help us understand the role of projection within the history of cinema?
    • The ethics and intimacies of moving images

      Egbe, Amanda (2016-11-07)
      Firstly consider a way of thinking about the relationships between images as constituted through a media archaeological approach.This archaeology provides a foundation to think about how moving images are duplicated/reproduced. That is it becomes a concern for how moving images constitute multiple modes of reality through the process of duplication, seen through the variable ways in which the optical printer has been utilised as an archival tool, a materialist instrument and tool of special effects. It then reflects upon Jakob von Uexkull’s notion of umwelt to consider an ecology of images, as a problematising practice to allow for the reading of moving images as both apparatus and content overcoming the dichotomy between technological and cultural readings of the moving image. This is done with recourse to Aby Warburg’s assemblage practice of the Mnemosyne Atlas project, but is not the subject of this paper. The paper further problematizes this notion of the relations of moving images as being an ethical relationship. By suggesting that notions of Levinas’s ethics in relation to this tentative practice of moving image archival practice, can illuminate how moving image practices, in their duplication can be perceived beyond their instrumentalising, in their aspect of technological apparatus, but rather as a co-constitution of filmmaker, apparatus and viewer constituting realities.
    • Activating media, memory and resistances: Where were you in 1992?

      Egbe, Amanda; Novakovic, Rastko (2018-07-04)
      This paper will bring to the fore the resisting character of moving image materials situated as tactical and strategic, through their activation by archival and media practices. Where Were You in 1992? is a multi-platform time-based project that contends with the technologies and practices of activism. Starting from the anti-racist struggle in the UK and the resistance to ethno-nationalism in Yugoslavia, it explores the legacy of European 'liberalism', ‘multiculturalism’ and ‘social cohesion’. It contrasts these with notions of solidarity, anti-racism, and anti-authoritarianism. It gathers hitherto unseen or forgotten testimonies, still and moving images, minutes, leaflets, banners and working notes from individuals and organisations. The project uses the open source archive and notation platform pan.do/ra, and an archive established at the MayDay Rooms archive in London. The paper is concerned with how to mobilise audio-visual materials, testimony and metadata to investigate a global historical situation and map parallels between the social spaces of grassroots activism of the 1990s. Specifically the paper will focus on how specific moments of differing scale, such as the shift between analogue and digital (longue durée) on one hand, and the subjective description of political actions (historical events) on the other hand can be brought together in montage.
    • Viewing, listening and waiting: explorations of the visual representations of anti-racism, anti-war and anti-nationalist protest

      Egbe, Amanda; Novakovic, Rastko (2019-07-05)
      This presentation further explores the artistic frameworks developed in the project Where Were You in 1992? The project explores anti-racism, anti-fascism,anti war and anti-nationalist political action, beginning with the struggles of antifascism and racism in the UK to anti war and nationalism in Yugoslavia. The project through recourse to media strategies of montage from art historian Aby Warburg, through to artist, filmmaker Jean Luc Goddard, brings audio-visual content together with personal testimony to map the strategies of media activism in the 90’s. The presentation seeks to engage with activists at IIPPE to investigate the media archive of Where Were You in 1992? to explore notions and gestures of “waiting” that permeate political action, connecting their own experiences of activism with those in the archive.
    • Where were you in 1992?: fighting racism, fascism and nationalism, activism in the 90s

      Egbe, Amanda; Novakovic, Rastko (2019-02-08)
      Presentation and screening of Where Were You in 1992?: Rumours of War to the Birmingham Centre for Media and Cultural Research, Birmingham City University
    • Where were you in 1992?: surveillance - monitoring

      Egbe, Amanda; Novakovic, Rastko (2019-07-03)
      Singe Screen Short Film, 10 mins
    • Where were you in 1992? : rumours of war

      Egbe, Amanda; Novakovic, Rastko (2018-04-28)
      Singe Screen Short Film, 15mins
    • Listening, looking, acting: archiving resistance against racism and nationalism in the 1990’s, through online audio-visual materials

      Egbe, Amanda; Novakovic, Rastko (2019-09-20)
      The concern of this paper is to reflect upon the movements of anti-racism and anti-nationalism that have been analysed through the moving-image based project Where Were You in 1992? ​ The paper outlines, through a series of case studies (of single screen works, an online archive and interactive moving image panels) between the UK and post/Yugoslavia, how an interdisciplinary framework can be developed to work with audio-visual archives to elaborate new knowledge through old materials. 
    • Between copyright and creativity: Edison’s kinetoscope and technological innovations in optical printing

      Egbe, Amanda (Oxford University Press, 2020-03-17)
      Focusing on Edison’s early cinematic apparatus and the optical printer, this chapter explores how copyright law intersects with creativity, providing an alternative to teleological accounts of moving-image technologies. Thomas Edison attempted to control the film industry through patents and copyright. Edison’s first film experiments were registered as a series of photographs on card by his assistant, W. L. Dickson. In protecting these contact copies as paper prints with copyright, the new medium of motion pictures was being formalized. The necessity to duplicate film to support the development of exhibition and distribution was also necessary for copyright purposes. An archaeological approach is utilized to explore how paper prints enabled innovation in the area of the optical printer, a primary form of duplication in cinema. In developing approaches that could bring to life the remaining examples of early cinema, novel solutions in the form of innovations were required. The overlapping concerns of the copyright clerk, the film entrepreneur, and the film historian thus provide a basis for new materials and new innovations in moving-image technology and film history.
    • Mnemosyne moving image archive: ethics and assemblage as a radical archival practice

      Egbe, Amanda (2016-05-20)
      This paper stems from the concern for the relationship between the viewer, the film, and the filmmaker. It is an inquiry looking at how the moving image allows us to create an experience of the world. It is with the awareness that this experience has cultural and political implications, particularly when understood in terms of what is held in film archives, museums and collections. It is concerned with interventionist practices, that may bring to the fore what it is that constitutes the making and viewing of film and how through archival film practices film histories are constituted. The Mnemosyne Moving Image Archive utilises the approach of Warburg's Mnemosyne Atlas, one model in a number of strategies that attempt, through its techniques of assemblage, comparison and disjuncture, to read the image contextually in multiple aspects. Warburg's approach is recast here to take images and sequences from moving image works to read across traditional film studies categories to (reading) the moving image, as form, auteur, spectator, nation etc. to assert the potential relations between the works in order to recover histories, alternative modes of meaning making, and creative and cultural practices.
    • The Cinemembrane

      Egbe, Amanda; Novakovic, Rastko (2016-05-02)
      I: Whither Cinema? At present the space for cinematic exhibition has been colonised as a space for entertainment and commercial enterprise, e.g. the loss of independent cinema spaces in the UK. It is utilised to aneasthetise a populace. There are and have been recent examples of radical exhibition and distribution that now call to be extended and constituted as a rapid response to an environment whereby moving image documents, the work of amateurs, citizens, artists must be exhibited, distributed and acted upon as a matter of urgency. These will be joined by materials from various community and specialist archives. II: What is the Cine-membrane? The cine-membrane is the reconstitution of cinematic space, which calls forth a standing committee. The committee constitutes a forum and tribunal to investigate evidence in the form of moving image documents and the experiences of those who form the committee. The cine-membrane becomes the active viewing space, for speech and action to be constituted in light of conscious and unconscious responses to moving images. These responses inspire action in light of subject matters such as the housing crisis, militarism, and social inequalities. They also extend to the call for further works to be produced, exhibited and examined in light of a lack of meaningful expression in the cinematic environment. The cine-membrane can be mobile, set up anywhere with the use of borrowed equipment. Inside or outside spaces can be cannibalised for the purpose of calling forth the standing committee. The cine-membrane can be fixed, reclaiming and repurposing cinematic and theatrical spaces that sit within a community or the heart of an action called for in light of the moving image documents that are to be considered by the standing committee. III: Permeable spaces The cine-membrane constitutes the fluid space in which moving image documents resonate amongst us. This space makes speech and action possible. It understands that moving images are constructed, that the process and production of that construction must form part of the active evidence that is presented. This is how we build an active understanding and knowledge of the processes by which the moving image comes to have meaning and is accepted as being significant. Content, production and exhibition cannot be separated into discrete entities. Social space, the spaces of cinematic production and distribution are all permeable and come to coexist in the cinemembrane.
    • The Cinemembrane

      Egbe, Amanda; Novakovic, Rastko (2016-05-02)
      THE CINE-MEMBRANE I: Whither Cinema? At present the space for cinematic exhibition has been colonised as a space for entertainment and commercial enterprise, e.g. the loss of independent cinema spaces in the UK. It is utilised to aneasthetise a populace. There are and have been recent examples of radical exhibition and distribution that now call to be extended and constituted as a rapid response to an environment whereby moving image documents, the work of amateurs, citizens, artists must be exhibited, distributed and acted upon as a matter of urgency. These will be joined by materials from various community and specialist archives. II: What is the Cine-membrane? The cine-membrane is the reconstitution of cinematic space, which calls forth a standing committee. The committee constitutes a forum and tribunal to investigate evidence in the form of moving image documents and the experiences of those who form the committee. The cine-membrane becomes the active viewing space, for speech and action to be constituted in light of conscious and unconscious responses to moving images. These responses inspire action in light of subject matters such as the housing crisis, militarism, and social inequalities. They also extend to the call for further works to be produced, exhibited and examined in light of a lack of meaningful expression in the cinematic environment. The cine-membrane can be mobile, set up anywhere with the use of borrowed equipment. Inside or outside spaces can be cannibalised for the purpose of calling forth the standing committee. The cine-membrane can be fixed, reclaiming and repurposing cinematic and theatrical spaces that sit within a community or the heart of an action called for in light of the moving image documents that are to be considered by the standing committee. III: Permeable spaces The cine-membrane constitutes the fluid space in which moving image documents resonate amongst us. This space makes speech and action possible. It understands that moving images are constructed, that the process and production of that construction must form part of the active evidence that is presented. This is how we build an active understanding and knowledge of the processes by which the moving image comes to have meaning and is accepted as being significant. Content, production and exhibition cannot be separated into discrete entities. Social space, the spaces of cinematic production and distribution are all permeable and come to coexist in the cinemembrane.
    • Restructuring the knowledge production value chain in publishing

      Weedon, Alexis (UNESCO, 2020-01-27)
      The current system of publishing (i.e. knowledge sharing) values individualism and commodification, restricting our use of existing knowledge. The Western model of knowledge production is not currently inclusive of other forms of knowledge, which inhibits the reuse, adaptation, reinterpretation and development of existing knowledge. The author proposes that knowledge systems be purposefully re-created to prioritize the end users’ needs and value them as co-creators.
    • The smartphone generation of community radio listeners: is FM sustainable?

      Gordon, Janey (Journal of Alternative and Community Media (JOACM) Intellect, 2019-12-19)
      This article examines the current environment of audio transmission services in the UK with particular regard to the community radio sector. Community radio stations in the UK are having to consider the extent to which their audiences choose to listen on an FM analogue signal and whether this is sustainable for them. The number of new platforms that a listener is using to access audio programming now includes DAB, SSDAB, TV carriers and online services. There are also developments to the actual receivers that may be used, in particular the use of smartphones to listen via online Wi-Fi or 4G. Currently there are no plans for an FM turn off in the UK and a hybrid system of transmission and reception is the most likely outcome for the foreseeable future. The consequences of this environment for the broadcasters, the listeners and the audio content are discussed in turn. A sample group of twelve community radio stations have been studied to assess current practices. This group are the remaining stations from the original Access Pilot community radio stations that went on air in 2002 and so are the oldest and most established of the UK stations. This article provides baseline definitions where relevant and uses recent data from national audience research, regulatory and other bodies to assess what people are listening to and how, along with examples from public service and commercial radio, as well as community radio.
    • The origins of the broadbrow: Hugh Walpole and Russian modernism in 1917

      Poesio, Giannandrea; Weedon, Alexis (John Hopkins University Press, 2018-06-29)
      In 1914 the English writer Hugh Walpole travelled to Russia. His diaries, fragments of autobiography and two novels written at the time The Dark Forest and The Secret City vividly record a world of artistic as well as political tension in the theatre, the ballet, circus and wrestling matches he attended in Petrograd and Moscow and of the Eastern front in Galicia while serving in the Russian Red Cross. He went on to establish the Anglo-Russian bureau there to counter German propaganda. Guided by his friends Mikhail Lykiardopoulos and Konstantin Somov, Walpole socialised with some of the leading representatives of Russia’s new culture, such as Sologub, Glazunov, Scriabin and stars such as Tamara Karsavina and attended the famous Moscow Arts Theatre. Walpole’s exposure to the breadth of Russian culture was formative in his definition of the broadbrow and his attitude to cultural production. Firstly, the paper argues that the ‘battle of the brows’ between the lowbrow, highbrow, and middlebrow in periodical press in the 1920s belies the richer qualities of the term whose meaning had deeper resonances in the 19th century and early years of the 20th century. Secondly, it argues that in Walpole’s and H.G. Wells’ definition embraced an aspiration to be open to all experiences and to all knowledge which engendered a noble and broad view of life. Finally, it argues that the term became an important one for the emerging mediums of radio and film as way of engaging and enlightening audiences of every kind. Dedicated to the memory of Dr Giannandrea Poesio, this work is testament to his scholarship in Russian ballet and the arts. The article was completed for publication by Alexis Weedon following the authors’ collaboration on the research, writing and co-presentation of the paper at the Laughing and Coping: Entertainment in WW1 conference March 2016 and the Postgraduate symposium May 2016 University of Bedfordshire. Acknowledgements: Weedon’s archival research in The Henry W. and Albert A. Berg Collection of English and American Literature, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations in 2016 was funded by Research Institute for Media, Art and Performance, University of Bedfordshire, with grateful thanks to Dr Giannandrea Poesio Director of the Institute. Hugh Walpole was one of ten authors identified for the AHRC funded project ‘Cross-media co-operation in Britain in 1920s and 1930s’ (AR 112216) and Weedon’s work here is a follow-on from this project.
    • Cats, convicts and clerics : how the media and politicians have framed the Human Rights Act

      Silverman, Jon (Peter Lang, 2013-01-01)
      The chapter deals with a number of related episodes in which the media - tabloid and broadsheet newspapers - colluded with ministers to 'demonise' the Human Rights Act as part of a longer-term objective of de-legitimizing the UK's membership of the European Union. It takes a number of case studies to argue that a deliberate conflation of the HRA and European Court of Human Rights with the policies of the European Union helped breed support for an anti-EU agenda in UK public policy.
    • 'I feel your pain': terrorism, the media and the politics of response

      Silverman, Jon; Thomas, Lisa; University of Bedfordshire (Sage Publications Inc., 2012-12-10)
      This paper focuses on the interaction between a rapidly changing media and the policy responses of UK governments, faced with terrorist violence which has evolved in form and intent. New Labour's final term in office was dominated by the tension between the competing claims of liberty and security, expressed in Tony Blair's declaration after the 7/7 attacks, 'Let no-one be in any doubt, the rules of the game are changing'. We argue that, insofar as crime,justice and civil rights are governed by a normative set of rules, they were subverted by New Labour in the mid-1990s for party political reasons. Thus, after 9/11, they needed little re-shaping to meet the challenges of 21st century terrorism.Our thesis is based partly on primary interviews and partly on analyses of media coverage, parliamentary debates and government responses in the form of press releases and speeches. The purpose of the interviews - with 'insider' figures from the world of politics, the police and civil society - was to triangulate the known policy responses to 9/11 with the views and perceptions of these figures to assess whether some of the assumptions about the impact of that event on the UK need to be rethought.