• A portrait of John Urry – harbinger of the death of distance

      Hollinshead, Keith; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2015-12-30)
    • Fostering collaboration between academia and the tourism sector

      Walters, Gabby; Burns, Peter; Stettler, Jürg (Routledge, 2015-09-11)
    • Qualitative tourism research: opportunities in the emergent soft sciences

      Wilson, Erica; Hollinshead, Keith; Southern Cross University; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier Ltd, 2015-06-23)
      A liberation in 'soft science' inquiry over recent decades has opened up ontological, epistemological and methodological opportunities, but this empowerment is often under-recognised in investigations of tourism. While qualitative inquiry has made significant advances within tourism studies, scholars can gain richly by continuing to cultivate forms of critical multilogicality, and by embracing some of the methods and approaches on offer elsewhere across the broader (soft) social sciences. This paper thereby advances a set of key conceptual principles which guide emergent soft science thinking; it reviews their applicability within tourism studies through a probative 'tableau' of qualitative approach exemplars.
    • Evolving perspectives on tourism’s interaction with nature during the last 40 years

      Holden, Andrew (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2015-05-22)
      The aim of this retrospective is to evaluate the changing paradigms of tourism’s relationship with nature over the last four decades. It is presented as one interpretation of this relationship not a definitive fait accompli. The period is characterized by an evolution of the society-nature relationship in response to environmental challenges never previously experienced. This includes a reassessment of ʼnature’ as both a social construction and scientific reality and a subsequent re-evaluation of our relationship to it, reflected in new paradigms including sustainability and environmental ethics. The paradox of tourism’s relationship with the environment has simultaneously played out over the period, exemplified in its contemporary interpretations as a key sustainable industry of the green economy and a significant contributor to GHG emissions and global warming. The conflicting interpretations of tourism suggest that the principles and ethics of environmental discourse will be critical for evaluating the tourism and nature relationship. This connection will continue to evolve and tourism’s increasing popularity and global economic importance ensures that it will have consequences for nature whilst providing a window into society’s environmental values and attitudes.
    • ABCD to CBT: asset-based community development's potential for community-based tourism

      Dolezal, Claudia; Burns, Peter (Routledge, 2014-12-20)
      This article conceptualises the potential for a relationship between asset-based community development (ABCD) and community-based tourism (CBT), with a view to improving CBT's patchy record in delivering community development. ABCD has previously been used in international development and community work, but is new to tourism for development. Hence, the article seeks to relate ABCD's characteristics with CBT on a theoretical level, based on a shift away from ‘needs-driven’ development towards a conscious appreciation of community assets. The authors suggest that ABCD can, and should, be applied to CBT, given the positive emphasis it puts on people and their potential.
    • No time for smokescreen skepticism: a rejoinder to Shani and Arad

      Hall, C. Michael; Amelung, Bas; Cohen, Scott; Eijgelaar, Eke; Gössling, Stefan; Higham, James; Leemans, Rik; Peeters, Paul; Ram, Yael; Scott, Daniel; et al. (Elsevier Ltd, 2014-10-05)
      Shani and Arad (2014) claimed that tourism scholars tend to endorse the most pessimistic assessments regarding climate change, and that anthropogenic climate change was a "fashionable" and "highly controversial scientific topic". This brief rejoinder provides the balance that is missing from such climate change denial and skepticism studies on climate change and tourism. Recent research provides substantial evidence that reports on anthropogenic climate change are accurate, and that human-induced greenhouse gas emissions, including from the tourism industry, play a significant role in climate change. Some positive net effects may be experienced by some destinations in the short-term, but in the long-term all elements of the tourism system will be impacted. The expansion of tourism emissions at a rate greater than efficiency gains means that it is increasingly urgent that the tourism sector acknowledge, accept and respond to climate change. Debate on tourism-related adaptation and mitigation measures is to be encouraged and welcomed. Climate change denial is not.
    • Denying bogus skepticism in climate change and tourism research

      Hall, C. Michael; Amelung, Bas; Cohen, Scott; Eijgelaar, Eke; Gössling, Stefan; Higham, James; Leemans, Rik; Peeters, Paul; Ram, Yael; Scott, Daniel; et al. (Elsevier Ltd, 2014-09-30)
      This final response to the two climate change denial papers by Shani and Arad further highlights the inaccuracies, misinformation and errors in their commentaries. The obfuscation of scientific research and the consensus on anthropogenic climate change may have significant long-term negative consequences for better understanding the implications of climate change and climate policy for tourism and create confusion and delay in developing and implementing tourism sector responses.
    • Tourism policies of Bangladesh: a contextual analysis

      Hassan, Azizul; Burns, Peter (Routledge, 2014-03-10)
      This paper outlines a brief analysis of the Bangladesh tourism policies as a case. A proper set of policies is required to develop any sector systematically. Tourism as an important part of economy of any country cannot be an exception. Bangladesh as a potential ground of both domestic and international tourism also necessitates proper and effective policies. This study while attempting to understand the context reveals the demand of a valid set of tourism policies formulation. This is particularly important to cope with the global challenges and thus to ensure this sector's contribute in the national economy. This study also stresses on effective role play of both the private and public parties.
    • Climate change discourses: how UK airlines communicate their case to the public

      Burns, Peter; Cowlishaw, Chantelle; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2014-03-04)
      Whilst there are many arguments and counterarguments surrounding aviation's contribution to climate change, the sector is increasingly scrutinised, especially in regard to tourism mobility questions. This paper identifies, examines and analyses the discourses that airlines choose to communicate via their websites regarding their role, responsibility and their viewpoints about the issues involved in their relationship to climate change. Studying the web is of growing importance: corporate organizations increasingly use the Internet to communicate influential discourses, engage consumers, and inform the media, who themselves use digital systems to form opinions and influence decisions. Drawing on publicly available communications from six contrasting UK airlines, the study seeks to identify their perceived roles and responsibilities as producers. The data are analysed through content and frame analyses. The study concludes, inter alia, that the airlines under study make both justifiable and unjustifiable claims, and use polarised prioritisation, scepticism and uncertainty creation to put forward their case. Airlines are classified into one of six types: (1) continuous committed benchmarkers, (2) realistic technological innovators, (3) minimal practicalities, (4) low-cost innovators, (5) low-cost sceptics and (6) low-cost opposers. The paper uses and adds to an emerging research method, netnography. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
    • An introduction to tourism–environment relationships

      Holden, Andrew (Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2009-05-28)
    • Tourism "the third ear": Further prospects for qualitative inquiry

      Hollinshead, Keith; Jamal, Tazim B. (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2007-04-01)
      This commentary on the state of the art of qualitative research in Tourism Studies is prompted and inspired by the recent appearance of Phillimore and Goodson's valuable coverage of the ontological and epistemological issues involved in the conduct of the enlarging body of qualitative research that has lately emerged in the field. It also stands as a follow-up article to the work of Jamal and Hollinshead in Tourism Management on similar matters. Like the latter, that is, that timely "Qualitative Research as a Forbidden Zone" article, this Tourism Analysis review article is premised upon the view that just as travel and tourism mirror so much of the social, communal, and political realities of the cultural world "out there," so research in Tourism Studies can mirror and much more advantageously utilize so many of the emergent phenomenological and ethnographic advances in research praxis that have followed in the wake of the so-called interpretive turn and the so-called literary turn of the human sciences. In viewing travel and tourism as critical and dynamic fields of seeing, being, experiencing, inventing, and knowing of and about the world, this review article positions travel and tourism as an inherently endlessly creative and mediating field of lived experience that, therefore, should be much more deeply explored interpretively, and thereby "qualitatively," in the light of the new insights that qualitative researchers have lately gained across human science disciplines into matters of meaning, textuality, and rhetorical power. Although The Forbidden Zone of Jamal and Hollinshead (in Tourism Management) explored the relevance of matters of "messy text," "confirmability," "engaged interestedness," "locality" for Tourism Studies, this follow-up article here in Tourism Analysis peruses related questions of "text," "voice," "reflexivity," "audience." It broadly concludes that-after Wichroski (1997)-the inexperienced qualitative researcher in travel/tourism/any domain can normally improve his or her sensibilities to the interpretive issues faced and to the contextual situation encountered by learning how to deploy "a third ear" to actively sense the involved difficult matters of "tacit" individual presence, "unstated" communal existence, "undeclared" researcher power and authority in both the research locales and the investigative processes he/she is engaged in. Although this follow-up (Third Ear) article posits many strengths in the use of qualitative research in Tourism Studies-particularly in tapping the misty plurivocality of populations and the exacting, contested narratives about places and pasts-the endeavor to understand the different styles of interpretive/ethnographictextual insight that course through various qualitative techniques is no soft option in research, and demands considerable sensitivity to the unfixities of meaning, affiliation, and identity. Overall then, as did Phillimore and Goodson, this Third Ear review article seeks to shift the debate about the merit and value of qualitative research beyond concerns of "technique" and away from the strictures of "method," per se, towards the need for the collective field of Tourism Studies to encourage more of its researchers towards flexible, interpretive approaches that demand enhanced situational use of their human intuitive and creative capacities themselves as a perceptual, diagnostic, and inferential resource. Thereby, the article calls for a more reasoned use of these sorts of creatively informed human capacities where they can be utilized sensitively in critical-vigorous fashion to gauge the held local/situational realities of and about the world, and with critical-rigor over the care in which those found understandings are reflexively captured and crosschecked. But the authors of this review article recognize that the new/emergent intersubjectivities and the new/ unfolding moral discourse of qualitative inquiry are still rupturing, still messy, and (for many researchers) still a rather dark matter. As the field of Tourism Studies continues into the 21st century, there are so many new options and opportunities in the engagement with the ever-expanding portfolio of qualitative research approaches-but there is still so much to learn in situ about how each one of them may be sensibly and appropriately deployed in each of those specific research locales.
    • Tourism and the many faces of power

      Church, Andrew; Coles, Tim (Routledge, 2006-11-24)
      The introduction to this book in Chapter 1 started by outlining how media commentators have made connections between tourism, terrorism and those who appear to wield power in global geopolitics. Recently, media and human rights reports have also illustrated the apparent powerlessness in the lives of some individuals involved in tourism. One of the effects of the 2004 tsunami in southern and Southeast Asia was to destroy the ‘economic’ spaces on and near to beaches used by locally owned businesses and independent operators. A report compiled by ActionAid International, the People’s Movement for Human Rights Education and Habitat International Coalition was presented to the United Nations in February 2006 and reveals that despite the official emphasis on rebuilding, many individuals now find they are denied access to these spaces or the funding support to re-establish their tourism enterprises, while others with financial resources, political influence and claims to the land will determine their future use (ActionAid International 2006; Weaver 2006). * Chapter 12
    • Tourism, power and space

      Church, Andrew; Coles, Tim (Routledge, 2006-11-24)
      This is the first volume to explicitly consider how leisure and tourism acts as a major focus by which power may be understood in a geographical context. Key thinking and major approaches to unravelling the complexities of power are outlined in this collection and their relevance to current and future tourism studies is discussed. Tourism, Power and Space blends theoretical perspectives from leading power theorists such as: Parsons, Foucault and Clegg. Exploring the intricacies of the relationships between power, tourism and leisure, this stimulating volume combines theoretical and empirical writings to illustrate the extent to which power, in its various forms and guises and at various scales of operation, impacts on the unfolding structures, practices and organization of tourism and leisure on both the demand and supply sides. Divided into three sections: Power, Performance And Practice, Power, Property And Resources and Power, Governance And Empowerment; this text will be a useful resource for students and academics alike.
    • Tourism, politics and the forgotten entanglements of power

      Church, Andrew; Coles, Tim (Routledge, 2006-11-24)
      Kenya, 28 November 2002: an Arkia airlines charter jet was narrowly missed by two surface-to-air missiles as it started its ascent from Mombassa airport. On board were 261 passengers, the majority of whom were Israeli citizens on their way home after their vacations. Just as it was attacked, 15 people died in a bomb attack on the Paradise Hotel on the Indian Ocean coast. Nine Kenyans and three Israelis, two of whom were children, were killed along with the three suicide bombers. Eighty people were injured, many badly (BBC 2002). Al-Qaeda operatives in Kenya claimed responsibility in the aftermath of the attack (CNN 2002). * Chapter 1
    • Literature reviews [2005]

      Barr, Stewart; Church, Andrew (Routledge, 2006-08-20)
      review of Case Studies on Ecotourism Ralf Buckley Wallingford, CABI, 2003, ISBN 0 85199 665 5
    • The ontology of exclusion: a European perspective on leisure constraints research

      Ravenscroft, Neil; Church, Andrew; Gilchrist, Paul (Venture Publishing, Inc., 2005-03-30)
    • Tourism, CPRs and environmental ethics

      Holden, Andrew (Elsevier, 2004-12-06)
    • Tourism, the global city and the labour market in London

      Church, Andrew; Frost, Martin (Routledge, 2004-05-30)
      Global cities, such as London, are viewed as distinctive in terms of their role in the increasingly globalized economy. There has been considerable academic debate over the nature of global city labour markets and how these can be explained in relation to global city functions. New empirical evidence is presented for the tourism labour market in London and the UK. The pay, conditions and social characteristics of tourism workers in London are examined, and they appear distinctive in terms of their full-time, gender (male), student, ethnicity and migrant characteristics. An explanation is developed that explores the interactions between the global city role of London and other scaled geographical processes that originate, especially at the national level.
    • Discussion forum

      Coles, Tim; Church, Andrew; Desforges, Luke (Routledge, 2004-05-01)