• ABCD to CBT: asset-based community development's potential for community-based tourism

      Dolezal, Claudia; Burns, Peter (Routledge, 2014-12-20)
      This article conceptualises the potential for a relationship between asset-based community development (ABCD) and community-based tourism (CBT), with a view to improving CBT's patchy record in delivering community development. ABCD has previously been used in international development and community work, but is new to tourism for development. Hence, the article seeks to relate ABCD's characteristics with CBT on a theoretical level, based on a shift away from ‘needs-driven’ development towards a conscious appreciation of community assets. The authors suggest that ABCD can, and should, be applied to CBT, given the positive emphasis it puts on people and their potential.
    • Air connectivity for leisure tourism; the way forward

      Arvanitis, Pavlos (Goodfellows, 2021-05-25)
      Tourism is an activity that evolves mobility. International tourism arrivals by air account for almost 60%. Despite the spectacular increase in air connectivity there are distinct differences between different connectivity types since we tend to refer to direct and indirect connectivity, airport connectivity and hub connectivity. Several tourism destinations are impacted by the air connectivity type that is available in their nearby or serving airport of their region or proximity. The aim of this chapter is to discuss the tourism dynamics resulting emerging transformations in air connectivity and the implications on international air travel. Increased air connectivity is linked to economic growth and development, however direct air connectivity has been driving both tourism and air transport industries. The introduction of new aircraft which can fly longer and more economically is likely to transform direct connectivity and hub connectivity at the same time. The airline business models have evolved over the last twenty years and it is highly likely that this transformation will continue to unfold since the market and the passengers’ needs are constantly evolving. Implications for airlines and destinations will be discussed, outlining the core trends which are dominating the industry in terms of connectivity and its relations to tourism destinations. Key words: air connectivity, tourism destinations, air transport, tourism
    • Air transport and tourism

      Arvanitis, Pavlos (Edward Elgar, 2022-07-31)
      The term “Air Transport and Tourism” refers to the relationship between one another. Although, each term is widely discussed separately as Air Transport in one hand and Tourism in another, the combination of them tends to be complicated since they both feed each other and vice versa. It can be argued that there is an interchangeable cause and effect relationship between them. Tourism entails mobility of the tourists (customers/consumers/passengers) which is provided by air transport services, amongst other transport services also. Therefore, “Air Transport and Tourism” as a combined term, refers to the actions, impacts and results this term brings to the tourism industry.
    • Behavioural ambidexterity: effects on individual wellbeing and high performance work in academia

      Raiden, Ani; Raisanen, Christine; Kinman, Gail; University of Bedfordshire; Nottingham Trent University; Chalmers University of Technology (Routledge, 2019-04-08)
      Academic work demands behavioural ambidexterity: the ability to simultaneously demonstrate exploration (creativity in research and/or in innovative teaching and learning practice) and exploitation (compliance with quality assurance). However, little is known about the effects of behavioural ambidexterity on the well-being of individual employees. We explore the experiences of men working in academic roles at universities in Sweden and the UK. More specifically, we examine the relations between behavioural ambidexterity and perceptions of well-being using an interpretative approach based on narrative analysis. Despite societal differences between Sweden and the UK, academics in both countries felt ill-equipped to fulfil the demands for ambidexterity. This resulted in mixed performance outcomes with serious implications for well-being. We identify and discuss the influence of personal circumstances and the role of agency in work design as two key antecedents of positive well-being outcomes.
    • Climate change discourses: how UK airlines communicate their case to the public

      Burns, Peter; Cowlishaw, Chantelle; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2014-03-04)
      Whilst there are many arguments and counterarguments surrounding aviation's contribution to climate change, the sector is increasingly scrutinised, especially in regard to tourism mobility questions. This paper identifies, examines and analyses the discourses that airlines choose to communicate via their websites regarding their role, responsibility and their viewpoints about the issues involved in their relationship to climate change. Studying the web is of growing importance: corporate organizations increasingly use the Internet to communicate influential discourses, engage consumers, and inform the media, who themselves use digital systems to form opinions and influence decisions. Drawing on publicly available communications from six contrasting UK airlines, the study seeks to identify their perceived roles and responsibilities as producers. The data are analysed through content and frame analyses. The study concludes, inter alia, that the airlines under study make both justifiable and unjustifiable claims, and use polarised prioritisation, scepticism and uncertainty creation to put forward their case. Airlines are classified into one of six types: (1) continuous committed benchmarkers, (2) realistic technological innovators, (3) minimal practicalities, (4) low-cost innovators, (5) low-cost sceptics and (6) low-cost opposers. The paper uses and adds to an emerging research method, netnography. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
    • Denying bogus skepticism in climate change and tourism research

      Hall, C. Michael; Amelung, Bas; Cohen, Scott; Eijgelaar, Eke; Gössling, Stefan; Higham, James; Leemans, Rik; Peeters, Paul; Ram, Yael; Scott, Daniel; et al. (Elsevier Ltd, 2014-09-30)
      This final response to the two climate change denial papers by Shani and Arad further highlights the inaccuracies, misinformation and errors in their commentaries. The obfuscation of scientific research and the consensus on anthropogenic climate change may have significant long-term negative consequences for better understanding the implications of climate change and climate policy for tourism and create confusion and delay in developing and implementing tourism sector responses.
    • Diasporas disentangled: the cultivation of an open/spiral imagination in Tourism Studies

      Ivanova, Milka; Hollinshead, Keith (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2016-01-26)
      This companion article by Ivanova and Hollinshead seeks to show how "the changing same of the diasporic imaginal" (after Leroi Jones, via Gilroy) often conceivably constitutes "a wicked problem" (after Brown, Harris, and Russell) that is often so complex in its characteristics that hard and fast definitions about it (and solutions for its problematics) are not easy to conjure up. Thus, in order to monitor how ethnic, cultural, and historic codes are switched and hybridized in and through the inconstant identifications of diasporic senses of inheritance and aspiration, this article endeavors to show how transdisciplinary lines of inspection may prove useful. Taken in tandem with the previous article by Hollinshead, the two dovetailed articles thereby comprise no tributary celebration of the purity of ethnic or national culture, but one that indeed demands a high degree of open interpretive imagination if such matters of ambivalence and ambiguity are to be gradually and meaningfully deciphered.
    • The diversiform character of diasporas today: mapping and monitoring the polymorphous and/or the protean

      Hollinshead, Keith (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2016-01-26)
      This article is the first of a pair of manuscripts based on the assumption that different diaspora constitute various sorts of imagined communities that each comprise a dispersed association of ethnically and/or culturally and/or historically connected populations. These imagined but spread peoples appear (on the surface) to exhibit-to various degrees-unified cross-national identifications, and tend to have experienced similar and often "difficult" heritages of displacement, travel, and migration, and are inclined to reflect like psychic and political dynamics of memory and self-celebration. This first article is further predicated on the view, however, that the very concept of the imagined diasporic network (in tourism studies and related fields) generally gives rise to troubled ideas about enforced flight, reluctant scattering, and dislocated wandering, and therefore demands rich and deep levels of interpretive perspicacity if the resultant conflictual identities and the involved indeterminacies of being are to be effectively mapped and deeply registered. It recognizes that these hard to decipher contingencies of identification are nigh impossible to read in clear-cut absolute terms of nature or agreed inheritance, for each diaspora tends to be typified by and through idiosyncratic and hybridized cultural forms.
    • Environmental ethics for tourism- the state of the art

      Holden, Andrew (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2019-06-12)
      Purpose: Environmental ethics has become an established subject of philosophy in recent decades in response to the contemporary environmental crisis. This paper aims to provide an overview of the key theories and concepts and critically evaluate the extent of their application in tourism studies. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a systematic literature review of published academic papers that link environmental ethics to tourism. It subsequently attempts to provide a comprehensive review of what is currently a nascent field of research enquiry to comprehend and evaluate the relevance and implications of environmental ethics for tourism. Using a theoretical ethical framework of libertarian extensionism, eco-holism and the conservation ethic, moral debates that arise from their use in tourism are analysed. As a field of academic study that presently lacks research enquiry areas for future research investigation are subsequently identified. Findings: The paper forms a part of the “State of the Art” series and subsequently does not present empirical findings. However, through critical evaluation, it demonstrates the complexity of the application of environmental ethics to tourism through differing perspectives within the subject and when nature’s interests are juxtaposed to concerns of anthropic ethics. To develop a stronger environmental ethics amongst tourism stakeholders that recognises the intrinsic value of nature, it is recommended that ecological virtue and literacy are key elements in this process. Originality/value: The originality of the paper rests in providing a comprehensive overview of the existing level of application of the theories of environmental ethics to tourism; the appliance of theory to debates of tourism’s environmental challenges; and identifying research directions to help fill knowledge gaps.
    • The everyday instillations of worldmaking: new vistas of understanding on the declarative reach of tourism

      Hollinshead, Keith; Suleman, Rukeya (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2018-05-15)
      In this article the authors trace the development of attention that has been given to renovated constructions of Goodman's old concept of "worldmaking," as had been originally used in the arts and aesthetics in the 1970s. They reveal how the subject of worldmaking entered the lexicon of Tourism Studies at the turn of century through the transdisciplinary/postdisciplinary applications of Hollinshead vis-à-vis understandings of what is normalized and/or naturalized through the everyday/ordinary activities of tourism (and through the mundane/banal orientations of Tourism Studies, itself). In defining what worldmaking is seen to be nowadays-as those inherited but contested acts of instillation or instillment that version the world (or rather, which privilege certain vistas over peoples, places, pasts, and presents over other visions)-Hollinshead and Suleman clarify that observers in Tourism Studies have actually been commenting on the essentializing and objectifying political character of the storylines and projections of tourism for a much longer time than the last decade (or couple of decades), although they recognize that it is only recently that the particular term worldmaking has come into explicit use, itself. Having scrutinized how worldmaking ideas are treated in tourism/Tourism Studies these days, this article then examines how parallel inscriptive fields to Tourism Studies (such as Cultural Studies/Media Studies/Literary Studies) also richly articulate ideas about worldmaking agency, even though the subject was seemingly adopted rather later in those other domains. It closes with the provision of a number of potential research agendas into the ordinary/everyplace worldmaking instillations of tourism for researchers (and practitioners) in Tourism Studies, whether their critical mindedness is "pure and conceptual" or "applied and operational".
    • Evolving perspectives on tourism’s interaction with nature during the last 40 years

      Holden, Andrew (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2015-05-22)
      The aim of this retrospective is to evaluate the changing paradigms of tourism’s relationship with nature over the last four decades. It is presented as one interpretation of this relationship not a definitive fait accompli. The period is characterized by an evolution of the society-nature relationship in response to environmental challenges never previously experienced. This includes a reassessment of ʼnature’ as both a social construction and scientific reality and a subsequent re-evaluation of our relationship to it, reflected in new paradigms including sustainability and environmental ethics. The paradox of tourism’s relationship with the environment has simultaneously played out over the period, exemplified in its contemporary interpretations as a key sustainable industry of the green economy and a significant contributor to GHG emissions and global warming. The conflicting interpretations of tourism suggest that the principles and ethics of environmental discourse will be critical for evaluating the tourism and nature relationship. This connection will continue to evolve and tourism’s increasing popularity and global economic importance ensures that it will have consequences for nature whilst providing a window into society’s environmental values and attitudes.
    • Fostering collaboration between academia and the tourism sector

      Walters, Gabby; Burns, Peter; Stettler, Jürg (Routledge, 2015-09-11)
    • Gendering the tourism curriculum whilst becoming an academic

      Jeffrey, Heather; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2017-08-31)
      Pedagogy should be understood as transformative practice, and yet in many cases the neoliberalization and patriarchal structure of higher education institutions can stifle teachers and students. Tourism has been promoted as a vehicle for female empowerment, yet here it is suggested that in order for this to happen, gender must not only be taught in tourism classrooms, but it must be taught adopting a feminist approach. The motivation for this paper is to explore how power dynamics intersect and relate to teaching gender in the tourism classroom in order to highlight potential barriers to gendering the curriculum. Reflexively engaging with my own practice I highlight potential future strategies for academicians.
    • Geopolitics of tourism and academia in the Holy Land

      Ram, Yael; Isaac, Rami K.; Shamir, Omri; Burns, Peter (Routledge, 2016-10-21)
      The premise for this paper is that tourism scholars researching in Israel and Palestine are, in effect, actors in the geopolitical landscape of the Holy Land. Political tourism is a significant factor in how the Israel–Palestine geopolitical conflict is represented. The current paper provides an analysis of how tourism academics address the situation. A research team of Israeli, Palestinian and a third country origins collaborated to produce a narrative synthesis by systematically reviewing 35 academic papers selected through defined criteria. This approach minimized bias and aimed for analytical robustness and validity. Two main conclusions are derived from the analysis. First, papers tend to focus on the social, touristic and religious aspects of tourism not on the core issues of the geopolitical conflict. Second, the works did not contribute to dialogue between parties but reinforced separateness thus reflecting the political conflict.
    • (Im)mobilities of older Pakistani female migrants and material culture: a multigenerational perspective on gift-giving

      Ali, Nazia; Suleman, Rukeya (John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2017-04-05)
      The purpose of the paper is to discuss, from a multigenerational perspective, the (im)mobilities of older Pakistani women migrants in the UK and the material culture of gift-giving, which moves with (and without) them to and from the ancestral homeland of Pakistan. A multigenerational perspective allows us to comprehend the collective importance of the mobilities of older Pakistani female migrants in upholding the culturally significant ritualistic custom of gift-giving. The research is situated within the theoretical context of the ‘New Mobilities Paradigm’ to understand the mobility patterns of older migrants and the mobilisation of material culture. We find that the process of coordinating and exchanging gifts leads to a great deal of physical mobility, within localities and national spaces, but also internationally across different diasporic locations. In doing so, older Pakistani women migrants perform an important role as ‘gift agents’ in the host and home countries, assuring their own social status as well as that of their families. Importantly, the resulting mobility of older Pakistani women empowers their less mobile peers to also participate in gift-giving. This paper concludes by extending the concept of ‘mobility practices’ to include the mobility of gifts as a practice, which can compensate for physical immobility in older age due to ill-health, fragility, or other factors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    • In need of new environmental ethics for tourism?

      Holden, Andrew; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier Ltd, 2003-01-27)
      The principal aim of this paper is to evaluate the actions of tourism stakeholders towards nature within the context of environmental ethics. Through an understanding of the ethical stance taken by stakeholders towards nature, it becomes possible to comprehend actions and evaluate their suitability. The conceptual literature in the field of environmental ethics is utilized to analyze the policy statements and actions of stakeholders. The main conclusion is that the majority of them now pursue an ethic of conservation vis-a-vis an instrumental use of nature. However there seems to be little desire for a further shift to a non-anthropocentric environmental ethic. ©2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • An introduction to tourism–environment relationships

      Holden, Andrew (Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2009-05-28)
    • Kuwait: why tourism?

      Burns, Peter; Bibbings, Lyn (Taylor and Francis, 2017-07-14)
    • No time for smokescreen skepticism: a rejoinder to Shani and Arad

      Hall, C. Michael; Amelung, Bas; Cohen, Scott; Eijgelaar, Eke; Gössling, Stefan; Higham, James; Leemans, Rik; Peeters, Paul; Ram, Yael; Scott, Daniel; et al. (Elsevier Ltd, 2014-10-05)
      Shani and Arad (2014) claimed that tourism scholars tend to endorse the most pessimistic assessments regarding climate change, and that anthropogenic climate change was a "fashionable" and "highly controversial scientific topic". This brief rejoinder provides the balance that is missing from such climate change denial and skepticism studies on climate change and tourism. Recent research provides substantial evidence that reports on anthropogenic climate change are accurate, and that human-induced greenhouse gas emissions, including from the tourism industry, play a significant role in climate change. Some positive net effects may be experienced by some destinations in the short-term, but in the long-term all elements of the tourism system will be impacted. The expansion of tourism emissions at a rate greater than efficiency gains means that it is increasingly urgent that the tourism sector acknowledge, accept and respond to climate change. Debate on tourism-related adaptation and mitigation measures is to be encouraged and welcomed. Climate change denial is not.