• (Im)mobilities of older Pakistani female migrants and material culture: a multigenerational perspective on gift-giving

      Ali, Nazia; Suleman, Rukeya (John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2017-04-05)
      The purpose of the paper is to discuss, from a multigenerational perspective, the (im)mobilities of older Pakistani women migrants in the UK and the material culture of gift-giving, which moves with (and without) them to and from the ancestral homeland of Pakistan. A multigenerational perspective allows us to comprehend the collective importance of the mobilities of older Pakistani female migrants in upholding the culturally significant ritualistic custom of gift-giving. The research is situated within the theoretical context of the ‘New Mobilities Paradigm’ to understand the mobility patterns of older migrants and the mobilisation of material culture. We find that the process of coordinating and exchanging gifts leads to a great deal of physical mobility, within localities and national spaces, but also internationally across different diasporic locations. In doing so, older Pakistani women migrants perform an important role as ‘gift agents’ in the host and home countries, assuring their own social status as well as that of their families. Importantly, the resulting mobility of older Pakistani women empowers their less mobile peers to also participate in gift-giving. This paper concludes by extending the concept of ‘mobility practices’ to include the mobility of gifts as a practice, which can compensate for physical immobility in older age due to ill-health, fragility, or other factors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    • In need of new environmental ethics for tourism?

      Holden, Andrew; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier Ltd, 2003-01-27)
      The principal aim of this paper is to evaluate the actions of tourism stakeholders towards nature within the context of environmental ethics. Through an understanding of the ethical stance taken by stakeholders towards nature, it becomes possible to comprehend actions and evaluate their suitability. The conceptual literature in the field of environmental ethics is utilized to analyze the policy statements and actions of stakeholders. The main conclusion is that the majority of them now pursue an ethic of conservation vis-a-vis an instrumental use of nature. However there seems to be little desire for a further shift to a non-anthropocentric environmental ethic. ©2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • An introduction to tourism–environment relationships

      Holden, Andrew (Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2009-05-28)
    • Kuwait: why tourism?

      Burns, Peter; Bibbings, Lyn (Taylor and Francis, 2017-07-14)
    • No time for smokescreen skepticism: a rejoinder to Shani and Arad

      Hall, C. Michael; Amelung, Bas; Cohen, Scott; Eijgelaar, Eke; Gössling, Stefan; Higham, James; Leemans, Rik; Peeters, Paul; Ram, Yael; Scott, Daniel; et al. (Elsevier Ltd, 2014-10-05)
      Shani and Arad (2014) claimed that tourism scholars tend to endorse the most pessimistic assessments regarding climate change, and that anthropogenic climate change was a "fashionable" and "highly controversial scientific topic". This brief rejoinder provides the balance that is missing from such climate change denial and skepticism studies on climate change and tourism. Recent research provides substantial evidence that reports on anthropogenic climate change are accurate, and that human-induced greenhouse gas emissions, including from the tourism industry, play a significant role in climate change. Some positive net effects may be experienced by some destinations in the short-term, but in the long-term all elements of the tourism system will be impacted. The expansion of tourism emissions at a rate greater than efficiency gains means that it is increasingly urgent that the tourism sector acknowledge, accept and respond to climate change. Debate on tourism-related adaptation and mitigation measures is to be encouraged and welcomed. Climate change denial is not.
    • A portrait of John Urry – harbinger of the death of distance

      Hollinshead, Keith; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2015-12-30)
    • Postdisciplinarity and the rise of intellectual openness: the necessity for "plural knowability" in tourism studies

      Hollinshead, Keith (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2016-07-01)
      In this article-which is based on my keynote presentation at the "Welcoming Encounters: Tourism Research in a Postdisciplinary Era" 2013 conference at the Institute of Ethnology, University of Neuchatel, Switzerland-I maintain that postdisciplinarity is a form of painstaking (in time and effort) inquiry that makes considered use of academic and nonacademic forms of knowing to trace the plural truths that apply in difficult-to-fathom globalizing/decolonizing/postcolonial settings. In this article, I suggest that open-to-the-future postdisciplinary styles of research are critically valuable where a range or multiplicity of interpretive cultural/cosmological outlooks on the world has been poorly understood, and where important longstanding or emergent en groupe perspectives have been ignored or subjugated by governing powers/agencies. In suggesting that those who work in tourism scenarios regularly have to deal with such difficult contestations of value across the globe-where the poesis or the fantasmatics of local/contesting populations are decidedly different-I draw particularly on Gilroy's work on "diaspora" and on Bhabha's thinking on "emergent/hybrid locations of culture" to highlight the sorts of difficult-to-read ambivalent/protean/transgressive identifications that are readily the stuff of postdisciplinary inquiry. The article closes with the recognition that today, postdisciplinary investigators can harness much from the recent liberation in "social justice research practices" that Denzin and Lincoln (and their myriad of diverse critico-interpretive/qualitative researchers) have advocated, notably the advances in "bricoleurship" recently conceptualized by Kincheloe.
    • Qualitative tourism research: opportunities in the emergent soft sciences

      Wilson, Erica; Hollinshead, Keith; Southern Cross University; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier Ltd, 2015-06-23)
      A liberation in 'soft science' inquiry over recent decades has opened up ontological, epistemological and methodological opportunities, but this empowerment is often under-recognised in investigations of tourism. While qualitative inquiry has made significant advances within tourism studies, scholars can gain richly by continuing to cultivate forms of critical multilogicality, and by embracing some of the methods and approaches on offer elsewhere across the broader (soft) social sciences. This paper thereby advances a set of key conceptual principles which guide emergent soft science thinking; it reviews their applicability within tourism studies through a probative 'tableau' of qualitative approach exemplars.
    • Scientific tourism: researchers as travellers

      Slocum, Susan; Kline, Carol; Holden, Andrew (Taylor and Francis Inc., 2017-05-25)
      As researchers in emerging economies, scientists are often the first foreign visitors to stay in remote rural areas and, on occasion, form joint venture ecotourism and community tourism projects or poverty alleviation schemes between local agencies or NGOs, the local community, and their home institution or agency. They therefore can contribute to avenues for the conservation of natural resources and the development of rural communities as well as influencing the future tourism development through its perceived legitimacy and the destination image it promotes. This book for the first time critically reviews tourism debates surrounding this emerging market of scientific and research oriented tourism. It is divided into three inter-related sections. Section 1 sets the stage of the discourse of scientific research in tourism; Section 2 evaluates the key players of scientific tourism looking particularly at the roles of NGOs, government agencies and university academic staff and Section 3 contains case studies documenting the niche of researchers as travelers in a range of geographical locations including Tanzania, Australia, Chile, Peru and Mexico. The title's multidisciplinary approach provides an informed, interesting and stimulating addition to the existing limited literature and raises many issues and associated questions including the role of science tourism in tourism development and expansion, the impacts of scientific and research-based tourism, travel behaviors and motivations of researchers to name but a few. This significant volume will provide the reader with a better understanding of scientists as travelers, their relationship to the tourism industry, and the role they play in community development around tourism sites. It will be valuable reading for students and academics across the fields of Tourism, Geography and Development Studies as well as other social science disciplines.
    • Time for fluid acumen: a call for improved tourism studies dialogue with the decolonizing world

      Hollinshead, Keith; Suleman, Rukeya (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2017-03-01)
      This article draws from the work of recent commentators in Tourism Studies like Coles, Hall, and Duval (calling for much more prevalent adisciplinary/extradisciplinary cognition in Tourism Studies), like Franklin (demanding much more commonplace critique of the ways in which different societies are ordered), and like Hollinshead (bemoaning the general absence of open-to-the-future research agendas in and across the field). The article aims to consolidate the advances signposted by such new wave/ new sense social theorists by drawing up a substantial conceptual glossary to help Tourism Studies researchers (and investigators in related fields) towards improved identification about the cosmologies of "other," "distant," or "underrecognized" populations, and towards more pertinent research agendas into the strategies of power that represent the cultural warrants and the aspirations of "different" peoples. In seeking in particular to develop an informed and contextualized lexicon on matters of decolonization vis-a-vis the political and communicative reach of tourism, the glossary focuses upon terms and concepts that pertain to the fantasmatics of populations (i.e., to the cherished emic aspirations of being and becoming that propel particular "distant"/"marginalized"/"postcolonial" societies). Hopefully, the provision of the glossary shown here can help improve the conceptual manner by which the consequential power/agency of tourism is understood today in terms of its authority to inscribe and project decolonizing societies and so-called postcolonial scenarios. The glossary being introduced within the article is itself drawn from a larger work in progress lexicon consisting of some 500 words (plus), which the authors are defining in long-haul fashion to variously describe the old sense/the wrong sense/the new sense/the open sense fantasmatics of populations. The overall more substantial glossary includes terms and concepts: On cosmology (deep listening, the indigenous renaissance, new nativism, quilted discourse, spiral discourse); on being and belonging (borderland pedagogy, conscientization, healing, fluid lives, complex personhood); on othering and otherness (governable bodies, hierarchies of knowledge, epistemic closure, linguicide, psychic violence); on imperialist/colonialist/neocolonialist understanding (rhetorical imperialism, master narratives, canonicity, cognitive imperialism, ascriptive identities); on fantasmatics [restorative processes, survivancy, the possibility of (XYZ), capacity, transgressive validities]; on new sense understandings (the dialectics of negotiation, the denaturalization of truth, interculturality, dethinking, the power of possibility). Copyright
    • Tourism "the third ear": Further prospects for qualitative inquiry

      Hollinshead, Keith; Jamal, Tazim B. (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2007-04-01)
      This commentary on the state of the art of qualitative research in Tourism Studies is prompted and inspired by the recent appearance of Phillimore and Goodson's valuable coverage of the ontological and epistemological issues involved in the conduct of the enlarging body of qualitative research that has lately emerged in the field. It also stands as a follow-up article to the work of Jamal and Hollinshead in Tourism Management on similar matters. Like the latter, that is, that timely "Qualitative Research as a Forbidden Zone" article, this Tourism Analysis review article is premised upon the view that just as travel and tourism mirror so much of the social, communal, and political realities of the cultural world "out there," so research in Tourism Studies can mirror and much more advantageously utilize so many of the emergent phenomenological and ethnographic advances in research praxis that have followed in the wake of the so-called interpretive turn and the so-called literary turn of the human sciences. In viewing travel and tourism as critical and dynamic fields of seeing, being, experiencing, inventing, and knowing of and about the world, this review article positions travel and tourism as an inherently endlessly creative and mediating field of lived experience that, therefore, should be much more deeply explored interpretively, and thereby "qualitatively," in the light of the new insights that qualitative researchers have lately gained across human science disciplines into matters of meaning, textuality, and rhetorical power. Although The Forbidden Zone of Jamal and Hollinshead (in Tourism Management) explored the relevance of matters of "messy text," "confirmability," "engaged interestedness," "locality" for Tourism Studies, this follow-up article here in Tourism Analysis peruses related questions of "text," "voice," "reflexivity," "audience." It broadly concludes that-after Wichroski (1997)-the inexperienced qualitative researcher in travel/tourism/any domain can normally improve his or her sensibilities to the interpretive issues faced and to the contextual situation encountered by learning how to deploy "a third ear" to actively sense the involved difficult matters of "tacit" individual presence, "unstated" communal existence, "undeclared" researcher power and authority in both the research locales and the investigative processes he/she is engaged in. Although this follow-up (Third Ear) article posits many strengths in the use of qualitative research in Tourism Studies-particularly in tapping the misty plurivocality of populations and the exacting, contested narratives about places and pasts-the endeavor to understand the different styles of interpretive/ethnographictextual insight that course through various qualitative techniques is no soft option in research, and demands considerable sensitivity to the unfixities of meaning, affiliation, and identity. Overall then, as did Phillimore and Goodson, this Third Ear review article seeks to shift the debate about the merit and value of qualitative research beyond concerns of "technique" and away from the strictures of "method," per se, towards the need for the collective field of Tourism Studies to encourage more of its researchers towards flexible, interpretive approaches that demand enhanced situational use of their human intuitive and creative capacities themselves as a perceptual, diagnostic, and inferential resource. Thereby, the article calls for a more reasoned use of these sorts of creatively informed human capacities where they can be utilized sensitively in critical-vigorous fashion to gauge the held local/situational realities of and about the world, and with critical-rigor over the care in which those found understandings are reflexively captured and crosschecked. But the authors of this review article recognize that the new/emergent intersubjectivities and the new/ unfolding moral discourse of qualitative inquiry are still rupturing, still messy, and (for many researchers) still a rather dark matter. As the field of Tourism Studies continues into the 21st century, there are so many new options and opportunities in the engagement with the ever-expanding portfolio of qualitative research approaches-but there is still so much to learn in situ about how each one of them may be sensibly and appropriately deployed in each of those specific research locales.
    • Tourism and gendered hosts and guests

      Jeffrey, Heather; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2019-11-04)
      Purpose: This conceptual paper aims to contribute to the extant tourism and gender literature by highlighting a tendency towards the conceptualisation of gendered research participants as host or guest depending upon their nationality. Design/methodology/approach: The argument presented here is based on a critical review of literature concerned with gender and tourism, focusing specifically on studies that include participant voices since 2010. Findings: The paper identifies a tendency in research on gender and tourism to conceptualise women and men from the West as guests and women and men from the rest as hosts. It is argued that working within this dominant framework can equate to an overlooking of many issues facing women and men globally; in doing so, it paves the way for future research and opens dialogue for important conversations on gender and feminist research in the academic field of tourism. Research limitations/implications: This paper aims to highlight a limitation in theorising rather than provide an exhaustive or systematic review of the literature. Future research trajectories are outlined. Originality/value: The paper’s originality lies in the problematisation of commonly accepted terminology when conceptualising research participants in tourism and providing suggestions for future research.
    • Tourism policies of Bangladesh: a contextual analysis

      Hassan, Azizul; Burns, Peter (Routledge, 2014-03-10)
      This paper outlines a brief analysis of the Bangladesh tourism policies as a case. A proper set of policies is required to develop any sector systematically. Tourism as an important part of economy of any country cannot be an exception. Bangladesh as a potential ground of both domestic and international tourism also necessitates proper and effective policies. This study while attempting to understand the context reveals the demand of a valid set of tourism policies formulation. This is particularly important to cope with the global challenges and thus to ensure this sector's contribute in the national economy. This study also stresses on effective role play of both the private and public parties.
    • Tourism, CPRs and environmental ethics

      Holden, Andrew (Elsevier, 2004-12-06)
    • Tourist destination reputation: an empirical definition

      Darwish, Alyaa; Burns, Peter; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2019-01-07)
      Tourism is a reputation-dependent industry; on the demand side, potential travellers without previous experience of a destination face certain risks when determining their travel options. An accurate perception of the destination’s reputation helps minimise risk of unsatisfactory travel experiences. On the supply side, a favourable tourist destination reputation enhances the destination’s competitive advantage, and helps it to compete for visitors, investments, and skilled human resources. Despite the importance of tourist destination reputation, attempts at developing a definition have been somewhat limited by an over-reliance on theories of corporate reputation. The present study suggests a comprehensive definition of tourist destination reputation based on empirical study, by applying a Delphi research with a group of ten professional and academic tourism experts. Consensus was reached after conducting two-rounds of the Delphi process, resulted in an agreed definition for tourist destination reputation that takes account of professional insights.
    • Tunisia : mass tourism in crisis?

      Jeffrey, Heather; Bleasdale, Sue; University of Bedfordshire; Middlesex University (CABI, 2017-07-01)
      Successive governments in post-colonial Tunisia have sought to develop mass tourism as an avenue for social and economic development. Political instability and increasing media coverage have more recently led to a dramatic reduction in foreign tourist arrivals. Tunisia provides insights into the intersections of modernity, mass tourism, authoritarianism and terrorism, and in a world marred by terrorist attacks it becomes increasingly important to analyse the specific contexts from which these emerge. This chapter aims to address some of these issues by evaluating mass tourism development in Tunisia, highlighting the social and economic advances Tunisia has achieved, before analysing the situation since the Jasmine revolution of 2011. In order to fully analyse mass tourism in Tunisia, we draw on our own experience, which includes over 30 years of research in Tunisia, and fieldwork carried out shortly after the March 2015 Bardo Museum attack in the capital city Tunis. Finally, the chapter looks towards the future of mass tourism in Tunisia, arguing that while mass tourism has delivered positive advances, if it is to continue to do so the industry must be diversified and adapted to meet new needs.
    • Walking in Jozi: guided tours, insecurity and urban regeneration in inner city Johannesburg

      Opfermann, Lena S. (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2020-04-26)
      This article explores how the emerging tourism sector in Johannesburg is intertwined with current processes of urban regeneration and development. Using walking tours as a case study, I illustrate how tour operators navigate insecure urban spaces and contribute to their (re-)development by performing (in)security, by offering ‘authentic’ experiences and by actively engaging in social and economic activities. I argue that walking tours promote a particular kind of urban development that aims to appeal to a new urban middle class and is in line with the vision pursued by big private investors and new urban entrepreneurs. Similar to other global gentrification processes, this vision draws on Western notions of hip urban lifestyles and aesthetics in order to foster an image of the city as pan-African and cool. While making new spaces accessible, this approach to urban development also affects and threatens other inner city users, including African migrants living or working in precarious conditions. I contend that these side effects of the currently promoted urban regeneration have so far been overlooked. In order to create a social and sustainable urban development that supersedes apartheid-era spatial segregation, these effects should be taken into account by the tourism sector, by private investors and policy makers alike.