• Behavioural ambidexterity: effects on individual wellbeing and high performance work in academia

      Raiden, Ani; Raisanen, Christine; Kinman, Gail; University of Bedfordshire; Nottingham Trent University; Chalmers University of Technology (Routledge, 2019-04-08)
      Academic work demands behavioural ambidexterity: the ability to simultaneously demonstrate exploration (creativity in research and/or in innovative teaching and learning practice) and exploitation (compliance with quality assurance). However, little is known about the effects of behavioural ambidexterity on the well-being of individual employees. We explore the experiences of men working in academic roles at universities in Sweden and the UK. More specifically, we examine the relations between behavioural ambidexterity and perceptions of well-being using an interpretative approach based on narrative analysis. Despite societal differences between Sweden and the UK, academics in both countries felt ill-equipped to fulfil the demands for ambidexterity. This resulted in mixed performance outcomes with serious implications for well-being. We identify and discuss the influence of personal circumstances and the role of agency in work design as two key antecedents of positive well-being outcomes.
    • Climate change discourses: how UK airlines communicate their case to the public

      Burns, Peter; Cowlishaw, Chantelle; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2014-03-04)
      Whilst there are many arguments and counterarguments surrounding aviation's contribution to climate change, the sector is increasingly scrutinised, especially in regard to tourism mobility questions. This paper identifies, examines and analyses the discourses that airlines choose to communicate via their websites regarding their role, responsibility and their viewpoints about the issues involved in their relationship to climate change. Studying the web is of growing importance: corporate organizations increasingly use the Internet to communicate influential discourses, engage consumers, and inform the media, who themselves use digital systems to form opinions and influence decisions. Drawing on publicly available communications from six contrasting UK airlines, the study seeks to identify their perceived roles and responsibilities as producers. The data are analysed through content and frame analyses. The study concludes, inter alia, that the airlines under study make both justifiable and unjustifiable claims, and use polarised prioritisation, scepticism and uncertainty creation to put forward their case. Airlines are classified into one of six types: (1) continuous committed benchmarkers, (2) realistic technological innovators, (3) minimal practicalities, (4) low-cost innovators, (5) low-cost sceptics and (6) low-cost opposers. The paper uses and adds to an emerging research method, netnography. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
    • Denying bogus skepticism in climate change and tourism research

      Hall, C. Michael; Amelung, Bas; Cohen, Scott; Eijgelaar, Eke; Gössling, Stefan; Higham, James; Leemans, Rik; Peeters, Paul; Ram, Yael; Scott, Daniel; et al. (Elsevier Ltd, 2014-09-30)
      This final response to the two climate change denial papers by Shani and Arad further highlights the inaccuracies, misinformation and errors in their commentaries. The obfuscation of scientific research and the consensus on anthropogenic climate change may have significant long-term negative consequences for better understanding the implications of climate change and climate policy for tourism and create confusion and delay in developing and implementing tourism sector responses.
    • Gendering the tourism curriculum whilst becoming an academic

      Jeffrey, Heather; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2017-08-31)
      Pedagogy should be understood as transformative practice, and yet in many cases the neoliberalization and patriarchal structure of higher education institutions can stifle teachers and students. Tourism has been promoted as a vehicle for female empowerment, yet here it is suggested that in order for this to happen, gender must not only be taught in tourism classrooms, but it must be taught adopting a feminist approach. The motivation for this paper is to explore how power dynamics intersect and relate to teaching gender in the tourism classroom in order to highlight potential barriers to gendering the curriculum. Reflexively engaging with my own practice I highlight potential future strategies for academicians.
    • In need of new environmental ethics for tourism?

      Holden, Andrew; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier Ltd, 2003-01-27)
      The principal aim of this paper is to evaluate the actions of tourism stakeholders towards nature within the context of environmental ethics. Through an understanding of the ethical stance taken by stakeholders towards nature, it becomes possible to comprehend actions and evaluate their suitability. The conceptual literature in the field of environmental ethics is utilized to analyze the policy statements and actions of stakeholders. The main conclusion is that the majority of them now pursue an ethic of conservation vis-a-vis an instrumental use of nature. However there seems to be little desire for a further shift to a non-anthropocentric environmental ethic. ©2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • No time for smokescreen skepticism: a rejoinder to Shani and Arad

      Hall, C. Michael; Amelung, Bas; Cohen, Scott; Eijgelaar, Eke; Gössling, Stefan; Higham, James; Leemans, Rik; Peeters, Paul; Ram, Yael; Scott, Daniel; et al. (Elsevier Ltd, 2014-10-05)
      Shani and Arad (2014) claimed that tourism scholars tend to endorse the most pessimistic assessments regarding climate change, and that anthropogenic climate change was a "fashionable" and "highly controversial scientific topic". This brief rejoinder provides the balance that is missing from such climate change denial and skepticism studies on climate change and tourism. Recent research provides substantial evidence that reports on anthropogenic climate change are accurate, and that human-induced greenhouse gas emissions, including from the tourism industry, play a significant role in climate change. Some positive net effects may be experienced by some destinations in the short-term, but in the long-term all elements of the tourism system will be impacted. The expansion of tourism emissions at a rate greater than efficiency gains means that it is increasingly urgent that the tourism sector acknowledge, accept and respond to climate change. Debate on tourism-related adaptation and mitigation measures is to be encouraged and welcomed. Climate change denial is not.
    • Qualitative tourism research: opportunities in the emergent soft sciences

      Wilson, Erica; Hollinshead, Keith; Southern Cross University; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier Ltd, 2015-06-23)
      A liberation in 'soft science' inquiry over recent decades has opened up ontological, epistemological and methodological opportunities, but this empowerment is often under-recognised in investigations of tourism. While qualitative inquiry has made significant advances within tourism studies, scholars can gain richly by continuing to cultivate forms of critical multilogicality, and by embracing some of the methods and approaches on offer elsewhere across the broader (soft) social sciences. This paper thereby advances a set of key conceptual principles which guide emergent soft science thinking; it reviews their applicability within tourism studies through a probative 'tableau' of qualitative approach exemplars.
    • Tourism and gendered hosts and guests

      Jeffrey, Heather; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2019-11-04)
      Purpose: This conceptual paper aims to contribute to the extant tourism and gender literature by highlighting a tendency towards the conceptualisation of gendered research participants as host or guest depending upon their nationality. Design/methodology/approach: The argument presented here is based on a critical review of literature concerned with gender and tourism, focusing specifically on studies that include participant voices since 2010. Findings: The paper identifies a tendency in research on gender and tourism to conceptualise women and men from the West as guests and women and men from the rest as hosts. It is argued that working within this dominant framework can equate to an overlooking of many issues facing women and men globally; in doing so, it paves the way for future research and opens dialogue for important conversations on gender and feminist research in the academic field of tourism. Research limitations/implications: This paper aims to highlight a limitation in theorising rather than provide an exhaustive or systematic review of the literature. Future research trajectories are outlined. Originality/value: The paper’s originality lies in the problematisation of commonly accepted terminology when conceptualising research participants in tourism and providing suggestions for future research.
    • Tourist destination reputation: an empirical definition

      Darwish, Alyaa; Burns, Peter; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2019-01-07)
      Tourism is a reputation-dependent industry; on the demand side, potential travellers without previous experience of a destination face certain risks when determining their travel options. An accurate perception of the destination’s reputation helps minimise risk of unsatisfactory travel experiences. On the supply side, a favourable tourist destination reputation enhances the destination’s competitive advantage, and helps it to compete for visitors, investments, and skilled human resources. Despite the importance of tourist destination reputation, attempts at developing a definition have been somewhat limited by an over-reliance on theories of corporate reputation. The present study suggests a comprehensive definition of tourist destination reputation based on empirical study, by applying a Delphi research with a group of ten professional and academic tourism experts. Consensus was reached after conducting two-rounds of the Delphi process, resulted in an agreed definition for tourist destination reputation that takes account of professional insights.
    • Tunisia : mass tourism in crisis?

      Jeffrey, Heather; Bleasdale, Sue; University of Bedfordshire; Middlesex University (CABI, 2017-07-01)
      Successive governments in post-colonial Tunisia have sought to develop mass tourism as an avenue for social and economic development. Political instability and increasing media coverage have more recently led to a dramatic reduction in foreign tourist arrivals. Tunisia provides insights into the intersections of modernity, mass tourism, authoritarianism and terrorism, and in a world marred by terrorist attacks it becomes increasingly important to analyse the specific contexts from which these emerge. This chapter aims to address some of these issues by evaluating mass tourism development in Tunisia, highlighting the social and economic advances Tunisia has achieved, before analysing the situation since the Jasmine revolution of 2011. In order to fully analyse mass tourism in Tunisia, we draw on our own experience, which includes over 30 years of research in Tunisia, and fieldwork carried out shortly after the March 2015 Bardo Museum attack in the capital city Tunis. Finally, the chapter looks towards the future of mass tourism in Tunisia, arguing that while mass tourism has delivered positive advances, if it is to continue to do so the industry must be diversified and adapted to meet new needs.