• Tourism and gendered hosts and guests

      Jeffrey, Heather; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2019-11-04)
      Purpose: This conceptual paper aims to contribute to the extant tourism and gender literature by highlighting a tendency towards the conceptualisation of gendered research participants as host or guest depending upon their nationality. Design/methodology/approach: The argument presented here is based on a critical review of literature concerned with gender and tourism, focusing specifically on studies that include participant voices since 2010. Findings: The paper identifies a tendency in research on gender and tourism to conceptualise women and men from the West as guests and women and men from the rest as hosts. It is argued that working within this dominant framework can equate to an overlooking of many issues facing women and men globally; in doing so, it paves the way for future research and opens dialogue for important conversations on gender and feminist research in the academic field of tourism. Research limitations/implications: This paper aims to highlight a limitation in theorising rather than provide an exhaustive or systematic review of the literature. Future research trajectories are outlined. Originality/value: The paper’s originality lies in the problematisation of commonly accepted terminology when conceptualising research participants in tourism and providing suggestions for future research.
    • Environmental ethics for tourism- the state of the art

      Holden, Andrew (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2019-06-12)
      Purpose: Environmental ethics has become an established subject of philosophy in recent decades in response to the contemporary environmental crisis. This paper aims to provide an overview of the key theories and concepts and critically evaluate the extent of their application in tourism studies. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a systematic literature review of published academic papers that link environmental ethics to tourism. It subsequently attempts to provide a comprehensive review of what is currently a nascent field of research enquiry to comprehend and evaluate the relevance and implications of environmental ethics for tourism. Using a theoretical ethical framework of libertarian extensionism, eco-holism and the conservation ethic, moral debates that arise from their use in tourism are analysed. As a field of academic study that presently lacks research enquiry areas for future research investigation are subsequently identified. Findings: The paper forms a part of the “State of the Art” series and subsequently does not present empirical findings. However, through critical evaluation, it demonstrates the complexity of the application of environmental ethics to tourism through differing perspectives within the subject and when nature’s interests are juxtaposed to concerns of anthropic ethics. To develop a stronger environmental ethics amongst tourism stakeholders that recognises the intrinsic value of nature, it is recommended that ecological virtue and literacy are key elements in this process. Originality/value: The originality of the paper rests in providing a comprehensive overview of the existing level of application of the theories of environmental ethics to tourism; the appliance of theory to debates of tourism’s environmental challenges; and identifying research directions to help fill knowledge gaps.
    • Behavioural ambidexterity: effects on individual wellbeing and high performance work in academia

      Raiden, Ani; Raisanen, Christine; Kinman, Gail; University of Bedfordshire; Nottingham Trent University; Chalmers University of Technology (Routledge, 2019-04-08)
      Academic work demands behavioural ambidexterity: the ability to simultaneously demonstrate exploration (creativity in research and/or in innovative teaching and learning practice) and exploitation (compliance with quality assurance). However, little is known about the effects of behavioural ambidexterity on the well-being of individual employees. We explore the experiences of men working in academic roles at universities in Sweden and the UK. More specifically, we examine the relations between behavioural ambidexterity and perceptions of well-being using an interpretative approach based on narrative analysis. Despite societal differences between Sweden and the UK, academics in both countries felt ill-equipped to fulfil the demands for ambidexterity. This resulted in mixed performance outcomes with serious implications for well-being. We identify and discuss the influence of personal circumstances and the role of agency in work design as two key antecedents of positive well-being outcomes.
    • Tourist destination reputation: an empirical definition

      Darwish, Alyaa; Burns, Peter; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2019-01-07)
      Tourism is a reputation-dependent industry; on the demand side, potential travellers without previous experience of a destination face certain risks when determining their travel options. An accurate perception of the destination’s reputation helps minimise risk of unsatisfactory travel experiences. On the supply side, a favourable tourist destination reputation enhances the destination’s competitive advantage, and helps it to compete for visitors, investments, and skilled human resources. Despite the importance of tourist destination reputation, attempts at developing a definition have been somewhat limited by an over-reliance on theories of corporate reputation. The present study suggests a comprehensive definition of tourist destination reputation based on empirical study, by applying a Delphi research with a group of ten professional and academic tourism experts. Consensus was reached after conducting two-rounds of the Delphi process, resulted in an agreed definition for tourist destination reputation that takes account of professional insights.
    • The everyday instillations of worldmaking: new vistas of understanding on the declarative reach of tourism

      Hollinshead, Keith; Suleman, Rukeya (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2018-05-15)
      In this article the authors trace the development of attention that has been given to renovated constructions of Goodman's old concept of "worldmaking," as had been originally used in the arts and aesthetics in the 1970s. They reveal how the subject of worldmaking entered the lexicon of Tourism Studies at the turn of century through the transdisciplinary/postdisciplinary applications of Hollinshead vis-à-vis understandings of what is normalized and/or naturalized through the everyday/ordinary activities of tourism (and through the mundane/banal orientations of Tourism Studies, itself). In defining what worldmaking is seen to be nowadays-as those inherited but contested acts of instillation or instillment that version the world (or rather, which privilege certain vistas over peoples, places, pasts, and presents over other visions)-Hollinshead and Suleman clarify that observers in Tourism Studies have actually been commenting on the essentializing and objectifying political character of the storylines and projections of tourism for a much longer time than the last decade (or couple of decades), although they recognize that it is only recently that the particular term worldmaking has come into explicit use, itself. Having scrutinized how worldmaking ideas are treated in tourism/Tourism Studies these days, this article then examines how parallel inscriptive fields to Tourism Studies (such as Cultural Studies/Media Studies/Literary Studies) also richly articulate ideas about worldmaking agency, even though the subject was seemingly adopted rather later in those other domains. It closes with the provision of a number of potential research agendas into the ordinary/everyplace worldmaking instillations of tourism for researchers (and practitioners) in Tourism Studies, whether their critical mindedness is "pure and conceptual" or "applied and operational".
    • Gendering the tourism curriculum whilst becoming an academic

      Jeffrey, Heather; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2017-08-31)
      Pedagogy should be understood as transformative practice, and yet in many cases the neoliberalization and patriarchal structure of higher education institutions can stifle teachers and students. Tourism has been promoted as a vehicle for female empowerment, yet here it is suggested that in order for this to happen, gender must not only be taught in tourism classrooms, but it must be taught adopting a feminist approach. The motivation for this paper is to explore how power dynamics intersect and relate to teaching gender in the tourism classroom in order to highlight potential barriers to gendering the curriculum. Reflexively engaging with my own practice I highlight potential future strategies for academicians.
    • Tunisia : mass tourism in crisis?

      Jeffrey, Heather; Bleasdale, Sue; University of Bedfordshire; Middlesex University (CABI, 2017-07-01)
      Successive governments in post-colonial Tunisia have sought to develop mass tourism as an avenue for social and economic development. Political instability and increasing media coverage have more recently led to a dramatic reduction in foreign tourist arrivals. Tunisia provides insights into the intersections of modernity, mass tourism, authoritarianism and terrorism, and in a world marred by terrorist attacks it becomes increasingly important to analyse the specific contexts from which these emerge. This chapter aims to address some of these issues by evaluating mass tourism development in Tunisia, highlighting the social and economic advances Tunisia has achieved, before analysing the situation since the Jasmine revolution of 2011. In order to fully analyse mass tourism in Tunisia, we draw on our own experience, which includes over 30 years of research in Tunisia, and fieldwork carried out shortly after the March 2015 Bardo Museum attack in the capital city Tunis. Finally, the chapter looks towards the future of mass tourism in Tunisia, arguing that while mass tourism has delivered positive advances, if it is to continue to do so the industry must be diversified and adapted to meet new needs.
    • (Im)mobilities of older Pakistani female migrants and material culture: a multigenerational perspective on gift-giving

      Ali, Nazia; Suleman, Rukeya (John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2017-04-05)
      The purpose of the paper is to discuss, from a multigenerational perspective, the (im)mobilities of older Pakistani women migrants in the UK and the material culture of gift-giving, which moves with (and without) them to and from the ancestral homeland of Pakistan. A multigenerational perspective allows us to comprehend the collective importance of the mobilities of older Pakistani female migrants in upholding the culturally significant ritualistic custom of gift-giving. The research is situated within the theoretical context of the ‘New Mobilities Paradigm’ to understand the mobility patterns of older migrants and the mobilisation of material culture. We find that the process of coordinating and exchanging gifts leads to a great deal of physical mobility, within localities and national spaces, but also internationally across different diasporic locations. In doing so, older Pakistani women migrants perform an important role as ‘gift agents’ in the host and home countries, assuring their own social status as well as that of their families. Importantly, the resulting mobility of older Pakistani women empowers their less mobile peers to also participate in gift-giving. This paper concludes by extending the concept of ‘mobility practices’ to include the mobility of gifts as a practice, which can compensate for physical immobility in older age due to ill-health, fragility, or other factors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    • Time for fluid acumen: a call for improved tourism studies dialogue with the decolonizing world

      Hollinshead, Keith; Suleman, Rukeya (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2017-03-01)
      This article draws from the work of recent commentators in Tourism Studies like Coles, Hall, and Duval (calling for much more prevalent adisciplinary/extradisciplinary cognition in Tourism Studies), like Franklin (demanding much more commonplace critique of the ways in which different societies are ordered), and like Hollinshead (bemoaning the general absence of open-to-the-future research agendas in and across the field). The article aims to consolidate the advances signposted by such new wave/ new sense social theorists by drawing up a substantial conceptual glossary to help Tourism Studies researchers (and investigators in related fields) towards improved identification about the cosmologies of "other," "distant," or "underrecognized" populations, and towards more pertinent research agendas into the strategies of power that represent the cultural warrants and the aspirations of "different" peoples. In seeking in particular to develop an informed and contextualized lexicon on matters of decolonization vis-a-vis the political and communicative reach of tourism, the glossary focuses upon terms and concepts that pertain to the fantasmatics of populations (i.e., to the cherished emic aspirations of being and becoming that propel particular "distant"/"marginalized"/"postcolonial" societies). Hopefully, the provision of the glossary shown here can help improve the conceptual manner by which the consequential power/agency of tourism is understood today in terms of its authority to inscribe and project decolonizing societies and so-called postcolonial scenarios. The glossary being introduced within the article is itself drawn from a larger work in progress lexicon consisting of some 500 words (plus), which the authors are defining in long-haul fashion to variously describe the old sense/the wrong sense/the new sense/the open sense fantasmatics of populations. The overall more substantial glossary includes terms and concepts: On cosmology (deep listening, the indigenous renaissance, new nativism, quilted discourse, spiral discourse); on being and belonging (borderland pedagogy, conscientization, healing, fluid lives, complex personhood); on othering and otherness (governable bodies, hierarchies of knowledge, epistemic closure, linguicide, psychic violence); on imperialist/colonialist/neocolonialist understanding (rhetorical imperialism, master narratives, canonicity, cognitive imperialism, ascriptive identities); on fantasmatics [restorative processes, survivancy, the possibility of (XYZ), capacity, transgressive validities]; on new sense understandings (the dialectics of negotiation, the denaturalization of truth, interculturality, dethinking, the power of possibility). Copyright
    • Postdisciplinarity and the rise of intellectual openness: the necessity for "plural knowability" in tourism studies

      Hollinshead, Keith (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2016-07-01)
      In this article-which is based on my keynote presentation at the "Welcoming Encounters: Tourism Research in a Postdisciplinary Era" 2013 conference at the Institute of Ethnology, University of Neuchatel, Switzerland-I maintain that postdisciplinarity is a form of painstaking (in time and effort) inquiry that makes considered use of academic and nonacademic forms of knowing to trace the plural truths that apply in difficult-to-fathom globalizing/decolonizing/postcolonial settings. In this article, I suggest that open-to-the-future postdisciplinary styles of research are critically valuable where a range or multiplicity of interpretive cultural/cosmological outlooks on the world has been poorly understood, and where important longstanding or emergent en groupe perspectives have been ignored or subjugated by governing powers/agencies. In suggesting that those who work in tourism scenarios regularly have to deal with such difficult contestations of value across the globe-where the poesis or the fantasmatics of local/contesting populations are decidedly different-I draw particularly on Gilroy's work on "diaspora" and on Bhabha's thinking on "emergent/hybrid locations of culture" to highlight the sorts of difficult-to-read ambivalent/protean/transgressive identifications that are readily the stuff of postdisciplinary inquiry. The article closes with the recognition that today, postdisciplinary investigators can harness much from the recent liberation in "social justice research practices" that Denzin and Lincoln (and their myriad of diverse critico-interpretive/qualitative researchers) have advocated, notably the advances in "bricoleurship" recently conceptualized by Kincheloe.
    • The diversiform character of diasporas today: mapping and monitoring the polymorphous and/or the protean

      Hollinshead, Keith (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2016-01-26)
      This article is the first of a pair of manuscripts based on the assumption that different diaspora constitute various sorts of imagined communities that each comprise a dispersed association of ethnically and/or culturally and/or historically connected populations. These imagined but spread peoples appear (on the surface) to exhibit-to various degrees-unified cross-national identifications, and tend to have experienced similar and often "difficult" heritages of displacement, travel, and migration, and are inclined to reflect like psychic and political dynamics of memory and self-celebration. This first article is further predicated on the view, however, that the very concept of the imagined diasporic network (in tourism studies and related fields) generally gives rise to troubled ideas about enforced flight, reluctant scattering, and dislocated wandering, and therefore demands rich and deep levels of interpretive perspicacity if the resultant conflictual identities and the involved indeterminacies of being are to be effectively mapped and deeply registered. It recognizes that these hard to decipher contingencies of identification are nigh impossible to read in clear-cut absolute terms of nature or agreed inheritance, for each diaspora tends to be typified by and through idiosyncratic and hybridized cultural forms.
    • Diasporas disentangled: the cultivation of an open/spiral imagination in Tourism Studies

      Ivanova, Milka; Hollinshead, Keith (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2016-01-26)
      This companion article by Ivanova and Hollinshead seeks to show how "the changing same of the diasporic imaginal" (after Leroi Jones, via Gilroy) often conceivably constitutes "a wicked problem" (after Brown, Harris, and Russell) that is often so complex in its characteristics that hard and fast definitions about it (and solutions for its problematics) are not easy to conjure up. Thus, in order to monitor how ethnic, cultural, and historic codes are switched and hybridized in and through the inconstant identifications of diasporic senses of inheritance and aspiration, this article endeavors to show how transdisciplinary lines of inspection may prove useful. Taken in tandem with the previous article by Hollinshead, the two dovetailed articles thereby comprise no tributary celebration of the purity of ethnic or national culture, but one that indeed demands a high degree of open interpretive imagination if such matters of ambivalence and ambiguity are to be gradually and meaningfully deciphered.
    • A portrait of John Urry – harbinger of the death of distance

      Hollinshead, Keith; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2015-12-30)
    • Fostering collaboration between academia and the tourism sector

      Walters, Gabby; Burns, Peter; Stettler, Jürg (Routledge, 2015-09-11)
    • Qualitative tourism research: opportunities in the emergent soft sciences

      Wilson, Erica; Hollinshead, Keith; Southern Cross University; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier Ltd, 2015-06-23)
      A liberation in 'soft science' inquiry over recent decades has opened up ontological, epistemological and methodological opportunities, but this empowerment is often under-recognised in investigations of tourism. While qualitative inquiry has made significant advances within tourism studies, scholars can gain richly by continuing to cultivate forms of critical multilogicality, and by embracing some of the methods and approaches on offer elsewhere across the broader (soft) social sciences. This paper thereby advances a set of key conceptual principles which guide emergent soft science thinking; it reviews their applicability within tourism studies through a probative 'tableau' of qualitative approach exemplars.
    • Evolving perspectives on tourism’s interaction with nature during the last 40 years

      Holden, Andrew (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2015-05-22)
      The aim of this retrospective is to evaluate the changing paradigms of tourism’s relationship with nature over the last four decades. It is presented as one interpretation of this relationship not a definitive fait accompli. The period is characterized by an evolution of the society-nature relationship in response to environmental challenges never previously experienced. This includes a reassessment of ʼnature’ as both a social construction and scientific reality and a subsequent re-evaluation of our relationship to it, reflected in new paradigms including sustainability and environmental ethics. The paradox of tourism’s relationship with the environment has simultaneously played out over the period, exemplified in its contemporary interpretations as a key sustainable industry of the green economy and a significant contributor to GHG emissions and global warming. The conflicting interpretations of tourism suggest that the principles and ethics of environmental discourse will be critical for evaluating the tourism and nature relationship. This connection will continue to evolve and tourism’s increasing popularity and global economic importance ensures that it will have consequences for nature whilst providing a window into society’s environmental values and attitudes.
    • No time for smokescreen skepticism: a rejoinder to Shani and Arad

      Hall, C. Michael; Amelung, Bas; Cohen, Scott; Eijgelaar, Eke; Gössling, Stefan; Higham, James; Leemans, Rik; Peeters, Paul; Ram, Yael; Scott, Daniel; et al. (Elsevier Ltd, 2014-10-05)
      Shani and Arad (2014) claimed that tourism scholars tend to endorse the most pessimistic assessments regarding climate change, and that anthropogenic climate change was a "fashionable" and "highly controversial scientific topic". This brief rejoinder provides the balance that is missing from such climate change denial and skepticism studies on climate change and tourism. Recent research provides substantial evidence that reports on anthropogenic climate change are accurate, and that human-induced greenhouse gas emissions, including from the tourism industry, play a significant role in climate change. Some positive net effects may be experienced by some destinations in the short-term, but in the long-term all elements of the tourism system will be impacted. The expansion of tourism emissions at a rate greater than efficiency gains means that it is increasingly urgent that the tourism sector acknowledge, accept and respond to climate change. Debate on tourism-related adaptation and mitigation measures is to be encouraged and welcomed. Climate change denial is not.
    • Denying bogus skepticism in climate change and tourism research

      Hall, C. Michael; Amelung, Bas; Cohen, Scott; Eijgelaar, Eke; Gössling, Stefan; Higham, James; Leemans, Rik; Peeters, Paul; Ram, Yael; Scott, Daniel; et al. (Elsevier Ltd, 2014-09-30)
      This final response to the two climate change denial papers by Shani and Arad further highlights the inaccuracies, misinformation and errors in their commentaries. The obfuscation of scientific research and the consensus on anthropogenic climate change may have significant long-term negative consequences for better understanding the implications of climate change and climate policy for tourism and create confusion and delay in developing and implementing tourism sector responses.
    • Tourism policies of Bangladesh: a contextual analysis

      Hassan, Azizul; Burns, Peter (Routledge, 2014-03-10)
      This paper outlines a brief analysis of the Bangladesh tourism policies as a case. A proper set of policies is required to develop any sector systematically. Tourism as an important part of economy of any country cannot be an exception. Bangladesh as a potential ground of both domestic and international tourism also necessitates proper and effective policies. This study while attempting to understand the context reveals the demand of a valid set of tourism policies formulation. This is particularly important to cope with the global challenges and thus to ensure this sector's contribute in the national economy. This study also stresses on effective role play of both the private and public parties.
    • Climate change discourses: how UK airlines communicate their case to the public

      Burns, Peter; Cowlishaw, Chantelle; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2014-03-04)
      Whilst there are many arguments and counterarguments surrounding aviation's contribution to climate change, the sector is increasingly scrutinised, especially in regard to tourism mobility questions. This paper identifies, examines and analyses the discourses that airlines choose to communicate via their websites regarding their role, responsibility and their viewpoints about the issues involved in their relationship to climate change. Studying the web is of growing importance: corporate organizations increasingly use the Internet to communicate influential discourses, engage consumers, and inform the media, who themselves use digital systems to form opinions and influence decisions. Drawing on publicly available communications from six contrasting UK airlines, the study seeks to identify their perceived roles and responsibilities as producers. The data are analysed through content and frame analyses. The study concludes, inter alia, that the airlines under study make both justifiable and unjustifiable claims, and use polarised prioritisation, scepticism and uncertainty creation to put forward their case. Airlines are classified into one of six types: (1) continuous committed benchmarkers, (2) realistic technological innovators, (3) minimal practicalities, (4) low-cost innovators, (5) low-cost sceptics and (6) low-cost opposers. The paper uses and adds to an emerging research method, netnography. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.