• Trilogy of strategies of disruption in research methodologies: article 3 of 3: The evocative power of tourism studies: positive interruption, interdependence, and imaging forward today

      Hollinshead, Keith; Suleman, Rukeya; Lo, Chun Yu; University of Bedfordshire (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2021-12-14)
      In this third of three cousin articles on the call for disruptive qualitative research approaches, further treatment is proffered on the concerns and irritations that "soft science"/"subtle science" social scientists (and humanists, and posthumanists) are troubled by today. While the opening article (by Hollinshead, Suleman, and Nair here in Tourism, Culture & Communication) laid out the general case for the fit of disruptive qualitative research advances cum dissident interpretive research overtures in Tourism Studies to help atone for the field's long-recognized biases towards highly economic/linear/ empirical outlooks, the second article (by Hollinshead, Suleman, and Vellah) constituted a consolidation of the advanced social justice orientations being aired across the trio of articles. In this third of the three bedfellow articles, the authors (Hollinshead, Suleman, and Lo) now provide further critique on the soft science constructions and the subtle science thinking that have been promoted within the landmark text on advanced qualitative and interpretive praxis by Brown, Carducci, and Kuby (entitled Disrupting Qualitative Inquiry). In this third article, the need for such dissident developments within Tourism Studies is provided with respect to a number (10) of common ontological issues encountered in research into tourism/travel today, such as the difficulty in researching the shadowy and indistinct "unique ways" in which foreign peoples differ from each other. At the end of this article, a further 15 terms are made manifest for the cumulative glossary being developed across the three companion articles. These terms include "critical ethnography" (vis-à-vis the revised cognitive practices of tourism) and "unsettlement" (vis-à-vis the rhetorics of futurity of tourism). This third article—like its two predecessors—is notably Deleuzian in hue, although readers should spot the conceptual mark of (Arturo) Escobar (and considerations of pluriversality that emanate from "The South") in places.
    • Unpacking solutions to counterproductive work behavior using hybrid fuzzy MCDM

      Vatankhah, Sanaz; Darvishi, Maryam (Routledge, 2021-12-12)
      Counterproductive work behavior has long been a concerning issue for organizations. Specially service organizations, including airlines, seem to confront the prevalence of such negative work behavior. Nevertheless, a general guideline to curb counter-productivity does not exist. In light of fuzzy theory, this study applied fuzzy Delphi and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process to develop a hierarchical evaluation index to identify and rank strategic solutions to cope with counterproductive work behavior in the airline industry. The results revealed that ethical concerns and ethical leadership are the most critical coping strategic criteria and sub-criteria, respectively. This study advances the current knowledge in counterproductive work behavior literature and offers a managerial toolbox to manage and reduce such behavior in the airline industry.
    • The geography of employment change in the hotel and catering industry of Great Britain in the 1980s: a subregional perspective

      Bull, Paul; Church, Andrew (Routledge, 1994-01-01)
      BULL P. J. and CHURCH A. P. (1994) The geography of employment change in the hotel and catering industry of Great Britain in the 1980s: a subregional perspective, Reg. Studies 28, 13-25. The hotel and catering industry was an important employment growth sector in the British economy in the 1970s and 1980s. The spatial outcomes of this growth have received virtually no research attention. Studies of this important service industry have often been encompassed by tourism research. This paper argues for a specific analysis of hotel and catering using unpublished data which outlines the subregional pattern of employment change between 1981 and 1989. A demand-side explanation examines the role of hotel and catering as a local consumer service, as a producer service and as a response to tourist demand. BULL P. J. et CHURCH A. P. (1994) La géographie de l'evolution de l'emploi dans l'hôtellerie et dans la restauration en Grande-Bretagne au cours des années 80: une perspective sous-régionale, Reg. Studies 28, 13-25. Aux années 70 et 80 l'hôtellerie et la restauration étaient des secteurs porteurs importants de l'economie britannique. Dans le domaine de la recherche on n'a guère tenu compte des impacts géographiques de cette croissance. En effet c'est la recherche du tourisme qui a souvent incorporé des études au sujet de cette industrie de services importante. Cet article propose une analyse particulière de l'hôtellerie et de la restauration à partir des données officieuses et qui esquisse la répartition sous-régionale de l'evolution de l'emploi entre 1981 et 1989. Une explication par la demande examine le rôle de l'hôtellerie et de la restauration en tant qu'un service aux consommateurs local, un service aux producte-urs et une réponse à la demande des touristes. BULL P. J. und CHURCH A. P. (1994) Die Geographie der Veränderungen in der Erwerbstätigkeit im Hotel- und Gaststättengewerbe Groβbritanniens in den achtziger Jahren: eine subregionale Analyse, Reg. Studies 28, 13-25. In den siebziger und achtiger Jahren dieses Jahrhunderts stellte die Zunahme der Erwerbstätigkeit im Hotel- und Gaststättengewerbe einen wichtigen Wachstumssektor der britischen Wirtschaft dar. Den räumlichen Resultaten dieses Wachstums hat die Forschung fast gar keine Auf-merksamkeit geschenkt. Studien dieser wichtigen Dienstlei-stungsindustrie sind oft in die Erforschung des Tourismus einbezogen worden. Dieser Aufsatz tritt fur eine spezifische Analyse des Hotel- und Gaststättengewerbes ein, wobei bisher unveröffentlichte Daten benutzt werden, in der das subregionale Muster des Beschäftigungswandels im Zeitraum 1981-1989 umrissen wird. Eine Erläuterung der Nachfrageseite untersucht die Rolle von Hotels und Gaststätten als eines Verbraucherdienstes am Orte, als eines Herstellerdienstes und als Antwort auf Nachfrage seitens des Touristen.
    • The hotel and catering industry of Great Britain during the 1980s: sub-regional employment change, specialization and dominance

      Bull, Paul; Church, Andrew (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 1994-06-01)
      This chapter describes the principal changes in hotel and catering employment at the sub-regional, or country scale, revealing a very uneven spatial pattern. Some of the major demand-side factors are identified as the key determinants of the changing geography of hotel and catering employment. It is a diverse industry and the effect of demand-side changes has resulted in differing levels of employment change in the various activity groups which form the sub-sectors of this industry. The varying growth rates in the different activity groups are examined, arguing that the faster rate of growth in catering compared to accommodation services has certain important spatial outcomes. This is reflected in the changing levels of sub-regional specialization and the extent to which certain countries are dominated by one particular industry sub-sector. The changing nature of spatial specialization in employment in the hotel and catering sector in the 1980s is also examined. The hotel and catering industry is a diverse mix of catering and accommodation services. Within the sub-regions of the UK during the 1980s, these services responded to a complex set of demand stimuli to produced varied and changing mosaic of regional dominance and collectively an uneven pattern of employment change and specialization. The individual regions of the UK have had different experiences of the changing character of the hotel and catering industry during the 1980s.
    • Recession and the hotel and catering industry: a regional perspective

      Bull, P.; Church, Andrew (Routledge, 1996-04-01)
      The sub-regional pattern of employment change from 1989 to 1991 is examined for the hotel and catering industry in Great Britain. A complex spatial pattern is identified. The effects of tourism, leisure, local economic and population change, and sub-regional economic specialisation on employment levels in hotel and catering are considered. Further analysis is undertaken of the geography of employment change in the sub-sectors of eating places, take-aways, pubs, clubs, hotels, canteens and other tourist accommodation.
    • Discussion forum

      Coles, Tim; Church, Andrew; Desforges, Luke (Routledge, 2004-05-01)
    • Public policy engagement with British tourism: The national, local and the European Union

      Church, Andrew; Ball, Rick; Bull, Chris; Tyler, Duncan (Routledge, 2000-04-01)
      The changing nature of tourism policy is examined through a review of the UK, and of national government policy, urban tourism and rural tourism. Supranational tourism policy influences, namely of the European Union, on tourism are also examined. The effects of other policy spheres on tourism strategy are considered, as is the diversity and complexity of tourism policy. One of the major conclusions of the paper is the uneven development of tourism policy in the UK, and against this background it seeks to identify future policy issues and a research agenda for tourism geography.
    • Literature reviews [2005]

      Barr, Stewart; Church, Andrew (Routledge, 2006-08-20)
      review of Case Studies on Ecotourism Ralf Buckley Wallingford, CABI, 2003, ISBN 0 85199 665 5
    • Tourism, the global city and the labour market in London

      Church, Andrew; Frost, Martin (Routledge, 2004-05-30)
      Global cities, such as London, are viewed as distinctive in terms of their role in the increasingly globalized economy. There has been considerable academic debate over the nature of global city labour markets and how these can be explained in relation to global city functions. New empirical evidence is presented for the tourism labour market in London and the UK. The pay, conditions and social characteristics of tourism workers in London are examined, and they appear distinctive in terms of their full-time, gender (male), student, ethnicity and migrant characteristics. An explanation is developed that explores the interactions between the global city role of London and other scaled geographical processes that originate, especially at the national level.
    • Local and regional tourism policy and power

      Church, Andrew; Lew (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2004-01-01)
      This chapter contains section titled: - Conceptual Categories, Policy Roles, and Geographical Scales - The Broad Aims of Regional and Local Tourism Policy - Changing Structures, Innovation, and the Impacts of Tourism Policy - Power, Theory, and the “;Drivers“; of Local and Regional Tourism Policy - Conclusions: Local and Regional Tourism Policy and Future Research Agendas
    • Understanding urban tourism: London in the early 1990s

      Church, Andrew; Bull, Paul (John Wiley & Ltd, 2001-05-23)
      Using London as an example this paper demonstrates that the idea of tourism as ‘pleasure and recreation’ is wholly inadequate for an understanding of the published evidence on tourism in major cities. In the UK this results directly from the definition adopted by the main statistical sources such that tourists become travellers, irrespective of purpose, who stay overnight at their destination. In so doing the paper highlights two areas for future research, the growing trend in short-distance tourism and the increasing importance of visiting friends and relatives.
    • The ontology of exclusion: a European perspective on leisure constraints research

      Ravenscroft, Neil; Church, Andrew; Gilchrist, Paul (Venture Publishing, Inc., 2005-03-30)
    • Tourism, power and space

      Church, Andrew; Coles, Tim (Routledge, 2006-11-24)
      This is the first volume to explicitly consider how leisure and tourism acts as a major focus by which power may be understood in a geographical context. Key thinking and major approaches to unravelling the complexities of power are outlined in this collection and their relevance to current and future tourism studies is discussed. Tourism, Power and Space blends theoretical perspectives from leading power theorists such as: Parsons, Foucault and Clegg. Exploring the intricacies of the relationships between power, tourism and leisure, this stimulating volume combines theoretical and empirical writings to illustrate the extent to which power, in its various forms and guises and at various scales of operation, impacts on the unfolding structures, practices and organization of tourism and leisure on both the demand and supply sides. Divided into three sections: Power, Performance And Practice, Power, Property And Resources and Power, Governance And Empowerment; this text will be a useful resource for students and academics alike.
    • Tourism, politics and the forgotten entanglements of power

      Church, Andrew; Coles, Tim (Routledge, 2006-11-24)
      Kenya, 28 November 2002: an Arkia airlines charter jet was narrowly missed by two surface-to-air missiles as it started its ascent from Mombassa airport. On board were 261 passengers, the majority of whom were Israeli citizens on their way home after their vacations. Just as it was attacked, 15 people died in a bomb attack on the Paradise Hotel on the Indian Ocean coast. Nine Kenyans and three Israelis, two of whom were children, were killed along with the three suicide bombers. Eighty people were injured, many badly (BBC 2002). Al-Qaeda operatives in Kenya claimed responsibility in the aftermath of the attack (CNN 2002). * Chapter 1
    • Tourism and the many faces of power

      Church, Andrew; Coles, Tim (Routledge, 2006-11-24)
      The introduction to this book in Chapter 1 started by outlining how media commentators have made connections between tourism, terrorism and those who appear to wield power in global geopolitics. Recently, media and human rights reports have also illustrated the apparent powerlessness in the lives of some individuals involved in tourism. One of the effects of the 2004 tsunami in southern and Southeast Asia was to destroy the ‘economic’ spaces on and near to beaches used by locally owned businesses and independent operators. A report compiled by ActionAid International, the People’s Movement for Human Rights Education and Habitat International Coalition was presented to the United Nations in February 2006 and reveals that despite the official emphasis on rebuilding, many individuals now find they are denied access to these spaces or the funding support to re-establish their tourism enterprises, while others with financial resources, political influence and claims to the land will determine their future use (ActionAid International 2006; Weaver 2006). * Chapter 12
    • Tourism in sub-global assessments of ecosystem services

      Church, Andrew; Coles, Tim; Fish, Rob (Taylor & Francis, 2017-03-20)
      Published in 2005, the United Nations Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) stressed that influencing governments, businesses and communities to address the supra-national challenge of limiting biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation requires a fuller understanding of the range of values and benefits people derive from ecosystems, including tourism. The MA was informed by, and has shaped, several conceptually and methodologically distinctive sub-global assessments (SGAs) of ecosystem services. Through content analysis, this paper is the first detailed examination of how tourism features in 14 extant SGAs identified in a database held by a major supra-national environmental organization. Although the SGAs should have incorporated the widest range of specialist subject expertise, tourism scholars played only peripheral roles in producing them even for territories where tourism is a significant land use. The SGAs examined did not benefit from the extensive body of knowledge relating to sustainable tourism. Limited portrayals of tourism restrict the capacity of SGAs in their current format as management solutions. It is also contradictory to the ethos, principles and purpose of ecosystem assessments. With the ecosystem services perspective set to become more important to policy and decision making, the paper argues for greater incorporation of recent progress in sustainable tourism in ecosystem assessment.
    • Trilogy on strategies of disruption in research methodologies: article 1 of 3 the unsettlement of tourism studies: positive decolonization, deep listening, and dethinking today

      Hollinshead, Keith; Suleman, Rukeya; Nair, Bipithalal Balakrishnan (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2021-04-30)
      Recent years have witnessed the rise of many new and/or corrective approaches across the social sciences that have challenged the received assumptive frameworks through which the world is inspected and interpreted methodologically. Late decades have brought the rise of a new generation of scholars who work through "resistance politics" approaches in pursuit of, for instance, social justice causes or posthumanist convictions. The purpose of this article (and its two companion articles in later issues of Tourism, Culture & Communication) is to capture the possibilities and the tensions in the development and cultivation of such "disruptive" or "promiscuous" research acts, and to conceptually situate them within Tourism Studies—the domain that covers the "worldmaking"/"declarative power" of tourism to interpret and inscribe the peoples, places, pasts, and presents across the globe. In principally mining the neoteric and landmark text Disruptive Qualitative Inquiry (Brown, Carducci, and Kuby), an attempt is made to locate the interruptive craft of such unfolding disruptive thinking of and about tourism as rising numbers of Tourism Studies researchers themselves seek to decolonize their methodologies from the stranglehold of Western Modern Science and reverberate more positively with populations that have been subjugated or suppressed through tourism. In building up to the provision of a 30-term glossary (cumulatively provided across the said three companion articles) delineating the fresh thinking that is involved in such disruptive inquiry, this first article targets approaches that beckon forms of interpretive plural knowability, which demand the fluid acumen to map the less-fixed/fast-changeable populations of our time, and which are thereby decent yet rigorous in their critical multilogicality ; hence, this first article glossary covers terms such as "reversing the binaries," "promiscuous methodologies," and "working the hyphens." In this innovative light, the second companion article glossary identifies conceptualizations such as "guided wandering," "postqualitative research," and "survivance" in order to expand the ontology and epistemology of Tourism Studies, while the glossary in the third article offers conceptualizations such as "uncrossable methodolodies," "helicopter research," and "stuckness," which—in their different ways—speak to the transformative rhetorics of futurity for tourism and the peoples and places of the world.
    • Air connectivity for leisure tourism; the way forward

      Arvanitis, Pavlos (Goodfellows, 2021-05-25)
      Tourism is an activity that evolves mobility. International tourism arrivals by air account for almost 60%. Despite the spectacular increase in air connectivity there are distinct differences between different connectivity types since we tend to refer to direct and indirect connectivity, airport connectivity and hub connectivity. Several tourism destinations are impacted by the air connectivity type that is available in their nearby or serving airport of their region or proximity. The aim of this chapter is to discuss the tourism dynamics resulting emerging transformations in air connectivity and the implications on international air travel. Increased air connectivity is linked to economic growth and development, however direct air connectivity has been driving both tourism and air transport industries. The introduction of new aircraft which can fly longer and more economically is likely to transform direct connectivity and hub connectivity at the same time. The airline business models have evolved over the last twenty years and it is highly likely that this transformation will continue to unfold since the market and the passengers’ needs are constantly evolving. Implications for airlines and destinations will be discussed, outlining the core trends which are dominating the industry in terms of connectivity and its relations to tourism destinations. Key words: air connectivity, tourism destinations, air transport, tourism
    • Air transport and tourism

      Arvanitis, Pavlos (Edward Elgar, 2022-07-31)
      The term “Air Transport and Tourism” refers to the relationship between one another. Although, each term is widely discussed separately as Air Transport in one hand and Tourism in another, the combination of them tends to be complicated since they both feed each other and vice versa. It can be argued that there is an interchangeable cause and effect relationship between them. Tourism entails mobility of the tourists (customers/consumers/passengers) which is provided by air transport services, amongst other transport services also. Therefore, “Air Transport and Tourism” as a combined term, refers to the actions, impacts and results this term brings to the tourism industry.
    • Walking in Jozi: guided tours, insecurity and urban regeneration in inner city Johannesburg

      Opfermann, Lena S. (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2020-04-26)
      This article explores how the emerging tourism sector in Johannesburg is intertwined with current processes of urban regeneration and development. Using walking tours as a case study, I illustrate how tour operators navigate insecure urban spaces and contribute to their (re-)development by performing (in)security, by offering ‘authentic’ experiences and by actively engaging in social and economic activities. I argue that walking tours promote a particular kind of urban development that aims to appeal to a new urban middle class and is in line with the vision pursued by big private investors and new urban entrepreneurs. Similar to other global gentrification processes, this vision draws on Western notions of hip urban lifestyles and aesthetics in order to foster an image of the city as pan-African and cool. While making new spaces accessible, this approach to urban development also affects and threatens other inner city users, including African migrants living or working in precarious conditions. I contend that these side effects of the currently promoted urban regeneration have so far been overlooked. In order to create a social and sustainable urban development that supersedes apartheid-era spatial segregation, these effects should be taken into account by the tourism sector, by private investors and policy makers alike.