• Walking in Jozi: guided tours, insecurity and urban regeneration in inner city Johannesburg

      Opfermann, Lena S. (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2020-04-26)
      This article explores how the emerging tourism sector in Johannesburg is intertwined with current processes of urban regeneration and development. Using walking tours as a case study, I illustrate how tour operators navigate insecure urban spaces and contribute to their (re-)development by performing (in)security, by offering ‘authentic’ experiences and by actively engaging in social and economic activities. I argue that walking tours promote a particular kind of urban development that aims to appeal to a new urban middle class and is in line with the vision pursued by big private investors and new urban entrepreneurs. Similar to other global gentrification processes, this vision draws on Western notions of hip urban lifestyles and aesthetics in order to foster an image of the city as pan-African and cool. While making new spaces accessible, this approach to urban development also affects and threatens other inner city users, including African migrants living or working in precarious conditions. I contend that these side effects of the currently promoted urban regeneration have so far been overlooked. In order to create a social and sustainable urban development that supersedes apartheid-era spatial segregation, these effects should be taken into account by the tourism sector, by private investors and policy makers alike.
    • Kuwait: why tourism?

      Burns, Peter; Bibbings, Lyn (Taylor and Francis, 2017-07-14)
    • ABCD to CBT: asset-based community development's potential for community-based tourism

      Dolezal, Claudia; Burns, Peter (Routledge, 2014-12-20)
      This article conceptualises the potential for a relationship between asset-based community development (ABCD) and community-based tourism (CBT), with a view to improving CBT's patchy record in delivering community development. ABCD has previously been used in international development and community work, but is new to tourism for development. Hence, the article seeks to relate ABCD's characteristics with CBT on a theoretical level, based on a shift away from ‘needs-driven’ development towards a conscious appreciation of community assets. The authors suggest that ABCD can, and should, be applied to CBT, given the positive emphasis it puts on people and their potential.
    • Geopolitics of tourism and academia in the Holy Land

      Ram, Yael; Isaac, Rami K.; Shamir, Omri; Burns, Peter (Routledge, 2016-10-21)
      The premise for this paper is that tourism scholars researching in Israel and Palestine are, in effect, actors in the geopolitical landscape of the Holy Land. Political tourism is a significant factor in how the Israel–Palestine geopolitical conflict is represented. The current paper provides an analysis of how tourism academics address the situation. A research team of Israeli, Palestinian and a third country origins collaborated to produce a narrative synthesis by systematically reviewing 35 academic papers selected through defined criteria. This approach minimized bias and aimed for analytical robustness and validity. Two main conclusions are derived from the analysis. First, papers tend to focus on the social, touristic and religious aspects of tourism not on the core issues of the geopolitical conflict. Second, the works did not contribute to dialogue between parties but reinforced separateness thus reflecting the political conflict.
    • Scientific tourism: researchers as travellers

      Slocum, Susan; Kline, Carol; Holden, Andrew (Taylor and Francis Inc., 2017-05-25)
      As researchers in emerging economies, scientists are often the first foreign visitors to stay in remote rural areas and, on occasion, form joint venture ecotourism and community tourism projects or poverty alleviation schemes between local agencies or NGOs, the local community, and their home institution or agency. They therefore can contribute to avenues for the conservation of natural resources and the development of rural communities as well as influencing the future tourism development through its perceived legitimacy and the destination image it promotes. This book for the first time critically reviews tourism debates surrounding this emerging market of scientific and research oriented tourism. It is divided into three inter-related sections. Section 1 sets the stage of the discourse of scientific research in tourism; Section 2 evaluates the key players of scientific tourism looking particularly at the roles of NGOs, government agencies and university academic staff and Section 3 contains case studies documenting the niche of researchers as travelers in a range of geographical locations including Tanzania, Australia, Chile, Peru and Mexico. The title's multidisciplinary approach provides an informed, interesting and stimulating addition to the existing limited literature and raises many issues and associated questions including the role of science tourism in tourism development and expansion, the impacts of scientific and research-based tourism, travel behaviors and motivations of researchers to name but a few. This significant volume will provide the reader with a better understanding of scientists as travelers, their relationship to the tourism industry, and the role they play in community development around tourism sites. It will be valuable reading for students and academics across the fields of Tourism, Geography and Development Studies as well as other social science disciplines.
    • Fostering collaboration between academia and the tourism sector

      Walters, Gabby; Burns, Peter; Stettler, Jürg (Routledge, 2015-09-11)
    • (Im)mobilities of older Pakistani female migrants and material culture: a multigenerational perspective on gift-giving

      Ali, Nazia; Suleman, Rukeya (John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2017-04-05)
      The purpose of the paper is to discuss, from a multigenerational perspective, the (im)mobilities of older Pakistani women migrants in the UK and the material culture of gift-giving, which moves with (and without) them to and from the ancestral homeland of Pakistan. A multigenerational perspective allows us to comprehend the collective importance of the mobilities of older Pakistani female migrants in upholding the culturally significant ritualistic custom of gift-giving. The research is situated within the theoretical context of the ‘New Mobilities Paradigm’ to understand the mobility patterns of older migrants and the mobilisation of material culture. We find that the process of coordinating and exchanging gifts leads to a great deal of physical mobility, within localities and national spaces, but also internationally across different diasporic locations. In doing so, older Pakistani women migrants perform an important role as ‘gift agents’ in the host and home countries, assuring their own social status as well as that of their families. Importantly, the resulting mobility of older Pakistani women empowers their less mobile peers to also participate in gift-giving. This paper concludes by extending the concept of ‘mobility practices’ to include the mobility of gifts as a practice, which can compensate for physical immobility in older age due to ill-health, fragility, or other factors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    • The diversiform character of diasporas today: mapping and monitoring the polymorphous and/or the protean

      Hollinshead, Keith (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2016-01-26)
      This article is the first of a pair of manuscripts based on the assumption that different diaspora constitute various sorts of imagined communities that each comprise a dispersed association of ethnically and/or culturally and/or historically connected populations. These imagined but spread peoples appear (on the surface) to exhibit-to various degrees-unified cross-national identifications, and tend to have experienced similar and often "difficult" heritages of displacement, travel, and migration, and are inclined to reflect like psychic and political dynamics of memory and self-celebration. This first article is further predicated on the view, however, that the very concept of the imagined diasporic network (in tourism studies and related fields) generally gives rise to troubled ideas about enforced flight, reluctant scattering, and dislocated wandering, and therefore demands rich and deep levels of interpretive perspicacity if the resultant conflictual identities and the involved indeterminacies of being are to be effectively mapped and deeply registered. It recognizes that these hard to decipher contingencies of identification are nigh impossible to read in clear-cut absolute terms of nature or agreed inheritance, for each diaspora tends to be typified by and through idiosyncratic and hybridized cultural forms.
    • A portrait of John Urry – harbinger of the death of distance

      Hollinshead, Keith; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2015-12-30)
    • Time for fluid acumen: a call for improved tourism studies dialogue with the decolonizing world

      Hollinshead, Keith; Suleman, Rukeya (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2017-03-01)
      This article draws from the work of recent commentators in Tourism Studies like Coles, Hall, and Duval (calling for much more prevalent adisciplinary/extradisciplinary cognition in Tourism Studies), like Franklin (demanding much more commonplace critique of the ways in which different societies are ordered), and like Hollinshead (bemoaning the general absence of open-to-the-future research agendas in and across the field). The article aims to consolidate the advances signposted by such new wave/ new sense social theorists by drawing up a substantial conceptual glossary to help Tourism Studies researchers (and investigators in related fields) towards improved identification about the cosmologies of "other," "distant," or "underrecognized" populations, and towards more pertinent research agendas into the strategies of power that represent the cultural warrants and the aspirations of "different" peoples. In seeking in particular to develop an informed and contextualized lexicon on matters of decolonization vis-a-vis the political and communicative reach of tourism, the glossary focuses upon terms and concepts that pertain to the fantasmatics of populations (i.e., to the cherished emic aspirations of being and becoming that propel particular "distant"/"marginalized"/"postcolonial" societies). Hopefully, the provision of the glossary shown here can help improve the conceptual manner by which the consequential power/agency of tourism is understood today in terms of its authority to inscribe and project decolonizing societies and so-called postcolonial scenarios. The glossary being introduced within the article is itself drawn from a larger work in progress lexicon consisting of some 500 words (plus), which the authors are defining in long-haul fashion to variously describe the old sense/the wrong sense/the new sense/the open sense fantasmatics of populations. The overall more substantial glossary includes terms and concepts: On cosmology (deep listening, the indigenous renaissance, new nativism, quilted discourse, spiral discourse); on being and belonging (borderland pedagogy, conscientization, healing, fluid lives, complex personhood); on othering and otherness (governable bodies, hierarchies of knowledge, epistemic closure, linguicide, psychic violence); on imperialist/colonialist/neocolonialist understanding (rhetorical imperialism, master narratives, canonicity, cognitive imperialism, ascriptive identities); on fantasmatics [restorative processes, survivancy, the possibility of (XYZ), capacity, transgressive validities]; on new sense understandings (the dialectics of negotiation, the denaturalization of truth, interculturality, dethinking, the power of possibility). Copyright
    • The everyday instillations of worldmaking: new vistas of understanding on the declarative reach of tourism

      Hollinshead, Keith; Suleman, Rukeya (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2018-05-15)
      In this article the authors trace the development of attention that has been given to renovated constructions of Goodman's old concept of "worldmaking," as had been originally used in the arts and aesthetics in the 1970s. They reveal how the subject of worldmaking entered the lexicon of Tourism Studies at the turn of century through the transdisciplinary/postdisciplinary applications of Hollinshead vis-à-vis understandings of what is normalized and/or naturalized through the everyday/ordinary activities of tourism (and through the mundane/banal orientations of Tourism Studies, itself). In defining what worldmaking is seen to be nowadays-as those inherited but contested acts of instillation or instillment that version the world (or rather, which privilege certain vistas over peoples, places, pasts, and presents over other visions)-Hollinshead and Suleman clarify that observers in Tourism Studies have actually been commenting on the essentializing and objectifying political character of the storylines and projections of tourism for a much longer time than the last decade (or couple of decades), although they recognize that it is only recently that the particular term worldmaking has come into explicit use, itself. Having scrutinized how worldmaking ideas are treated in tourism/Tourism Studies these days, this article then examines how parallel inscriptive fields to Tourism Studies (such as Cultural Studies/Media Studies/Literary Studies) also richly articulate ideas about worldmaking agency, even though the subject was seemingly adopted rather later in those other domains. It closes with the provision of a number of potential research agendas into the ordinary/everyplace worldmaking instillations of tourism for researchers (and practitioners) in Tourism Studies, whether their critical mindedness is "pure and conceptual" or "applied and operational".
    • Postdisciplinarity and the rise of intellectual openness: the necessity for "plural knowability" in tourism studies

      Hollinshead, Keith (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2016-07-01)
      In this article-which is based on my keynote presentation at the "Welcoming Encounters: Tourism Research in a Postdisciplinary Era" 2013 conference at the Institute of Ethnology, University of Neuchatel, Switzerland-I maintain that postdisciplinarity is a form of painstaking (in time and effort) inquiry that makes considered use of academic and nonacademic forms of knowing to trace the plural truths that apply in difficult-to-fathom globalizing/decolonizing/postcolonial settings. In this article, I suggest that open-to-the-future postdisciplinary styles of research are critically valuable where a range or multiplicity of interpretive cultural/cosmological outlooks on the world has been poorly understood, and where important longstanding or emergent en groupe perspectives have been ignored or subjugated by governing powers/agencies. In suggesting that those who work in tourism scenarios regularly have to deal with such difficult contestations of value across the globe-where the poesis or the fantasmatics of local/contesting populations are decidedly different-I draw particularly on Gilroy's work on "diaspora" and on Bhabha's thinking on "emergent/hybrid locations of culture" to highlight the sorts of difficult-to-read ambivalent/protean/transgressive identifications that are readily the stuff of postdisciplinary inquiry. The article closes with the recognition that today, postdisciplinary investigators can harness much from the recent liberation in "social justice research practices" that Denzin and Lincoln (and their myriad of diverse critico-interpretive/qualitative researchers) have advocated, notably the advances in "bricoleurship" recently conceptualized by Kincheloe.
    • Tourism policies of Bangladesh: a contextual analysis

      Hassan, Azizul; Burns, Peter (Routledge, 2014-03-10)
      This paper outlines a brief analysis of the Bangladesh tourism policies as a case. A proper set of policies is required to develop any sector systematically. Tourism as an important part of economy of any country cannot be an exception. Bangladesh as a potential ground of both domestic and international tourism also necessitates proper and effective policies. This study while attempting to understand the context reveals the demand of a valid set of tourism policies formulation. This is particularly important to cope with the global challenges and thus to ensure this sector's contribute in the national economy. This study also stresses on effective role play of both the private and public parties.
    • Climate change discourses: how UK airlines communicate their case to the public

      Burns, Peter; Cowlishaw, Chantelle; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2014-03-04)
      Whilst there are many arguments and counterarguments surrounding aviation's contribution to climate change, the sector is increasingly scrutinised, especially in regard to tourism mobility questions. This paper identifies, examines and analyses the discourses that airlines choose to communicate via their websites regarding their role, responsibility and their viewpoints about the issues involved in their relationship to climate change. Studying the web is of growing importance: corporate organizations increasingly use the Internet to communicate influential discourses, engage consumers, and inform the media, who themselves use digital systems to form opinions and influence decisions. Drawing on publicly available communications from six contrasting UK airlines, the study seeks to identify their perceived roles and responsibilities as producers. The data are analysed through content and frame analyses. The study concludes, inter alia, that the airlines under study make both justifiable and unjustifiable claims, and use polarised prioritisation, scepticism and uncertainty creation to put forward their case. Airlines are classified into one of six types: (1) continuous committed benchmarkers, (2) realistic technological innovators, (3) minimal practicalities, (4) low-cost innovators, (5) low-cost sceptics and (6) low-cost opposers. The paper uses and adds to an emerging research method, netnography. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
    • No time for smokescreen skepticism: a rejoinder to Shani and Arad

      Hall, C. Michael; Amelung, Bas; Cohen, Scott; Eijgelaar, Eke; Gössling, Stefan; Higham, James; Leemans, Rik; Peeters, Paul; Ram, Yael; Scott, Daniel; et al. (Elsevier Ltd, 2014-10-05)
      Shani and Arad (2014) claimed that tourism scholars tend to endorse the most pessimistic assessments regarding climate change, and that anthropogenic climate change was a "fashionable" and "highly controversial scientific topic". This brief rejoinder provides the balance that is missing from such climate change denial and skepticism studies on climate change and tourism. Recent research provides substantial evidence that reports on anthropogenic climate change are accurate, and that human-induced greenhouse gas emissions, including from the tourism industry, play a significant role in climate change. Some positive net effects may be experienced by some destinations in the short-term, but in the long-term all elements of the tourism system will be impacted. The expansion of tourism emissions at a rate greater than efficiency gains means that it is increasingly urgent that the tourism sector acknowledge, accept and respond to climate change. Debate on tourism-related adaptation and mitigation measures is to be encouraged and welcomed. Climate change denial is not.
    • Denying bogus skepticism in climate change and tourism research

      Hall, C. Michael; Amelung, Bas; Cohen, Scott; Eijgelaar, Eke; Gössling, Stefan; Higham, James; Leemans, Rik; Peeters, Paul; Ram, Yael; Scott, Daniel; et al. (Elsevier Ltd, 2014-09-30)
      This final response to the two climate change denial papers by Shani and Arad further highlights the inaccuracies, misinformation and errors in their commentaries. The obfuscation of scientific research and the consensus on anthropogenic climate change may have significant long-term negative consequences for better understanding the implications of climate change and climate policy for tourism and create confusion and delay in developing and implementing tourism sector responses.
    • Qualitative tourism research: opportunities in the emergent soft sciences

      Wilson, Erica; Hollinshead, Keith; Southern Cross University; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier Ltd, 2015-06-23)
      A liberation in 'soft science' inquiry over recent decades has opened up ontological, epistemological and methodological opportunities, but this empowerment is often under-recognised in investigations of tourism. While qualitative inquiry has made significant advances within tourism studies, scholars can gain richly by continuing to cultivate forms of critical multilogicality, and by embracing some of the methods and approaches on offer elsewhere across the broader (soft) social sciences. This paper thereby advances a set of key conceptual principles which guide emergent soft science thinking; it reviews their applicability within tourism studies through a probative 'tableau' of qualitative approach exemplars.
    • Diasporas disentangled: the cultivation of an open/spiral imagination in Tourism Studies

      Ivanova, Milka; Hollinshead, Keith (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2016-01-26)
      This companion article by Ivanova and Hollinshead seeks to show how "the changing same of the diasporic imaginal" (after Leroi Jones, via Gilroy) often conceivably constitutes "a wicked problem" (after Brown, Harris, and Russell) that is often so complex in its characteristics that hard and fast definitions about it (and solutions for its problematics) are not easy to conjure up. Thus, in order to monitor how ethnic, cultural, and historic codes are switched and hybridized in and through the inconstant identifications of diasporic senses of inheritance and aspiration, this article endeavors to show how transdisciplinary lines of inspection may prove useful. Taken in tandem with the previous article by Hollinshead, the two dovetailed articles thereby comprise no tributary celebration of the purity of ethnic or national culture, but one that indeed demands a high degree of open interpretive imagination if such matters of ambivalence and ambiguity are to be gradually and meaningfully deciphered.
    • Tourism "the third ear": Further prospects for qualitative inquiry

      Hollinshead, Keith; Jamal, Tazim B. (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2007-04-01)
      This commentary on the state of the art of qualitative research in Tourism Studies is prompted and inspired by the recent appearance of Phillimore and Goodson's valuable coverage of the ontological and epistemological issues involved in the conduct of the enlarging body of qualitative research that has lately emerged in the field. It also stands as a follow-up article to the work of Jamal and Hollinshead in Tourism Management on similar matters. Like the latter, that is, that timely "Qualitative Research as a Forbidden Zone" article, this Tourism Analysis review article is premised upon the view that just as travel and tourism mirror so much of the social, communal, and political realities of the cultural world "out there," so research in Tourism Studies can mirror and much more advantageously utilize so many of the emergent phenomenological and ethnographic advances in research praxis that have followed in the wake of the so-called interpretive turn and the so-called literary turn of the human sciences. In viewing travel and tourism as critical and dynamic fields of seeing, being, experiencing, inventing, and knowing of and about the world, this review article positions travel and tourism as an inherently endlessly creative and mediating field of lived experience that, therefore, should be much more deeply explored interpretively, and thereby "qualitatively," in the light of the new insights that qualitative researchers have lately gained across human science disciplines into matters of meaning, textuality, and rhetorical power. Although The Forbidden Zone of Jamal and Hollinshead (in Tourism Management) explored the relevance of matters of "messy text," "confirmability," "engaged interestedness," "locality" for Tourism Studies, this follow-up article here in Tourism Analysis peruses related questions of "text," "voice," "reflexivity," "audience." It broadly concludes that-after Wichroski (1997)-the inexperienced qualitative researcher in travel/tourism/any domain can normally improve his or her sensibilities to the interpretive issues faced and to the contextual situation encountered by learning how to deploy "a third ear" to actively sense the involved difficult matters of "tacit" individual presence, "unstated" communal existence, "undeclared" researcher power and authority in both the research locales and the investigative processes he/she is engaged in. Although this follow-up (Third Ear) article posits many strengths in the use of qualitative research in Tourism Studies-particularly in tapping the misty plurivocality of populations and the exacting, contested narratives about places and pasts-the endeavor to understand the different styles of interpretive/ethnographictextual insight that course through various qualitative techniques is no soft option in research, and demands considerable sensitivity to the unfixities of meaning, affiliation, and identity. Overall then, as did Phillimore and Goodson, this Third Ear review article seeks to shift the debate about the merit and value of qualitative research beyond concerns of "technique" and away from the strictures of "method," per se, towards the need for the collective field of Tourism Studies to encourage more of its researchers towards flexible, interpretive approaches that demand enhanced situational use of their human intuitive and creative capacities themselves as a perceptual, diagnostic, and inferential resource. Thereby, the article calls for a more reasoned use of these sorts of creatively informed human capacities where they can be utilized sensitively in critical-vigorous fashion to gauge the held local/situational realities of and about the world, and with critical-rigor over the care in which those found understandings are reflexively captured and crosschecked. But the authors of this review article recognize that the new/emergent intersubjectivities and the new/ unfolding moral discourse of qualitative inquiry are still rupturing, still messy, and (for many researchers) still a rather dark matter. As the field of Tourism Studies continues into the 21st century, there are so many new options and opportunities in the engagement with the ever-expanding portfolio of qualitative research approaches-but there is still so much to learn in situ about how each one of them may be sensibly and appropriately deployed in each of those specific research locales.
    • Evolving perspectives on tourism’s interaction with nature during the last 40 years

      Holden, Andrew (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2015-05-22)
      The aim of this retrospective is to evaluate the changing paradigms of tourism’s relationship with nature over the last four decades. It is presented as one interpretation of this relationship not a definitive fait accompli. The period is characterized by an evolution of the society-nature relationship in response to environmental challenges never previously experienced. This includes a reassessment of ʼnature’ as both a social construction and scientific reality and a subsequent re-evaluation of our relationship to it, reflected in new paradigms including sustainability and environmental ethics. The paradox of tourism’s relationship with the environment has simultaneously played out over the period, exemplified in its contemporary interpretations as a key sustainable industry of the green economy and a significant contributor to GHG emissions and global warming. The conflicting interpretations of tourism suggest that the principles and ethics of environmental discourse will be critical for evaluating the tourism and nature relationship. This connection will continue to evolve and tourism’s increasing popularity and global economic importance ensures that it will have consequences for nature whilst providing a window into society’s environmental values and attitudes.