Recent Submissions

  • Synergies to promote successful PMI in the tourism industry

    Wypych, Leszek; Ahmad, Ijaz; Sastry, Sandhya; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2024-04-29)
    Globalisation by its very nature exemplifies acquisition of foreign firms or mergers between organisations, yet high failure of these ventures is also endemic; both national and organisational culture are cited as main reasons for these failures. The key objectives of this chapter are to explore (i) The key frameworks that impact national and organisational culture in a M&A setting, with a focus on the tourism industry, (ii) the link that dynamic capabilities and experiential learning have on success post-merger. The Research Questions are (i) what role do dynamic capabilities play in synergising post-merger successes? and (ii) what impact does experiential learning have on the success of integration after a merger or acquisition?
  • Unleashing innovation through internal branding and resident involvement

    Stoica, Ioana Sabrina; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2024-05-29)
    This chapter aims to explore of how residents are influencing their place brands through diverse acts of entrepreneurship by investigating (1) the impact of residents’ entrepreneurial acts on internal place branding in shaping a place’s identity, culture, and reputation and (2) the opportunities associated with residents’ entrepreneurship acts.
  • Entrepreneurship in tourism and hospitality research: a bibliometric analysis

    Vatankhah, Sanaz; Bamshad, Vahideh; Tallia, Sadaf; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2024-05-29)
    This chapter introduces a pioneering bibliometric analysis focused on the concept of entrepreneurship in tourism and hospitality (T&H) research. Through an in-depth qualitative and quantitative examination of scholarly articles, this study aims to uncover emerging trends, prevalent patterns, and significant contributions. By providing a comprehensive and systematic evaluation, this research offers unique insights into the evolving landscape of entrepreneurship in T&H research. The method of analysis involves meticulous data collection and rigorous mixed techniques, enabling a comprehensive exploration of the subject matter and facilitating valuable implications for future research and industry stakeholders.
  • Exploring the tourism potential and innovative contributions of social enterprises in south-east Nigeria

    Ekwugha, Maurice; Oham, Charles A.C.; Ojiagu, Nkechi; Amadi, Robert (Routledge, 2024-05-29)
    This chapter explores the innovative ways social enterprises can contribute to uplifting the people in South-East Nigeria through tourism. It will consider how the tourism industry can help in mitigating the economic impact of the recent global economic downturn and the social impact UK BAME-led organizations can make in this regard. It will also look at some of the distinctive needs these organizations have and their limitations such as the lack of formal structures, governmental support, economies of scale, etc. Untapped potential is investigated and innovative ways of moving forward will be addressed.
  • Managing cultural diversity and communication inside the tourism industry

    Wypych, Leszek; Ahmad, Ijaz; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2024-05-29)
    The very essence of the tourist experience is based within new encounters and immersing oneself within a new location and its sounds, smells, language, and culture, all of which are also potential sources of dissatisfaction. By understanding culture and the role of communication, we are able to improve satisfaction for visitors, and the quality of interaction for teams and their guests. The objectives of this chapter are to consider the make-up of a multicultural identity, to understand the tools that are available to improve Intercultural Competence, and to identify how to apply these techniques to create effective intercultural teams within the tourism industry.
  • Entrepreneurial innovation in the international business of tourism

    Jerez-Jerez, María Jesús; Foroudi, Pantea (Routledge, 2024-05-29)
    This international case study book provides 28 expertly curated case studies on entrepreneurship and innovation in tourism, each with detailed implementation instructions for the instructor to maximise student participation and learning. The dynamic characteristic of the tourism industry under the influence of micro and macro environment factors requires future professionals to be equipped with appropriate skills and competencies to deal with change and development in real-life practices. Curated and developed by industry experts and practitioners, these case studies embody real-world scenarios with the aim of best preparing students for their future careers. This compelling set of case studies explores the dynamics of entrepreneurship in global context, analyses emerging markets and new business models, and elicits the implications of innovation and entrepreneurship in different contexts and within a transdisciplinary perspective. The cases illustrate innovation and entrepreneurship as an accelerator of tourism growth and development, under a sustainable perspective. With reflective questions throughout to aid both in-class discussion and self-study, this book is an ideal study resource for use in higher and vocational education, and its unique, teaching-led approach positions it as a vital study tool for instructors and students alike.
  • Changing government attitudes: development and management of new knowledge on security and safety in tourism

    Jerez-Jerez, María Jesús; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2024-05-29)
    The primary aim of this chapter is to determine the central and emerging challenges for asset protection and procedural safety given contemporary and ongoing social/political/economic threats to stability. These challenges are compounded by internal difficulties with respect to the workforce and prerequisite skills. The further intention of this chapter therefore is to provide recommendations for industry and management in addressing and overcoming these challenges while maintaining competitive operations.
  • Environmental CSR, customer equity drivers and travellers’ critical outcomes: a stimulus-organism-response framework

    Vatankhah, Sanaz; Sepehrmanesh, A.; Zaeri, E.; Altinay, Levent; (SAGE, 2023-02-24)
    While environmental corporate social responsibility (CSR) has gained increased attention in sustainable tourism research, little is known about its impacts on customers in the context of the airlines. This study investigates the impact of environmental CSR on two critical customer outcomes namely purchase intention (PI) and switching behaviour (SB). In light of the stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) framework, this study further examines the joint mediating impact of customer equity drivers (CEDs) in the previously mentioned relationships. With a sample of Iranian air travellers, the results of the structural equation model revealed that environmental CSR significantly affects CEDs. While CEDs predict PI, they failed to reduce SB. Hence, CEDs jointly mediate the impact of environmental CSR on PI only. The results of the current study revealed nuances to the service marketing research by extending the impact of environmental CSR on travellers' PI and SB via CEDs. Theoretical and practical implications are provided.
  • Carry-on baggage on low-cost carriers: a no-frills journey?

    Arvanitis, Pavlos; University of Bedfordshire (Cyprus University of Technology, 2022-06-24)
    Airlines around the world carry on top of passengers, their baggage. Carried baggage adds to the total weight of the aircraft resulting in increased fuel consumption. Increased fuel prices led airlines around the world to introduce baggage fees to improve their revenues against their increased operating costs. This option was initially introduced in hold luggage, baggage that is not taken in to the cabin by the passenger. Over time though, several airlines, primarily low cost carriers, introduced fees for carry on baggage too. In 2019, 4.397 billion people flew according to the World Bank (2020) when ICAO reported 4.5 billion passengers for the same period (ICAO, 2019). According to the same report, ICAO estimates that 1.4 billion passengers in 2019 were carried by low-cost carriers, approximately 31 per cent of the world total scheduled passengers. The annual growth in passenger numbers in 2019 compared to the previous year was 5.3 per cent for low-cost carriers, almost 1.5 times the rate of the world total average passenger growth which was 3.6 per cent (ICAO, 2019). Despite their massive growth and their increasing market share which accounted for 31 percent in 2019, low-cost carriers do not have a common approach on the size of cabin baggage or the pricing policy. There are airlines who charge, airlines that do not charge at all, and other that charge or not, depending on the type of fare of ancillary services (add on) the passenger purchased. These differences are addressed in this paper in order to create groups of carriers that have very similar policies on pricing and accepting carry on baggage. There is limited literature related to baggage and pricing policies around them, let alone policies related to carry on baggage. One of the first scholars referring to passenger accompanied luggage is Williams (1977) who referred to rail passengers and their luggage. This study examines the baggage policies of the best low cost carriers in the world according to the 2019 Skytrax World Airline Awards. These are fifty low cost carriers that carried over 1 billion passengers in 2019, just under 25% of the world’s airline passengers. The data were collected by accessing each airline’s internet page and the information was collated in order to examine, baggage dimensions, weight and pricing policies. It is evident that there is no common approach leading to misinterpretations, confusion and inconsistency when it comes to carry on baggage policies. The main findings of this study highlight those differences and conclude with suggestions for the airlines or policy makers in order to streamline the policies covering carry on baggage. In addition, 2019 has been a very successful year for the low cost sector and the international tourism market where operations were not affected by external factors like in the following years. The study focuses on low cost carriers due to the popularity of these carriers, their increased market share and the concept that flying on a low cost carrier is cost effective and straight forward. The lack of literature in the above subject might open a new area for research and discussion in order to provide solutions to the issue that is being addressed.
  • Air connectivity for leisure tourism the way forward

    Arvanitis, Pavlos; Pappas, Nikolaos; Farmaki, Anna; University of Bedfordshire (Goodfellow Publishers, 2021-09-30)
  • Trilogy of strategies of disruption in research methodologies: article 3 of 3: The evocative power of tourism studies: positive interruption, interdependence, and imaging forward today

    Hollinshead, Keith; Suleman, Rukeya; Lo, Chun Yu; University of Bedfordshire (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2021-12-14)
    In this third of three cousin articles on the call for disruptive qualitative research approaches, further treatment is proffered on the concerns and irritations that "soft science"/"subtle science" social scientists (and humanists, and posthumanists) are troubled by today. While the opening article (by Hollinshead, Suleman, and Nair here in Tourism, Culture & Communication) laid out the general case for the fit of disruptive qualitative research advances cum dissident interpretive research overtures in Tourism Studies to help atone for the field's long-recognized biases towards highly economic/linear/ empirical outlooks, the second article (by Hollinshead, Suleman, and Vellah) constituted a consolidation of the advanced social justice orientations being aired across the trio of articles. In this third of the three bedfellow articles, the authors (Hollinshead, Suleman, and Lo) now provide further critique on the soft science constructions and the subtle science thinking that have been promoted within the landmark text on advanced qualitative and interpretive praxis by Brown, Carducci, and Kuby (entitled Disrupting Qualitative Inquiry). In this third article, the need for such dissident developments within Tourism Studies is provided with respect to a number (10) of common ontological issues encountered in research into tourism/travel today, such as the difficulty in researching the shadowy and indistinct "unique ways" in which foreign peoples differ from each other. At the end of this article, a further 15 terms are made manifest for the cumulative glossary being developed across the three companion articles. These terms include "critical ethnography" (vis-à-vis the revised cognitive practices of tourism) and "unsettlement" (vis-à-vis the rhetorics of futurity of tourism). This third article—like its two predecessors—is notably Deleuzian in hue, although readers should spot the conceptual mark of (Arturo) Escobar (and considerations of pluriversality that emanate from "The South") in places.
  • Unpacking solutions to counterproductive work behavior using hybrid fuzzy MCDM

    Vatankhah, Sanaz; Darvishi, Maryam (Routledge, 2021-12-12)
    Counterproductive work behavior has long been a concerning issue for organizations. Specially service organizations, including airlines, seem to confront the prevalence of such negative work behavior. Nevertheless, a general guideline to curb counter-productivity does not exist. In light of fuzzy theory, this study applied fuzzy Delphi and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process to develop a hierarchical evaluation index to identify and rank strategic solutions to cope with counterproductive work behavior in the airline industry. The results revealed that ethical concerns and ethical leadership are the most critical coping strategic criteria and sub-criteria, respectively. This study advances the current knowledge in counterproductive work behavior literature and offers a managerial toolbox to manage and reduce such behavior in the airline industry.
  • The geography of employment change in the hotel and catering industry of Great Britain in the 1980s: a subregional perspective

    Bull, Paul; Church, Andrew (Routledge, 1994-01-01)
    BULL P. J. and CHURCH A. P. (1994) The geography of employment change in the hotel and catering industry of Great Britain in the 1980s: a subregional perspective, Reg. Studies 28, 13-25. The hotel and catering industry was an important employment growth sector in the British economy in the 1970s and 1980s. The spatial outcomes of this growth have received virtually no research attention. Studies of this important service industry have often been encompassed by tourism research. This paper argues for a specific analysis of hotel and catering using unpublished data which outlines the subregional pattern of employment change between 1981 and 1989. A demand-side explanation examines the role of hotel and catering as a local consumer service, as a producer service and as a response to tourist demand. BULL P. J. et CHURCH A. P. (1994) La géographie de l'evolution de l'emploi dans l'hôtellerie et dans la restauration en Grande-Bretagne au cours des années 80: une perspective sous-régionale, Reg. Studies 28, 13-25. Aux années 70 et 80 l'hôtellerie et la restauration étaient des secteurs porteurs importants de l'economie britannique. Dans le domaine de la recherche on n'a guère tenu compte des impacts géographiques de cette croissance. En effet c'est la recherche du tourisme qui a souvent incorporé des études au sujet de cette industrie de services importante. Cet article propose une analyse particulière de l'hôtellerie et de la restauration à partir des données officieuses et qui esquisse la répartition sous-régionale de l'evolution de l'emploi entre 1981 et 1989. Une explication par la demande examine le rôle de l'hôtellerie et de la restauration en tant qu'un service aux consommateurs local, un service aux producte-urs et une réponse à la demande des touristes. BULL P. J. und CHURCH A. P. (1994) Die Geographie der Veränderungen in der Erwerbstätigkeit im Hotel- und Gaststättengewerbe Groβbritanniens in den achtziger Jahren: eine subregionale Analyse, Reg. Studies 28, 13-25. In den siebziger und achtiger Jahren dieses Jahrhunderts stellte die Zunahme der Erwerbstätigkeit im Hotel- und Gaststättengewerbe einen wichtigen Wachstumssektor der britischen Wirtschaft dar. Den räumlichen Resultaten dieses Wachstums hat die Forschung fast gar keine Auf-merksamkeit geschenkt. Studien dieser wichtigen Dienstlei-stungsindustrie sind oft in die Erforschung des Tourismus einbezogen worden. Dieser Aufsatz tritt fur eine spezifische Analyse des Hotel- und Gaststättengewerbes ein, wobei bisher unveröffentlichte Daten benutzt werden, in der das subregionale Muster des Beschäftigungswandels im Zeitraum 1981-1989 umrissen wird. Eine Erläuterung der Nachfrageseite untersucht die Rolle von Hotels und Gaststätten als eines Verbraucherdienstes am Orte, als eines Herstellerdienstes und als Antwort auf Nachfrage seitens des Touristen.
  • The hotel and catering industry of Great Britain during the 1980s: sub-regional employment change, specialization and dominance

    Bull, Paul; Church, Andrew (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 1994-06-01)
    This chapter describes the principal changes in hotel and catering employment at the sub-regional, or country scale, revealing a very uneven spatial pattern. Some of the major demand-side factors are identified as the key determinants of the changing geography of hotel and catering employment. It is a diverse industry and the effect of demand-side changes has resulted in differing levels of employment change in the various activity groups which form the sub-sectors of this industry. The varying growth rates in the different activity groups are examined, arguing that the faster rate of growth in catering compared to accommodation services has certain important spatial outcomes. This is reflected in the changing levels of sub-regional specialization and the extent to which certain countries are dominated by one particular industry sub-sector. The changing nature of spatial specialization in employment in the hotel and catering sector in the 1980s is also examined. The hotel and catering industry is a diverse mix of catering and accommodation services. Within the sub-regions of the UK during the 1980s, these services responded to a complex set of demand stimuli to produced varied and changing mosaic of regional dominance and collectively an uneven pattern of employment change and specialization. The individual regions of the UK have had different experiences of the changing character of the hotel and catering industry during the 1980s.
  • Recession and the hotel and catering industry: a regional perspective

    Bull, P.; Church, Andrew (Routledge, 1996-04-01)
    The sub-regional pattern of employment change from 1989 to 1991 is examined for the hotel and catering industry in Great Britain. A complex spatial pattern is identified. The effects of tourism, leisure, local economic and population change, and sub-regional economic specialisation on employment levels in hotel and catering are considered. Further analysis is undertaken of the geography of employment change in the sub-sectors of eating places, take-aways, pubs, clubs, hotels, canteens and other tourist accommodation.
  • Discussion forum

    Coles, Tim; Church, Andrew; Desforges, Luke (Routledge, 2004-05-01)
  • Public policy engagement with British tourism: The national, local and the European Union

    Church, Andrew; Ball, Rick; Bull, Chris; Tyler, Duncan (Routledge, 2000-04-01)
    The changing nature of tourism policy is examined through a review of the UK, and of national government policy, urban tourism and rural tourism. Supranational tourism policy influences, namely of the European Union, on tourism are also examined. The effects of other policy spheres on tourism strategy are considered, as is the diversity and complexity of tourism policy. One of the major conclusions of the paper is the uneven development of tourism policy in the UK, and against this background it seeks to identify future policy issues and a research agenda for tourism geography.
  • Literature reviews [2005]

    Barr, Stewart; Church, Andrew (Routledge, 2006-08-20)
    review of Case Studies on Ecotourism Ralf Buckley Wallingford, CABI, 2003, ISBN 0 85199 665 5
  • Tourism, the global city and the labour market in London

    Church, Andrew; Frost, Martin (Routledge, 2004-05-30)
    Global cities, such as London, are viewed as distinctive in terms of their role in the increasingly globalized economy. There has been considerable academic debate over the nature of global city labour markets and how these can be explained in relation to global city functions. New empirical evidence is presented for the tourism labour market in London and the UK. The pay, conditions and social characteristics of tourism workers in London are examined, and they appear distinctive in terms of their full-time, gender (male), student, ethnicity and migrant characteristics. An explanation is developed that explores the interactions between the global city role of London and other scaled geographical processes that originate, especially at the national level.
  • Local and regional tourism policy and power

    Church, Andrew; Lew (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2004-01-01)
    This chapter contains section titled: - Conceptual Categories, Policy Roles, and Geographical Scales - The Broad Aims of Regional and Local Tourism Policy - Changing Structures, Innovation, and the Impacts of Tourism Policy - Power, Theory, and the “;Drivers“; of Local and Regional Tourism Policy - Conclusions: Local and Regional Tourism Policy and Future Research Agendas

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