• Ageing carers and intellectual disability: a scoping review

      Mahon, Aoife; Tilley, Elizabeth; Randhawa, Gurch; Pappas, Yannis; Vseteckova, Jitka; University of Bedfordshire; Open University (Emerald, 2019-11-28)
      Purpose: Individuals with intellectual disability(ies) are living longer contributing to an overall increase in the average age of caregivers. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the physical, social and psychological needs of ageing carers of individuals with intellectual disability(ies) in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: A scoping review framework was used to identify literature from eleven databases, the grey literature and the references lists of relevant studies. Only primary research studies that discussed the needs of non-professional carers, aged 65+ years old, of individuals with intellectual disability(ies) in the UK were included. No date restrictions were applied. Thematic analysis was used to narratively synthesise findings. Findings: Six studies were included. Five key themes were identified: Living with fear, lack of information, rebuilding trust, proactive professional involvement and being ignored. Housing and support information is not communicated well to carers. Professionals require more training on carer needs and trust must be rebuilt between carers and professionals. Proactive approaches would help identify carer needs, reduce marginalisation, help carers feel heard and reduce the risk of care crisis. Greater recognition of mutual caring relationships is needed. Originality/value: This review highlighted the needs of older caregivers for individuals with intellectual disability(ies) as well as the need for more high-quality research in this field. The information presented in this review may be considered by primary care providers and funding bodies when planning future support for this growing population of carers.
    • Barriers and facilitators to adherence to group exercise in institutionalized older people living with dementia: a systematic review

      Vseteckova, Jitka; Deepak-Gopinath, Manik; Borgstrom, Erica; Holland, Caroline; Draper, Jan; Pappas, Yannis; McKeown, Eamonn; Dadova, Klara; Gray, Steve; Open University; et al. (BioMed Central, 2018-12-28)
      Research suggests targeted exercise is important for people living with dementia, especially those living in residential care. The aim of this review was to collect and synthesize evidence on the known barriers and facilitators to adherence to group exercise of institutionalized older people living with dementia. We searched all available electronic databases. Additionally, we searched trial registries (clinicaltrial.gov, and WHO ICTRP) for ongoing studies. We searched for and included papers from January 1990 until September 2017 in any language. We included randomized, non-randomized trials. Studies were not eligible if participants were either healthy older people or people suffering from dementia but not living in an institution. Studies were also excluded if they were not focused on barriers and facilitators to adherence to group exercise. Using narrative analysis, we identified the following themes for barriers: bio-medical reasons and mental wellbeing and physical ability, relationships dynamics, and socioeconomic reasons. The facilitators were grouped under the following thematic frames: bio-medical benefits and benefits related to physical ability, feelings and emotions and confidence improvements, therapist and group relationships dynamics and activity related reasons. We conclude that institutionalized older people living with dementia, even those who are physically frail, incontinent and/or have mild dementia can demonstrate certain level of exercise adherence, and therefore can respond positively to exercise programs. Tailored, individually-adjusted and supported physical activity, led by a knowledgeable, engaging and well communicating therapist/facilitator improves the adherence to group exercise interventions of institutionalized older people living with dementia. Objectives Methods Results Conclusions
    • A comparison of four approaches to evaluate the sit-to-stand movement

      Shukla, Brajesh K.; Jain, Hiteshi; Vijay, Vivek; Yadav, Sandeep; Mathur, Arvind; Hewson, David; Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur; Asian Centre for Medical Education, Research & Innovation, Jodhpur; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2020-04-19)
      The sit-to-stand test (STS) is a simple test of function in older people that can identify people at risk of falls. The aim of this study was to develop two novel methods of evaluating performance in the STS using a low-cost RGB camera and another an instrumented chair containing load cells in the seat of the chair to detect center of pressure movements and ground reaction forces. The two systems were compared to a Kinect and a force plate. Twenty-one younger subjects were tested when performing two 5STS movements at self-selected slow and normal speeds while 16 older fallers were tested when performing one 5STS at a self-selected pace. All methods had acceptable limits of agreement with an expert for total STS time for younger subjects and older fallers, with smaller errors observed for the chair (-0.18 ± 0.17 s) and force plate (-0.19 ± 0.79 s) than for the RGB camera (-0.30 ± 0.51 s) and the Kinect (-0.38 ± 0.50 s) for older fallers. The chair had the smallest limits of agreement compared to the expert for both younger and older participants. The new device was also able to estimate movement velocity, which could be used to estimate muscle power during the STS movement. Subsequent studies will test the device against opto-electronic systems, incorporate additional sensors, and then develop predictive equations for measures of physical function.
    • Ethnic differences in the prevalence of frailty in the United Kingdom assessed using the electronic Frailty Index

      Pradhananga, Shraddha; Regmi, Krishna; Razzaq, Nasrin; Ettefaghian, Alireza; Dey, Aparajit Ballav; Hewson, David (Wiley, 2019-09-13)
      Objective: There have been few studies in which the prevalence of frailty of different ethnic groups has been assessed in multiethnic countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of frailty in different ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Methods: Anonymized electronic health records (EHR) of 13 510 people aged 65 years and over were extracted from the database of a network of general practitioners, covering 16 clinical commissioning groups in London. Frailty was determined using the electronic Frailty Index (eFI), which was automatically calculated using EHR data. The eFI was used as a categorical variable with fit and mild frailty grouped together, and moderate and severe frailty grouped as frail. Results: The overall prevalence of frailty was 18.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.4%‐18.9%). The prevalence of frailty increased with age (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% CI, 1.10‐1.12) and body mass index (BMI; OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.04‐1.06). The highest prevalence of frailty was observed for Bangladeshis, with 32.9% classified as frail (95% CI, 29.2‐36.7); and the lowest prevalence of 14.0% (95% CI, 12.6‐15.5) was observed for the Black ethnic group. Stepwise logistic regression retained ethnicity, age, and BMI as predictors of frailty. Conclusion: This pilot study identified differences in the prevalence of frailty between ethnic groups in a sample of older people living in London. Additional studies are warranted to determine the causes of such differences, including migration and socioeconomic status. It would be worthwhile carrying out a validation study of the eFI in different ethnic populations.
    • Loneliness and self-stigma among older adults with mental health problems in care homes

      Tzouvara, Vasiliki; Papadopoulos, Chris; Randhawa, Gurch (2016-10-06)
    • Meeting the challenge of diabetes in ageing and diverse populations: a review of the literature from the UK

      Wilkinson, Emma; Waqar, Muhammad; Sinclair, Alan J.; Randhawa, Gurch; University of Bedfordshire; Foundation for Diabetes Research in Older People (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2016-10-17)
      The impact of type 2 diabetes on ageing societies is great and populations across the globe are becoming more diverse. Complications of diabetes unequally affect particular groups in the UK older people, and people with a South Asian background are two population groups with increased risk whose numbers will grow in the future. We explored the evidence about diabetes care for older people with South Asian ethnicity to understand the contexts and mechanisms behind interventions to reduce inequalities. We used a realist approach to review the literature, mapped the main areas where relevant evidence exists, and explored the concepts and mechanisms which underpinned interventions. From this we constructed a theoretical framework for a programme of research and put forward suggestions for what our analysis might mean to providers, researchers, and policy makers. Broad themes of cultural competency; comorbidities and stratification; and access emerged as mid-level mechanisms which have individualised, culturally intelligent, and ethical care at their heart and through which inequalities can be addressed. These provide a theoretical framework for future research to advance knowledge about concordance; culturally meaningful measures of depression and cognitive impairment; and care planning in different contexts which support effective diabetes care for aging and diverse populations.