Browsing Health by Subjects
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Does clinical simulation stimulate higher order thinking and the skills of higher order thinking in medical education?Higher Education Institutions (HEI’s) have invested in high fidelity clinical simulation centres incorporating all three areas of the perioperative pathway. It is suggested clinical simulation contributes to increased patient safety and is therefore encouraged in undergraduate operating department practice (ODP) courses (College of Operating Department Practice [CODP], 2011). A search of the literature, however, fails to uncover studies of the effectiveness of clinical simulation in the field of operating department practice. Studies from medicine and nursing exist, albeit from the perspective of the students’ experience and the lecturers’ delivering the simulation. The reapproved Diploma of Higher Education Operating Department Practice resulted in the introduction of clinical simulation in the first term whilst the classroom instruction remained unchanged. Therefore a comparison can be drawn between the cohort with classroom instruction only and the following cohort that received the blended theory and simulated learning.
Point OutWords: protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial of a motor skills intervention to promote communicative development in non-verbal children with autismBackground: Point OutWords is a caregiver-delivered, iPad-assisted intervention for non-verbal or minimally verbal children with autism. It aims to develop prerequisite skills for communication such as manual and oral motor skills, sequencing, and symbolic representation. This feasibility trial aims to determine the viability of evaluating the clinical efficacy of Point OutWords. Methodology: We aim to recruit 46 non-verbal or minimally verbal children with autism and their families, approximately 23 per arm. Children in the intervention group will use Point OutWords for half an hour, five times a week, for 8 weeks. Children in the control group will have equal caregiver-led contact time with the iPad using a selection of control apps (e.g. sensory apps, drawing apps). Communication, motor, and daily living skills are assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Parents will keep diaries during the intervention period and will take part in focus groups when the intervention is completed. Discussion: Point OutWords was developed in collaboration with children with autism and their caregivers, to provide an intervention for a subgroup of autism that has been historically underserved. As autism is a heterogeneous condition, it is unlikely that one style of intervention will address all aspects of its symptomatology; the motor skills approach of Point OutWords can complement other therapies that address core autistic symptoms of social cognition and communication more directly. The current feasibility trial can inform the selection of outcome measures and design for future full-scale randomised controlled trials of Point OutWords and of other early interventions in autism. Trial registration: ISRCTN, ISRCTN12808402. Prospectively registered on 12 March 2019. Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, Minimally verbal, Non-verbal, Motor, Language, Communication, iPad, Feasibility, Randomised controlled trial
Signature pedagogies and the HOTSHOT educator: a systematic literature reviewHigher Education Institutions have made considerable investments both fiscally and in staff engagement with clinical simulation. Professional bodies such as the Royal College of Surgeons, the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the College of Operating Department Practice endorse the use of clinical simulation. Claims that clinical simulation stimulates Higher Order Thinking and therefore contributes to increased patient safety will be examined.
A systematic review of the factors – enablers and barriers – affecting e-learning in health sciences educationBackground: Recently, much attention has been given to e-learning in higher education as it provides better access to learning resources online, utilising technology – regardless of learners’ geographical locations and timescale – to enhance learning. It has now become part of the mainstream in education in the health sciences, including medical, dental, public health, nursing, and other allied health professionals. Despite growing evidence claiming that e-learning is as effective as traditional means of learning, there is very limited evidence available about what works, and when and how e-learning enhances teaching and learning. This systematic review aimed to identify and synthesise the factors – enablers and barriers – affecting e-learning in health sciences education (el-HSE) that have been reported in the medical literature. Methods: A systemic review of articles published on e-learning in health sciences education (el-HSE) was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Allied & Complementary Medicine, DH-DATA, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Global Health, from 1980 through 2019, using ‘Textword’ and ‘Thesaurus’ search terms. All original articles fulfilling the following criteria were included: (1) e-learning was implemented in health sciences education, and (2) the investigation of the factors – enablers and barriers – about el-HSE related to learning performance or outcomes. Following the PRISMA guidelines, both relevant published and unpublished papers were searched. Data were extracted and quality appraised using QualSyst tools, and synthesised performing thematic analysis. Results: Out of 985 records identified, a total of 162 citations were screened, of which 57 were found to be of relevance to this study. The primary evidence base comprises 24 papers, with two broad categories identified, enablers and barriers, under eight separate themes: facilitate learning; learning in practice; systematic approach to learning; integration of e-learning into curricula; poor motivation and expectation; resource-intensive; not suitable for all disciplines or contents, and lack of IT skills. Conclusions: This study has identified the factors which impact on e-learning: interaction and collaboration between learners and facilitators; considering learners’ motivation and expectations; utilising user-friendly technology; and putting learners at the centre of pedagogy. There is significant scope for better understanding of the issues related to enablers and facilitators associated with e-learning, and developing appropriate policies and initiatives to establish when, how and where they fit best, creating a broader framework for making e-learning effective.