• Facilitators and barriers of implementing and delivering social prescribing services: a systematic review

      Pescheny, Julia Vera; Pappas, Yannis; Randhawa, Gurch; University of Bedfordshire (BioMed Central, 2018-02-07)
      BACKGROUND: Social Prescribing is a service in primary care that involves the referral of patients with non-clinical needs to local services and activities provided by the third sector (community, voluntary, and social enterprise sector). Social Prescribing aims to promote partnership working between the health and the social sector to address the wider determinants of health. To date, there is a weak evidence base for Social Prescribing services. The objective of the review was to identify factors that facilitate and hinder the implementation and delivery of SP services based in general practice involving a navigator. METHODS: We searched eleven databases, the grey literature, and the reference lists of relevant studies to identify the barriers and facilitators to the implementation and delivery of Social Prescribing services in June and July 2016. Searches were limited to literature written in English. No date restrictions were applied. Findings were synthesised narratively, employing thematic analysis. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool Version 2011 was used to evaluate the methodological quality of included studies. RESULTS: Eight studies were included in the review. The synthesis identified a range of factors that facilitate and hinder the implementation and delivery of SP services. Facilitators and barriers were related to: the implementation approach, legal agreements, leadership, management and organisation, staff turnover, staff engagement, relationships and communication between partners and stakeholders, characteristics of general practices, and the local infrastructure. The quality of most included studies was poor and the review identified a lack of published literature on factors that facilitate and hinder the implementation and delivery of Social Prescribing services. CONCLUSION: The review identified a range of factors that facilitate and hinder the implementation and delivery of Social Prescribing services. Findings of this review provide an insight for commissioners, managers, and providers to guide the implementation and delivery of future Social Prescribing services. More high quality research and transparent reporting of findings is needed in this field
    • The impact of telehealth remote patient monitoring on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials

      Lee, Puikwan; Greenfield, Geva; Pappas, Yannis; Imperial College London; University of Bedfordshire (BioMed Central Ltd., 2018-06-26)
      Background There is a growing body of evidence to support the use of telehealth in monitoring HbA1c levels in people living with type 2 diabetes. However, the overall magnitude of effect is yet unclear due to variable results reported in existing systematic reviews. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials to create an evidence-base for the effectiveness of telehealth interventions on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods Electronic databases including The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, HMIC, and PsychINFO were searched to identify relevant systematic reviews published between 1990 and April 2016, supplemented by references search from the relevant reviews. Two independent reviewers selected and reviewed the eligible studies. Of the 3279 references retrieved, 4 systematic reviews reporting in total 29 unique studies relevant to our review were included. Both conventional pairwise meta-analyses and network meta-analyses were performed. Results Evidence from pooling four systematic reviews found that telehealth interventions produced a small but significant improvement in HbA1c levels compared with usual care (MD: -0.55, 95% CI: -0.73 to − 0.36). The greatest effect was seen in telephone-delivered interventions, followed by Internet blood glucose monitoring system interventions and lastly interventions involving automatic transmission of SMBG using a mobile phone or a telehealth unit. Conclusion Current evidence suggests that telehealth is effective in controlling HbA1c levels in people living with type 2 diabetes. However there is need for better quality primary studies as well as systematic reviews of RCTs in order to confidently conclude on the impact of telehealth on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes.
    • Patients' perception of using telehealth for type 2 diabetes management: a phenomenological study

      Lee, Puikwan; Greenfield, Geva; Pappas, Yannis (BioMed Central Ltd., 2018-07-13)
      BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of evidence that supports the uses of telehealth to monitor and manage people with diabetes at a distance. Despite this, the uptake of telehealth has been low. The objective of this study is to explore patients' perceptions of using telehealth for type 2 diabetes management. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 10 patients from the NHS Newham area in London, UK. Data were collected using recorded semi-structured interviews. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and the analysis was guided by the phenomenological analysis approach. RESULTS: We identified three main themes for facilitating positive patient experience or acceptance of telehealth and these included: technology consideration, service perceptions and empowerment. All patients asserted that they were pleased with the technology and many also proclaimed that they could not see themselves being without it. Moreover, very few negative views were reported with respect to the use of telehealth. CONCLUSION: The patients' perceived telehealth as a potential to enhance their quality of life, allow them to live independently at home as well as help them take and be in more control over their own health state. The findings of this study therefore supports the use of telehealth for the routine care of people with type 2 diabetes. However, one must interpret the results with caution due to limitations identified in the sample.
    • Perspectives of general practitioners on the issues surrounding the late diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

      Bature, Fidelia; Guinn, Barbara-Ann; Pang, Dong; Pappas, Yannis; Luton, Dunstable, Milton Keynes General Practise consortium; University of Bedfordshire (IOS Press, 2018-11-15)
      We set out to investigate the insights general practitioners (GPs) have into the early signs and symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), factors that may be responsible for the late diagnosis, as well as their recommendations for early diagnosis of AD. This was a semi-structured, qualitative and audio-recorded interview of seven GPs, from five GP surgeries in Milton Keynes and Luton, using the framework analysis. GPs reported challenges with the current patient’s consultation time, a lack of continuity of care, inadequate training, limited support for patients after diagnosis, and poor treatment of the UK’s aging population. The study highlights important changes that would facilitate the earlier diagnosis of AD.