• Adaptations to mindfulness-based interventions for neurological impairment: the SMALL PROMPTS approach

      Finlay, K. A.; Hearn, J.H.; Gillett, J.L.; Ratwatte, P.; Morton-Bye, J.; Chater, Angel M.; ; University of Reading; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Buckingham; et al. (American Psychological Association, 2022-07-07)
      Purpose/Objective: Standardized mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), used for the management of physical and psychological symptoms associated with neurological impairment/injury (NI), have been problematized as lacking accessibility due to their focus on sensory presence and mindful walking. Research is needed to generate formalized recommendations regarding how MBIs may be best adapted to enhance their suitability for people with NI. ResearchMethod/Design: A two-phase qualitative study was completed. First, semistructured interviews were undertaken with eight accredited mindfulness teachers with NI. Interviews reviewed the adaptations participants made in their personal and teaching practice, using thematic analysis, and generated recommendations for adaptations to MBIs specific to people with NI. Second, using the DELPHI method, the adapted practice recommendations were reviewed and revised via three rounds, following cognitive interviews with an expert panel (N = 5 trained mindfulness teachers with NI). Results: Ten core areas for adaptation are proposed and validated, acting as SMALL PROMPTS which can be used to adapt mindfulness-based teaching techniques to the specific requirements of people with NI: (a) Skin/bladder/bowel management; (b) mindful Movement; (c) Accessible training; (d) Language Leadership; (e) Permissive pRactice; (f) Optimizing timelines; (g) Management of posture; (h) inclusion of Pacing; (i) Teaching from experience; and (j) body Scanning. Conclusion/Implications:Mindfulness is a highly applicable approach for people with sensory loss, however significant, specific adaptations are required to improve inclusivity and accessibility. The SMALL PROMPTS adaptations increase the accessibility, applicability, and utility ofMBIs for populations living with NI, enhancing effectivemanagement of physical and psychological wellbeing, and optimizingMBI delivery.