• Altruism, gift giving and reciprocity in organ donation: a review of cultural perspectives and challenges of the concepts

      Sharp, Chloe; Randhawa, Gurch; University of Bedfordshire (W.B. Saunders, 2014-10-01)
      Living and deceased organ donation are couched in altruism and gift discourse and this article reviews explores cultural views towards these concepts. Altruism and egoism theories and gift and reciprocity theories are outlined from a social exchange theory perspective to highlight the key differences between altruism and the gift and the wider implications of reciprocation. The notion of altruism as a selfless act without expectation or want for repayment juxtaposed with the Maussian gift where there are the obligations to give, receive and reciprocate. Lay perspectives of altruism and the gift in organ donation are outlined and illustrate that there are differences in motivations to donate in different programmes of living donation and for families who decide to donate their relative's organs. These motivations reflect cultural views of altruism and the gift and perceptions of the body and death.
    • Primary care interventions to encourage organ donation registration: a systematic review

      Penn-Jones, Catrin Pedder; Papadopoulos, Chris; Randhawa, Gurch; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2017-09-02)
      BACKGROUND: Previous research has proposed that primary care interventions to increase organ donation rates can help address the discrepancy between organ donation rates and the number of patients awaiting transplant. However, no systematic review has been conducted to examine interventions in this setting. OBJECTIVE: To synthesise evidence from previous organ donation interventions conducted in a primary care setting. METHODS: Six databases and grey literature were systematically searched between November 2016 and July 2017. Inclusion criteria included English language, studies published after the year 2000 and unpublished studies. A quality assessment and narrative synthesis was conducted. RESULTS: Ten studies met the inclusion criteria, nine of which examined actual organ donor registration as their primary outcome. Eight interventions increased registration to be an organ donor. Successful interventions utilised active methods of participant engagement that encouraged donation at the point of patient contact. DISCUSSION: Despite the small pool of studies that met the inclusion criteria, the results suggest that primary care interventions could produce promising results for increasing organ donation registration. However, additional higher quality studies are required before firm conclusions can be made. Barriers to implementation were also found and suggest that the feasibility of a primary care environment for organ donation intervention should be investigated.
    • Public knowledge and attitudes towards consent policies for organ donation in Europe: a systematic review

      Molina-Pérez, Alberto; Rodríguez-Arias, David; Delgado-Rodríguez, Janet; Morgan, Myfanwy; Frunza, Mihaela; Randhawa, Gurch; Reiger-Van de Wijdeven, Jeantine; Schiks, Eline; Wöhlke, Sabine; Schicktanz, Silke; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-10-02)
    • Should the family have a role in deceased organ donation decision-making? a systematic review of public knowledge and attitudes towards organ procurement policies in Europe

      Molina-Pérez, Alberto; Delgado, Janet; Frunza, Mihaela; Morgan, Myfanwy; Randhawa, Gurch; Reiger-Van de Wijdeven, Jeantine; Schicktanz, Silke; Schiks, Eline; Wöhlke, Sabine; Rodríguez-Arias, David; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-11-26)
      Goal: To assess public knowledge and attitudes towards the family's role in deceased organ donation in Europe. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in CINHAL, MEDLINE, PAIS Index, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science on December 15th, 2017. Eligibility criteria were socio-empirical studies conducted in Europe from 2008 to 2017 addressing either knowledge or attitudes by the public towards the consent system, including the involvement of the family in the decision-making process, for post-mortem organ retrieval. Screening and data collection were performed by two or more independent reviewers for each record. Results: Of the 1482 results, 467 studies were assessed in full-text form, and 33 were included in this synthesis. When the deceased has not expressed any preference, a majority of the public support the family's role as a surrogate decision-maker. When the deceased expressly consented, the respondents' answers depend on whether they see themselves as potential donors or as a deceased's next-of-kin. Answers also depend on the relationship between the deceased and the decision-maker(s) within the family, and on their ethnic or cultural background. Conclusions: Public views on the authority of the family in organ donation decision-making requiere further research. A common conceptual framework and validated well-designed questionnaires are needed for future studies. The findings should be considered in the development of Government policy and guidance regarding the role of families in deceased organ donation.