• Attitudes towards a programme of risk assessment and stratified management for ovarian cancer: a focus group study of UK South Asians' perspectives

      Hann, Katie E.J.; Ali, Nasreen; Gessler, Sue; Fraser, Lindsay Sarah Macduff; Side, Lucy; Waller, Jo; Sanderson, Saskia C.; Lanceley, Anne; Royal Holloway, University of London; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (BMJ, 2018-07-18)
      A crucial first step to enable implementation of population-based genetic risk assessment and management in OC is to raise awareness of OC within SA communities. It will be important to engage with the SA community early on in programme implementation to address their specific concerns and to ensure culturally tailored decision support. Population-based risk assessment, using genetic testing and the provision of appropriate risk management, could lead to prevention, early detection and improved clinical management of ovarian cancer (OC). Previous research with mostly white British participants found positive attitudes towards such a programme. The current study aimed to explore the attitudes of South Asian (SA) women and men in the UK with the aim of identifying how best to implement such a programme to minimise distress and maximise uptake. Semistructured qualitative focus group discussions. Community centres across North London and Luton. 49 women and 13 men who identified as SA (Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi), which constitutes the largest non-European ethnic minority group in the UK. Seven community-based focus groups were held. Group discussions were transcribed verbatim, coded and analysed thematically. Awareness and knowledge of OC symptoms and specific risk factors was low. The programme was acceptable to most participants and attitudes to it were generally positive. Participants' main concerns related to receiving a high-risk result following the genetic test. Younger women may be more cautious of genetic testing, screening or risk-reducing surgery due to the importance of marriage and childbearing in their SA cultures. CONCLUSIONS OBJECTIVE DESIGN SETTING PARTICIPANTS METHODS RESULTS
    • Barriers towards organ donor registration and consent among people of Indian origin living globally: a systematic review and integrative synthesis - protocol

      Vincent, Britzer Paul; Randhawa, Gurch; Cook, Erica Jane; University of Bedfordshire (BMJ Publishing Group, 2020-06-21)
      Introduction The need for organs is comparatively higher among people of Indian origin due to the higher prevalence of end-stage organ failure. In spite of the higher need, they have a lower number of organ donors. Studies have been carried out among people of Indian origin living globally to understand the reasons for the low donation rate, but there has been no systematic review that has integrated all of these studies to synthesise the current literature. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the barriers towards organ donor registration and consent among Indians living globally. Methods and analysis A systematic search will be conducted using the following relevant databases namely CINHAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed Central, Global Health and Grey literature. Studies from 1994 that satisfy our inclusion criteria will be included. Two reviewers will conduct the screening, data extraction and quality assessment of the studies; in event of any disagreement between the two reviewers at any stage, the third reviewer will reconcile any disagreements and consensus will be made. Ethics and dissemination As this study includes only secondary data, ethical approval for secondary data usage has been sought. This study will use Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines to report and the study outcomes will be disseminated through a relevant peer-review publication, related conferences and also to various non-governmental organisations globally which are working with this particular community; following which further research can be developed based on this evidence and also helps in building a culturally competent strategy. PROSPERO registration number CRD42019155274.
    • Beliefs about medicines and non-adherence in patients with stroke, diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study in China

      Wei, Li; Champman, Sarah; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xin; Li, Sumei; Chen, Ruoling; Bo, Nie; Chater, Angel M.; Horne, Robert; University College London School of Pharmacy; et al. (BMJ Publishing Group, 2017-10-01)
      OBJECTIVES: To investigate beliefs about medicines and their association with medicine adherence in patients with chronic diseases in China. DESIGN: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study SETTING: Two large urban hospitals in Hefei and Tianjin, China PARTICIPANTS: Hospital inpatients (313 stroke patients) and outpatients (315 diabetic patients and 339 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients) were recruited between January 2014 and September 2014. OUTCOME MEASURES: The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), assessing patients' beliefs about the specific medicine (Specific-Necessity and Specific-Concerns) prescribed for their conditions (stroke/diabetes/RA) and more general background beliefs about pharmaceuticals as a class of treatment (BMQ-General Benefit, Harm and Overuse); the Perceived Sensitivity to Medicines scale (PSM) assessed patients' beliefs about how sensitive they were to the effects of medicines and the Medication Adherence Report Scale. The association between non-adherence and beliefs about medicines was assessed using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Patients with diabetes mellitus had a stronger perceived need for treatment (mean (SD) Specific-Necessity score, 3.75 (0.40)) than patients with stroke (3.69 (0.53)) and RA (3.66 (0.44)) (p=0.049). Moderate correlations were observed between Specific-Concerns and General-Overuse, General-Harm and PSM (Pearson correlation coefficients, 0.39, 0.49 and 0.49, respectively, p<0.01). Three hundred and eleven patients were non-adherent to their medicine (159 (51.0%) in the stroke group, 60 (26.7%) in the diabetes mellitus group and 62 (19.8%) in the RA group, p<0.01). Across the whole sample, after adjusting for demographic characteristics, non-adherence was associated with patients who had higher concerns about their medicines (OR, 1.35, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.71) and patients who believed that they were personally sensitive to the effects of medications (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.85). CONCLUSION: The BMQ is a useful tool to identify patients at risk of non-adherence. In the future, adherence intervention studies may use the BMQ to screen for patients who are at risk of non-adherence and to map interventional support.
    • Crowd medical services in the English Football League: remodelling the team for the 21st century using a realist approach

      Leary, Alison; Kemp, Anthony; Greenwood, Peter; Hart, Nick; Agnew, James; Barrett, John; Punshon, Geoffrey; London South Bank University; University of Bedfordshire; British Association for Immediate Care; et al. (BMJ Publishing Group, 2017-12-21)
      To evaluate the new model of providing care based on demand. This included reconfiguration of the workforce to manage workforce supply challenges and meet demand without compromising the quality of care.Currently the Sports Ground Safety Authority recommends the provision of crowd medical cover at English Football League stadia. The guidance on provision of services has focused on extreme circumstances such as the Hillsborough disaster in 1989, while the majority of demand on present-day services is from patients with minor injuries, exacerbations of injuries and pre-existing conditions. A new model of care was introduced in the 2009/2010 season to better meet demand. A realist approach was taken. Data on each episode of care were collected over 14 consecutive football league seasons at Millwall FC divided into two periods, preimplementation of changes and postimplementation of changes. Data on workforce retention and volunteer satisfaction were also collected. The data were obtained from one professional football league team (Millwall FC) located in London, UK. The primary outcome was to examine the demand for crowd medical services. The secondary outcome was to remodel the service to meet these demands. In total, 981 episodes of care were recorded over the evaluation period of 14 years. The groups presenting, demographic and type of presentation did not change over the evaluation. First aiders were involved in 87.7% of episodes of care, nurses in 44.4% and doctors 17.8%. There was a downward trend in referrals to hospital. Workforce feedback was positive. The new workforce model has met increased service demands while reducing the number of referrals to acute care. It involves the first aid workforce in more complex care and key decision-making and provides a flexible registered healthcare professional team to optimise the skill mix of the team.
    • Differences in the pregnancy gestation period and mean birth weights in infants born to Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and white British mothers in Luton, UK: a retrospective analysis of routinely collected data

      Garcia, Rebecca; Ali, Nasreen; Guppy, Andy; Griffiths, Malcolm; Randhawa, Gurch; University of Bedfordshire; Luton & Dunstable University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (BMJ Publishing, 2017-08-11)
      Objective To compare mean birth weights and gestational age at delivery of infants born to Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and white British mothers in Luton, UK. Design Retrospective analysis using routinely recorded secondary data in Ciconia Maternity information System, between 2008 and 2013. Setting Luton, UK. Participants Mothers whose ethnicity was recorded as white British, Bangladeshi, Pakistani or Indian and living in Luton, aged over 16, who had a live singleton birth over 24 weeks of gestation were included in the analysis (n=14 871). Outcome measures Primary outcome measures were mean birth weight and gestational age at delivery. Results After controlling for maternal age, smoking, diabetes, gestation age, parity and maternal height and body mass index at booking, a significant difference in infants’ mean birth weight was found between white British and Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi infants, F(3, 12 287)=300.32, p<0.0001. The partial Eta-squared for maternal ethnicity was η2=0.067. The adjusted mean birth weight for white British infants was found to be 3377.89 g (95% CI 3365.34 to 3390.44); Indian infants, 3033.09 g (95% CI 3038.63 to 3103.55); Pakistani infants, 3129.49 g (95% CI 3114.5 to 3144.48); and Bangladeshi infants, 3064.21 g (95% CI 3041.36 to 3087.06). There was a significant association in preterm delivery found in primipara Indian mothers, compared with Indian mothers (Wald=8.192, df 1, p<0.005). Conclusions Results show important differences in adjusted mean birth weight between Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and white British women. Moreover, an association was found between primipara Indian mothers and preterm delivery, when compared with Pakistani, Bangladeshi and white British women.
    • Effectiveness of integrated chronic care interventions for older people with different frailty levels: a systematic review protocol

      Khan, Nimra; Hewson, David; Randhawa, Gurch; ; University of Bedfordshire (BMJ, 2020-09-10)
      INTRODUCTION: Frailty poses a huge burden to individuals, their families and to healthcare systems. Several interventions have been evaluated for the improvement of outcomes for older people with frailty, including integrated care interventions. Reviews synthesising evidence on the effectiveness of integrated care for older people with frailty have treated them as a single population, without considering the heterogeneity between different frailty levels such as non-frail, mild frailty, moderate frailty and severe frailty. Findings from these studies have shown inconsistent results on the various outcomes assessed. People with different frailty status have different care needs, which should be addressed accordingly. The aim of this study is to synthesise evidence on the effectiveness of integrated care interventions on older people with different frailty status who are community dwelling or living in retirement housing or residential setting but not in care homes or in nursing homes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a protocol for a systematic review assessing the effectiveness of integrated chronic care interventions on older people with different frailty status. A literature search will be conducted on the databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and clinical trial registers. Two authors will independently conduct search and screening for eligible studies. Full-text screening will be used to include only studies that fulfil the inclusion criteria. Data extraction will be done on a data extraction form and methodological quality of studies will be assessed using the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care risk of bias tool. The interventions will be described following Wagner's Chronic Care Model. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Institute for Health Research Ethics Committee of the University of Bedfordshire (IHREC934). The results of the review will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed journal article, conferences and also with local provider and user stakeholders. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020166908.
    • Equipping community pharmacy workers as agents for health behaviour change: developing and testing a theory-based smoking cessation intervention

      Steed, Liz; Sohanpal, Ratna; James, Wai-Yee; Rivas, Carol; Jumbe, Sandra; Chater, Angel M.; Todd, Adam; Edwards, Elizabeth; Macneil, Virginia; Macfarlane, Fraser; et al. (BMJ Publishing Group, 2017-08-01)
      OBJECTIVE: To develop a complex intervention for community pharmacy staff to promote uptake of smoking cessation services and to increase quit rates. DESIGN: Following the Medical Research Council framework, we used a mixed-methods approach to develop, pilot and then refine the intervention. METHODS: Phase I: We used information from qualitative studies in pharmacies, systematic literature reviews and the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour framework to inform design of the initial version of the intervention. Phase II: We then tested the acceptability of this intervention with smoking cessation advisers and assessed fidelity using actors who visited pharmacies posing as smokers, in a pilot study. Phase III: We reviewed the content and associated theory underpinning our intervention, taking account of the results of the earlier studies and a realist analysis of published literature. We then confirmed a logic model describing the intended operation of the intervention and used this model to refine the intervention and associated materials. SETTING: Eight community pharmacies in three inner east London boroughs. PARTICIPANTS: 12 Stop Smoking Advisers. INTERVENTION: Two, 150 min, skills-based training sessions focused on communication and behaviour change skills with between session practice. RESULTS: The pilot study confirmed acceptability of the intervention and showed preliminary evidence of benefit; however, organisational barriers tended to limit effective operation. The pilot data and realist review pointed to additional use of Diffusion of Innovations Theory to seat the intervention in the wider organisational context. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed and refined an intervention to promote smoking cessation services in community pharmacies, which we now plan to evaluate in a randomised controlled trial.
    • Ethnic variations in risk of preterm birth in an ethnically dense socially disadvantaged area in the UK: a retrospective cross-sectional study

      Puthussery, Shuby; Li, Leah; Tseng, Pei-Ching; Kilby, Lesley; Kapadia, Jogesh; Puthusserry, Thomas; Thind, Amardeep; University of Bedfordshire; University College London; Luton and Dunstable University Hospital; et al. (BMJ, 2019-03-09)
      Objective To investigate ethnic variations in risk of preterm birth (PTB), including extreme preterm birth (EPTB) and moderately preterm birth (MPTB), among mothers in an ethnically dense, socially disadvantaged area, and to examine whether any variations were dependent of area deprivation and maternal biological and behavioural factors. Design Retrospective cross-sectional study using routinely collected data. Setting A large UK National Health Service maternity unit. Participants 46 307 women who gave singleton births between April 2007 and March 2016. Outcome measures PTB defined as <37 weeks of gestation and further classified into EPTB (<28 weeks of gestation) and MPTB (28 to <37 weeks of gestation). Results Overall prevalence of PTB was higher (8.3%) compared with the national average (7.8%). Black Caribbean (2.2%) and black African (2.0%) mothers had higher absolute risk of EPTB than white British mothers (1.3%), particularly black Caribbean mothers whose relative risk ratio (RRR) was nearly twice after adjustment for all covariates (RRR=1.93[1.20 to 3.10]). Excess relative risk of EPTB among black African mothers became non-significant after adjustment for prenatal behavioural factors (RRR=1.41[0.99 to 2.01]). Bangladeshi mothers had the lowest absolute risk of EPTB (0.6%), substantially lower than white British mothers (1.3%); the difference in relative risk remained significant after adjustment for area deprivation (RRR=0.59[0.36 to 0.96]), but became non-significant after adjustment for maternal biological factors. Changes were evident in the relative risk of EPTB and MPTB among some ethnic groups compared with the white British on adjustment for different covariates. Conclusions Higher than national rates of PTB point to the need for evidence-based antenatal and neonatal care programmes to support preterm babies and their families in ethnically dense socially disadvantaged areas. Differential impact of area deprivation and the role of modifiable behavioural factors highlight the need for targeted preventive interventions for groups at risk.
    • Examining influences on antibiotic prescribing by nurse and pharmacist prescribers: a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework and COM-B.

      Courtenay, Molly; Rowbotham, Samantha; Lim, Rosemary; Peters, Sarah; Yates, Kathryn; Chater, Angel M.; Cardiff University; University of Sydney; Reading University; University of Manchester; et al. (BMJ, 2019-06-19)
      Respiratory tract infections are frequently managed by nurse and pharmacist prescribers, and these prescribers are responsible for 8% of all primary care antibiotic prescriptions. Few studies have explored antibiotic prescribing among these prescribers, and interventions to target their antibiotic prescribing behaviour do not exist. Research objectives were to: (1) use the Theoretical Domains Framework to identify the factors that influence nurse and pharmacist prescriber management of respiratory tract infections and (2) identify the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) that can be used as the basis for the development of a theoretically informed intervention to support appropriate prescribing behaviour. Qualitative design comprising semistructured interviews, using the Theoretical Domains Framework and Capability, Opportunity and Motivation for Behaviour. Primary care. Twenty one prescribers (4 pharmacists and 17 nurses). A range of factors across 12 domains of the TDF were found to influence prescriber behaviour, and 40 BCTs were identified as supporting appropriate prescribing. For example, patient expectations (social influence) was identified as a factor influencing prescribing decisions, and a number of BCTs (problem solving, goal setting and information about health consequences) were identified as supporting prescribers in managing these expectations. With increasing numbers of nurse and pharmacist prescribers managing infections in primary care, these findings will inform theoretically grounded interventions to support appropriate prescribing behaviour by these groups.
    • Factors that facilitate or hinder whole system integrated care for obesity and mental health: a scoping review protocol

      Liapi, Fani; Chater, Angel M.; Randhawa, Gurch; Pappas, Yannis; University of Bedfordshire (BMJ, 2021-08-10)
      Integrated care aims to improve population health. Obesity and mental health are major health issues worldwide. The complexity of the multifactorial drivers of these public health problems has led to the adoption of a whole system approach. This review aims to highlight factors that influence the planning, implementation and evaluation of whole system integrated care for these conditions. Using the framework of Arksey and O' Malley, we will perform a comprehensive search in the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, PubMed, British Nursing Database, Web of Science, Health Systems Evidence, Cochrane Library and University of York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Further hand-search of reference lists and the grey literature will be conducted. The search will be restricted to articles published from 2000 to 2020. The review is expected to be completed by August 2021. Full texts of the potential studies will be screened for the inclusion criteria. Quality of studies will be appraised. Narrative synthesis will be completed using data extracted from the included studies. A favourable ethics opinion for this study was obtained from the Institute for Health Research Ethics Committee of the University of Bedfordshire (IHREC937). This review expects to identify information relating to factors that facilitate or hinder whole system integrated care for obesity and mental health. The finding from this review will be widely disseminated to stakeholders to inform implementation of whole system integrated care initiatives.
    • The feasibility of finger prick autologous blood (FAB) as a novel treatment for severe dry eye disease (DED): protocol for a randomised controlled trial

      Balal, Shafi; Udoh, Arit; Pappas, Yannis; Cook, Erica Jane; Barton, Garry; Hassan, Ali; Hayden, Karen; Bourne, Rupert Richard Alexander; Ahmad, Sajjad; Pardhan, Shahina; et al. (BMJ, 2018-10-31)
      The research team at the two participating sites will approach patients with severe DED for this study. Recruitment will take place over 12 months and we expect to recruit 60 patients in total. The primary outcome of this feasibility study is to estimate the proportion of eligible patients approached who consent to and comply with study procedures including treatment regimen and completion of required questionnaires. The secondary outcome measures, although not powered for in this feasibility, include corneal inflammation (assessed by the Oxford corneal staining guide), patient pain and symptoms scores (assessed by the Ocular Surface Disease Index Score), and objective signs of DED as indicated by visual acuity (assessed by Schirmer's test, tear break-up time, lower and/or upper tear meniscus height measurement). Other secondary outcomes include patients' quality of life (assessed using the validated EQ-5D-5L Questionnaire), cost to the National Health Service (NHS) and patient (assessed via use of NHS services and privately purchased over-the-counter treatment related to DED) and safety measure of pressure within the eye (assessed by the Intraocular Pressure (IOP) Score). This protocol and any subsequent amendments, along with any accompanying material provided to the participant in addition to any advertising material used in this trial have been approved by the East of England - Cambridgeshire and Hertfordshire Research Ethics Committee (REC reference: 17/EE/0508). Written approval from the committee was obtained and subsequently submitted to the respective Trust's Research and Development (R&D) office with final NHS R&D approval obtained. Data obtained from this study will be published in a suitable peer-review journal and will also presented at international ophthalmic conferences including the American Academy of Ophthalmology, the Royal College of Ophthalmology Annual Congress, the Association for Research and Vision and Ophthalmology, and the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. Information will be provided to patient groups and charities such as the Sjogren's Society and the Royal National Institute of Blind People. This will also be shared with the study participants as well as with relevant patient groups and charities. NCT03395431; Pre-results. Patients with severe dry eye disease (DED) often have limited treatment options with standard non-surgical management focused on the use of artificial tears for lubrication and anti-inflammatory drugs. However, artificial tears do not address the extraordinary complexity of human tears. Crudely, human tears with its vast constituents is essentially filtered blood. Blood and several blood-derived products including autologous serum, have been studied as tear substitutes. This study proposes to test the use of whole, fresh, autologous blood obtained from a finger prick for treatment of severe DED. METHODS AND ANALYSIS ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER INTRODUCTION
    • Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions for reducing transmission of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

      Regmi, Krishna; Lwin, Cho Mar; ; University of Bedfordshire; University of Medicine Mandalay (BMJ Open, 2020-10-22)
      Introduction Implementing non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) protect the public from COVID-19. However, the impact of NPIs has been inconsistent and remains unclear. This study, therefore, aims to measure the impact of major NPIs (social distancing, social isolation and quarantine) on reducing COVID-19 transmission. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis research of both randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. We will undertake a systematic search of: MEDLINE, Embase, Allied &amp; Complementary Medicine, COVID-19 Research, WHO database on COVID-19, ClinicalTrails.Gov for clinical trials on COVID-19, Cochrane Resources on Coronavirus (COVID-19), Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service and Google Scholar for published and unpublished literatures on COVID-19 including preprint engines such as medRxiv, bioRxiv, Litcovid and SSRN for unpublished studies on COVID-19 and will be reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Outcomes of interest for impact analysis will include the reduction of COVID-19 transmission, avoiding crowds and restricting movement, isolating ill and psychological impacts. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols checklist has been used for this protocol. For quality of included studies, we will use the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias for randomised controlled trials and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational studies. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach will grade the certainty of the evidence for all outcome measures across studies. Random-effects model for meta-analysis will measure the effect size of NPIs or the strengths of relationships. For quantitative data, risk ratio or OR, absolute risk difference (for dichotomous outcome data), or mean difference or standardised mean difference (for continuous data) and their 95% CIs will be calculated. Where statistical pooling is not possible, a narrative synthesis will be conducted for the included studies. To assess the heterogeneity of effects, I2 together with the observed effects will be evaluated to provide the true effects in the analysis. Ethics and dissemination Formal ethical approval from an institutional review board or research ethics committee is not required as primary data will not be collected. The final results of this study will be published in an open-access peer-reviewed journal, and abstract will be presented at suitable national/international conferences or workshops. We will also share important information with public health authorities as well as with the WHO. In addition, we may post the submitted manuscript under review to medRxiv, or other relevant preprint servers.
    • The impact of the Luton social prescribing programme on energy expenditure: a quantitative before-and-after study

      Pescheny, Julia Vera; Gunn, Laura H.; Randhawa, Gurch; Pappas, Yannis; University of Bedfordshire; University of North Carolina (UNC); Imperial College London (BMJ, 2019-06-16)
      The objective of this study was to assess the change in energy expenditure levels of service users after participation in the Luton social prescribing programme. Uncontrolled before-and-after study. This study was set in the East of England (Luton). Service users with complete covariate information and baseline measurements (n=146) were included in the analysis. Social prescribing, which is an initiative that aims to link patients in primary care with sources of support within the community sector to improve their health, well-being and care experience. Service users were referred to 12 sessions (free of charge), usually provided by third sector organisations. Energy expenditure measured as metabolic equivalent (MET) minutes per week. Using a Bayesian zero-inflated negative binomial model to account for a large number of observed zeros in the data, 95% posterior intervals show that energy expenditure from all levels of physical activities increased post intervention (walking 41.7% (40.31%, 43.11%); moderate 5.0% (2.94%, 7.09%); vigorous 107.3% (98.19%, 116.20%) and total 56.3% (54.77%, 57.69%)). The probability of engaging in physical activity post intervention increased, in three of four MET physical activity levels, for those individuals who were inactive at the start of the programme. Age has a negative effect on energy expenditure from any physical activity level. Similarly, working status has a negative effect on energy expenditure in all but one MET physical activity level. No consistent pattern was observed across physical activity levels in the association between gender and energy expenditure. This study shows that social prescribing may have the potential to increase the physical activity levels of service users and promote the uptake of physical activity in inactive patient groups. Results of this study can inform future research in the field, which could be of use for commissioners and policy makers.
    • Knowledge and attitude of healthcare professionals to frailty screening in primary care: a systematic review protocol

      Okpechi, Ijeoma; Randhawa, Gurch; Hewson, David; University of Bedfordshire (BMJ Publishing Group, 2020-07-02)
      Introduction Frailty is an increasingly common condition in which physiological decline as a result of accumulated deficits renders older people more vulnerable to adverse outcomes. An increasing range of frailty screening programmes have been introduced in primary care to identify frail older people in order to deliver appropriate interventions. However, limited information on the knowledge and attitude of healthcare professionals (HCPs) with respect to frailty screening is known. The aim of this systematic review is to provide evidence on the knowledge and attitude of HCP in terms of frailty screening, and potentially identify barriers and facilitators to frailty screening to improve implementation of frailty screening in primary care. Methods/design A systematic review of qualitative research will be conducted. Databases searched will be MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO and Web of Science from January 2001 to August 2019. Methods will be reported based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Population, interest, context and study design methodology was used to develop inclusion and exclusion criteria with HCPs as population, frailty screening as interest and knowledge or attitude of HCPs to frailty screening as context. Studies with a qualitative methodology or a mixed-method design where the qualitative component is analysed separately will also be included. Quality appraisal will be carried out using the Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal tool for qualitative studies. Data will be extracted from each selected study with thematic framework analysis used to synthesise findings. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review does not require ethical approval as primary data will not be collected. The findings will be disseminated at conferences and in a relevant academic journal. This review will assist HCPs and relevant stakeholders to tackle the challenges of frailty screening in primary care. PROSPERO registration number CRD42019159007.
    • Maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood cancer: record linkage study

      Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Beasley, Marcus; Pang, Dong; Macfarlane, Gary J.; University of Aberdeen; University of Bedfordshire (BMJ, 2014-01-06)
      Objective To investigate maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood cancer. Study design Case–control analysis of linked records from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank with the Scottish Cancer Registry and the General Registry of Births and Deaths in Scotland was carried out. Setting Aberdeen, Scotland. Participants Cases (n=176) comprised children diagnosed with cancer under 15 years or recorded as having died of cancer. Four controls per case were matched by age and gender. Risk factors tested Maternal age, body mass index, social class, marital status and smoking as well as pre-eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and previous miscarriage, gestational age, birth weight and Apgar scores were compared between groups to test for association with cancer. ORs with 95% CIs were calculated using conditional logistic regression in univariable and multivariable models. Results Of the maternal characteristics tested, mother's age at delivery (cases mean 28.9 (SD 5.6) years vs controls mean 30.2 (SD 4.6), p=0.002) and smoking status (38.6% smokers among cases, 29.7% among controls, p=0.034) were found to be different between groups. Of the perinatal factors tested, low Apgar score at 5 min (adjusted OR (AOR) 4.59, 95% CI 1.52 to 13.87) and delivery by caesarean section (AOR 1.95, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.92) showed statistically significant associations with childhood cancer in the multivariable model. Conclusions Younger maternal age, maternal smoking, delivery by caesarean section and low Apgar score at 5 min were independently associated with increased risk of childhood cancer. These general findings should be interpreted with caution as this study did not have the power to detect any association with individual diagnostic categories of childhood cancer. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/
    • Risk models and scores for metabolic syndrome: systematic review protocol

      Ibrahim, Musa Saulawa; Pang, Dong; Randhawa, Gurch; Pappas, Yannis; University of Bedfordshire (BMJ, 2019-09-27)
      Introduction Metabolic syndrome ‘a clustering of risk factors which includes hypertension central obesity, impaired glucose metabolism with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia’ affects approximately 20%–25% of the global adult population. Individuals with metabolic syndrome have two to threefold risk of developing cardiovascular disease and a fivefold risk of developing developing diabetes and death from all causes. Although there is rapid proliferation of risk scores for predicting the risk of developing metabolic syndrome later in life, yet, these are seldom used in the practice. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to determine the performance of risk models and scores for predicting the metabolic syndrome. Methods and analysis Articles will be sought for from electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed and Web of Science) as well as the Cochrane Library. Further manual search of reference lists and grey literatures will be conducted. The search will cover from the start of indexing to 3 October 2018. Identified studies will be included if they fulfil the study selection criteria. Quality of studies will be appraised using suitable criteria for the risk models. The risk scores in the final sample of the review will be ranked/prioritised based on previous quality criteria for prognostic risk models. Lastly, the impact of the models will be ascertained by tracking citations on Google Scholar. Ethics and dissemination This study does not require formal ethical approval as primary data will not be collected. The results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and relevant conference presentations.
    • Signs and symptoms preceding the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic scoping review of literature from 1937 to 2016

      Bature, Fidelia; Guinn, Barbara-Ann; Pang, Dong; Pappas, Yannis; University of Bedfordshire (British Medical Journal, 2017-08-28)
      Objective Late diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) may be due to diagnostic uncertainties. We aimed to determine the sequence and timing of the appearance of established early signs and symptoms in people who are subsequently diagnosed with AD. Methods We used systematic review methodology to investigate the existing literature. Articles were reviewed in May 2016, using the following databases: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, PubMed central and the Cochrane library, with no language restriction. Data from the included articles were extracted independently by two authors and quality assessment was undertaken with the quality assessment and diagnostic accuracy tool-2 (QUADAS tool-2 quality assessment tool). Results We found that depression and cognitive impairment were the first symptoms to appear in 98.5% and 99.1% of individuals in a study with late-onset AD (LOAD) and 9% and 80%, respectively, in early-onset AD (EOAD). Memory loss presented early and was experienced 12 years before the clinically defined AD dementia in the LOAD. However, the rapidly progressive late-onset AD presented predominantly with 35 non-established focal symptoms and signs including myoclonus (75%), disturbed gait (66%) and rigidity. These were misdiagnosed as symptoms of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) in all the cases. The participant with the lowest mini-mental state examination score of 25 remained stable for 2 years, which is consistent with the score of the healthy family members. Conclusions The findings of this review suggest that neurological and depressive behaviours are an early occurrence in EOAD with depressive and cognitive symptoms in the measure of semantic memory and conceptual formation in LOAD. Misdiagnosis of rapidly progressive AD as CJD and the familial memory score can be confounding factors while establishing a diagnosis. However, the study was limited by the fact that each one of the findings was based on a single study. * Alzheimer's disease (AD) * systematic scoping review * early signs and symptoms * mild cognitive impairment (MCI) * early stage of AD
    • Study protocol for evaluation of aid to diagnosis for developmental dysplasia of the hip in general practice: controlled trial randomised by practice

      Roposch, Andreas; Warsame, Kaltuun; Chater, Angel M.; Green, Judith; Hunter, Rachael; Wood, John; Freemantle, Nick; Nazareth, Irwin; ; University College London; et al. (BMJ Publishing Group, 2020-12-02)
      Introduction In the UK, a compulsory € 6-week hip check' is performed in primary care for the detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). However, missed diagnoses and infants incorrectly labelled with DDH remain a problem, potentially leading to adverse consequences for infants, their families and the National Health Service. National policy states that infants should be referred to hospital if the 6-week check suggests DDH, though there is no available tool to aid examination or offer guidelines for referral. We developed standardised diagnostic criteria for DDH, based on international Delphi consensus, and a 9-item checklist that has the potential to enable non-experts to diagnose DDH in a manner approaching that of experts. Methods and analysis We will conduct a controlled trial randomised by practice that will compare a diagnostic aid against standard care for the hip check. The primary objective is to determine whether an aid to the diagnosis of DDH reduces the number of clinically insignificant referrals from primary care to hospital and the number of late diagnosed DDH. The trial will include a qualitative process evaluation, an assessment of professional behavioural change and a full health economic evaluation. We will recruit 152 general practitioner practices in England. These will be randomised to conduct the hip checks with useof the study diagnostic aid and/or as per usual practice. The total number of infants seen during a15-month recruitment period will be 110 per practice. Two years after the 6-week hip check, we willmeasure the number of referred infants that are (1) clinically insignificant for DDH and (2) those that constitute appropriate referrals. Ethics and dissemination This study has approval from the Health Research Authority (16/1/2020) and the Confidentiality Advisory Group (18/2/2020). Results will be published in peer-reviewed academic journals, disseminated to patient organisations and the media. Trial registration number NCT04101903; Pre-results.
    • A theory-based electronic learning intervention to support appropriate antibiotic prescribing by nurse and pharmacist independent prescribers: an acceptability and feasibility experimental study using mixed methods

      Lim, Rosemary; Courtenay, Molly; Deslandes, Rhian; Farriday, Rebecca; Gillespie, David; Hodson, Karen; Reid, Nicholas; Thomas, Neil; Chater, Angel M.; ; et al. (BMJ, 2019-08-18)
      Introduction: Nurse and pharmacist independent prescribers manage patients with respiratory tract infections and are responsible for around 8% of all primary care antibiotic prescriptions. A range of factors influence the prescribing behaviour of these professionals, however, there are no interventions available specifically to support appropriate antibiotic prescribing behaviour by these groups. The aims of this paper are to describe (1) the development of an intervention to support appropriate antibiotic prescribing by nurse and pharmacist independent prescribers and (2) an acceptability and feasibility study designed to test its implementation with these prescribers. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: Development of intervention: a three-stage, eight-step method was used to identify relevant determinants of behaviour change and intervention components based on the Behaviour Change Wheel. The intervention is an online resource comprising underpinning knowledge and an interactive animation with a variety of open and closed questions to assess understanding. Acceptability and feasibility of intervention: nurse and pharmacist prescribers (n=12-15) will use the intervention. Evaluation includes semi-structured interviews to capture information about how the user reacts to the design, delivery and content of the intervention and influences on understanding and engagement, and a pre-post survey to assess participants' perceptions of the impact of the intervention on knowledge, confidence and usefulness in terms of application to practice. Taking an initial inductive approach, data from interview transcripts will be coded and then analysed to derive themes. These themes will then be deductively mapped to the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour model. Descriptive statistics will be used to analyse the survey data, and trends identified.
    • Theory-based electronic learning intervention to support appropriate antibiotic prescribing by nurses and pharmacists: intervention development and feasibility study protocol.

      Courtenay, Molly; Lim, Rosemary; Deslandes, Rhian; Ferriday, Rebecca; Gillespie, David; Hodson, Karen; Reid, Nicholas; Thomas, Neil; Chater, Angel M.; Cardiff University; et al. (BMJ, 2019-08-18)
      Introduction Nurse and pharmacist independent prescribers manage patients with respiratory tract infections and are responsible for around 8% of all primary care antibiotic prescriptions. A range of factors influence the prescribing behaviour of these professionals, however, there are no interventions available specifically to support appropriate antibiotic prescribing behaviour by these groups. The aims of this paper are to describe (1) the development of an intervention to support appropriate antibiotic prescribing by nurse and pharmacist independent prescribers and (2) an acceptability and feasibility study designed to test its implementation with these prescribers. Method and analysis Development of intervention: a three-stage, eight-step method was used to identify relevant determinants of behaviour change and intervention components based on the Behaviour Change Wheel. The intervention is an online resource comprising underpinning knowledge and an interactive animation with a variety of open and closed questions to assess understanding. Acceptability and feasibility of intervention: nurse and pharmacist prescribers (n=12–15) will use the intervention. Evaluation includes semi-structured interviews to capture information about how the user reacts to the design, delivery and content of the intervention and influences on understanding and engagement, and a pre-post survey to assess participants’ perceptions of the impact of the intervention on knowledge, confidence and usefulness in terms of application to practice. Taking an initial inductive approach, data from interview transcripts will be coded and then analysed to derive themes. These themes will then be deductively mapped to the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour model. Descriptive statistics will be used to analyse the survey data, and trends identified