• Attitudes towards a programme of risk assessment and stratified management for ovarian cancer: a focus group study of UK South Asians' perspectives

      Hann, Katie E.J.; Ali, Nasreen; Gessler, Sue; Fraser, Lindsay Sarah Macduff; Side, Lucy; Waller, Jo; Sanderson, Saskia C.; Lanceley, Anne; Royal Holloway, University of London; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (BMJ, 2018-07-18)
      A crucial first step to enable implementation of population-based genetic risk assessment and management in OC is to raise awareness of OC within SA communities. It will be important to engage with the SA community early on in programme implementation to address their specific concerns and to ensure culturally tailored decision support. Population-based risk assessment, using genetic testing and the provision of appropriate risk management, could lead to prevention, early detection and improved clinical management of ovarian cancer (OC). Previous research with mostly white British participants found positive attitudes towards such a programme. The current study aimed to explore the attitudes of South Asian (SA) women and men in the UK with the aim of identifying how best to implement such a programme to minimise distress and maximise uptake. Semistructured qualitative focus group discussions. Community centres across North London and Luton. 49 women and 13 men who identified as SA (Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi), which constitutes the largest non-European ethnic minority group in the UK. Seven community-based focus groups were held. Group discussions were transcribed verbatim, coded and analysed thematically. Awareness and knowledge of OC symptoms and specific risk factors was low. The programme was acceptable to most participants and attitudes to it were generally positive. Participants' main concerns related to receiving a high-risk result following the genetic test. Younger women may be more cautious of genetic testing, screening or risk-reducing surgery due to the importance of marriage and childbearing in their SA cultures. CONCLUSIONS OBJECTIVE DESIGN SETTING PARTICIPANTS METHODS RESULTS
    • Community nursing and antibiotic stewardship: the importance of communication and training

      Chater, Angel M.; Courtenay, Molly; University of Bedfordshire; University College London; Cardiff University (MA Healthcare Ltd, 2019-07-02)
      Antimicrobial stewardship (using antimicrobials responsibly) can reduce the risk of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Many health professionals identify themselves as ‘antibiotic guardians’, but patient expectations, time constraints, and a lack of confidence or underdeveloped communication skills can influence decisions to prescribe. Nurse prescribers have an important role to play in antibiotic stewardship, and their numbers continue to grow. While nurse prescribers welcome this extension to their traditional role, they are often faced with barriers to antibiotic stewardship activities. These barriers may relate to their Capability (knowledge/skill), Opportunity (norms of practice, influence of patients, environmental factors), and Motivation (attitudes and beliefs, concern over outcome, emotion and habit) [COM-B]. Education, training and enablement can help to overcome these barriers, and the development of knowledge, confidence and effective communication skills should be of priority. Further, communication skills can help nurse prescribers understand patient expectations, with the use of open-ended questions, active listening and creation of a patient-centred consultation that leads to a mutually agreed end goal and way forward.
    • Culture and health

      Napier, A David; Ancarno, Clyde; Butler, Beverley; Calabrese, Joseph; Chater, Angel M.; Chaterjee, Helen; Guesnet, Francois; Horne, Robert; Jacyna, Stephen; Jadhav, Sushrut; et al. (Elsevier: Lancet, 2014-10-28)
    • Ethnic variations in risk of preterm birth in an ethnically dense socially disadvantaged area in the UK: a retrospective cross-sectional study

      Puthussery, Shuby; Li, Leah; Tseng, Pei-Ching; Kilby, Lesley; Kapadia, Jogesh; Puthusserry, Thomas; Thind, Amardeep; University of Bedfordshire; University College London; Luton and Dunstable University Hospital; et al. (BMJ, 2019-03-09)
      Objective To investigate ethnic variations in risk of preterm birth (PTB), including extreme preterm birth (EPTB) and moderately preterm birth (MPTB), among mothers in an ethnically dense, socially disadvantaged area, and to examine whether any variations were dependent of area deprivation and maternal biological and behavioural factors. Design Retrospective cross-sectional study using routinely collected data. Setting A large UK National Health Service maternity unit. Participants 46 307 women who gave singleton births between April 2007 and March 2016. Outcome measures PTB defined as <37 weeks of gestation and further classified into EPTB (<28 weeks of gestation) and MPTB (28 to <37 weeks of gestation). Results Overall prevalence of PTB was higher (8.3%) compared with the national average (7.8%). Black Caribbean (2.2%) and black African (2.0%) mothers had higher absolute risk of EPTB than white British mothers (1.3%), particularly black Caribbean mothers whose relative risk ratio (RRR) was nearly twice after adjustment for all covariates (RRR=1.93[1.20 to 3.10]). Excess relative risk of EPTB among black African mothers became non-significant after adjustment for prenatal behavioural factors (RRR=1.41[0.99 to 2.01]). Bangladeshi mothers had the lowest absolute risk of EPTB (0.6%), substantially lower than white British mothers (1.3%); the difference in relative risk remained significant after adjustment for area deprivation (RRR=0.59[0.36 to 0.96]), but became non-significant after adjustment for maternal biological factors. Changes were evident in the relative risk of EPTB and MPTB among some ethnic groups compared with the white British on adjustment for different covariates. Conclusions Higher than national rates of PTB point to the need for evidence-based antenatal and neonatal care programmes to support preterm babies and their families in ethnically dense socially disadvantaged areas. Differential impact of area deprivation and the role of modifiable behavioural factors highlight the need for targeted preventive interventions for groups at risk.
    • The impact of COVID-19 on health behaviour, well-being, and long-term physical health.

      McBride, Emily; Arden, Madelynne A.; Chater, Angel M.; Chilcot, Joseph; ; University College London; Sheffield Hallam University; University of Bedfordshire; King's College London (Wiley, 2021-03-31)
      Editorial
    • Parents' expectations and experiences of the 6-week baby check: a qualitative study in primary care

      Gilworth, Gill; Milton, Sarah; Chater, Angel M.; Nazareth, Irwin; Roposch, Andreas; Green, Judith; King's College London; University of Bedfordshire; University College London (Royal College of General Practitioners, 2020-11-18)
      Background: The Newborn and Infant Physical Examination (NIPE) programme requires all babies to have a comprehensive health check at 6-8 weeks of age. These are typically completed by GPs. Although person-centred care has achieved prominence in maternity care policy in recent years, there is limited empirical evidence on what parents and/or carers expect from the check, and how far experiences meet their needs. Aim: To explore the expectations and experiences of parents attending their GP for a baby check. Design &amp; setting: A qualitative study was undertaken in primary care in London. Method: Content analysis was undertaken of transcripts of semi-structured interviews. Interviews were conducted with a total of 16 participants (14 mothers and two fathers) who had recently attended for a 6-week check for their baby. Results: Despite the availability of plentiful sources of general advice on infants' health and development, a thorough check by a trusted GP was an important milestone for most parents. They had few specific expectations of the check in terms of what examinations were undertaken, but even experienced parents anticipated reassurance about their baby's normal development. Many also hoped for reassurance about their own parenting. Parents appreciated GPs who explained what they were doing during the examination; space to raise any concerns; and combined mother and baby checks. Referrals to secondary care were generally experienced as reassuring rather than a source of anxiety. Conclusion: The baby check meets needs beyond those of the NIPE screening programme. Protecting the time for a thorough consultation is important for parents at what can be a vulnerable time.
    • The prescribing needs of community practitioner nurse prescribers: a qualitative investigation using the theoretical domains framework and COM-B.

      Chater, Angel M.; Williams, Jane; Courtenay, Molly; University of Bedfordshire; University College London; Cardiff University (Wiley, 2019-08-18)
      With several qualified community practitioner nurse prescribers (CPNPs) not prescribing, this research aimed to understand what influences this behaviour. A qualitative research design. Semi-structured interviews, based on the theoretical domains framework (TDF) were conducted with 20 CPNPs. Data collection took place between March-July 2018 and continued until data saturation was reached. Nine themes inductively explained prescribing behaviour: 1) 'Knowledge and experience'; 2) 'Consultation and communication skills'; 3) 'Professional confidence and identity'; 4) 'Wanting the best outcome'; 5) 'NHS versus patient cost'; 6) 'Emotion-led decisions'; 7) 'Time allocation'; 8) 'Formulary access' and 9) 'Supporting environment for patient-centred care'. Themes were then deductively mapped to the TDF and COM-B. There is an ongoing need to support community practitioner nurse prescribers' 'Capability' to prescribe in terms of knowledge and aquired skills; 'Opportunity' to make prescribing easier, such as access to a wider and up to date nurse formulary alongside effective clinical support; and 'Motivation' to feel confident in prescribing behaviour, highlighting positive patient outcomes while reducing perceived issues such as cost and non-adherence. Findings show that Capability, Opportunity and Motivation all influence the decision to prescribe. Those responsible for professional regulation and training should ensure community practitioner nurse prescribers have access to the relevant knowledge, skills and formulary to facilitate their prescribing behaviour. Professional confidence and identity as a prescriber should be encouraged, with acknowledgment of influences such as cost and emotion. An environment that allows for patient-centred care and the best outcome should be supported, this may mean increasing time allocated to consultations. AIM DESIGN METHODS RESULTS CONCLUSION IMPACT
    • A retrospective analysis of variations in antenatal care initiation in an ethnically diverse maternal population in the UK with high levels of area deprivation

      Puthussery, Shuby; Tseng, Pei-Ching; Li, Leah; Puthusserry, Thomas; University of Bedfordshire; University College London (Oxford University Press, 2018-04-17)
      Background: Research has indicated differential utilisation of antenatal care among ethnic minority mothers in the UK.  However, links between ethnicity, area deprivation and the timing of antenatal care initiation remain poorly understood.   This study investigates variations in antenatal care initiation among mothers residing in an ethnically diverse area in the UK with high levels of area deprivation.  Methods:  Data were derived from an on-going  retrospective cohort study using routinely collected anonymous data of live singleton  births over a 9 year period from 2007-2016 in a maternity unit catering to an ethnically diverse population. Logistic regression and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) were used to examine the associations between antenatal care initiation and ethnicity with and without adjustment for area deprivation. Preliminary results:  Among 45695 births recorded on the Ciconia Maternity information System, great  majority (80%) of mothers lived in neighbourhoods that are in the three most deprived area quintiles and 34.4% belonged to one of the ethnic minority groups. One fifth (20.8%)  of mothers initiated antenatal care late after 12 weeks of gestation. Late initiation was the highest among Black African (34.2%) and Black Caribbean (29.0%) groups who were more than twice as likely than the White British group to initiate antenatal care late (Odds ratio [OR]= 2.65 and 2.08 respectively). The risk appeared to remain after adjustment for area deprivation. Conclusions:  Ethnic minority mothers from some groups are at substantially higher risk of initiating antenatal care late compared to White British mothers regardless of the level of area deprivation. Main messages: Mothers from some ethnic minority groups are at  substantially higher risk of initiating antenatal care after 12 weeks of gestation compared to White British mothers.  Area level deprivation has very little effect on ethnic variations in antenatal care initiation.
    • Study protocol for evaluation of aid to diagnosis for developmental dysplasia of the hip in general practice: controlled trial randomised by practice

      Roposch, Andreas; Warsame, Kaltuun; Chater, Angel M.; Green, Judith; Hunter, Rachael; Wood, John; Freemantle, Nick; Nazareth, Irwin; ; University College London; et al. (BMJ Publishing Group, 2020-12-02)
      Introduction In the UK, a compulsory € 6-week hip check' is performed in primary care for the detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). However, missed diagnoses and infants incorrectly labelled with DDH remain a problem, potentially leading to adverse consequences for infants, their families and the National Health Service. National policy states that infants should be referred to hospital if the 6-week check suggests DDH, though there is no available tool to aid examination or offer guidelines for referral. We developed standardised diagnostic criteria for DDH, based on international Delphi consensus, and a 9-item checklist that has the potential to enable non-experts to diagnose DDH in a manner approaching that of experts. Methods and analysis We will conduct a controlled trial randomised by practice that will compare a diagnostic aid against standard care for the hip check. The primary objective is to determine whether an aid to the diagnosis of DDH reduces the number of clinically insignificant referrals from primary care to hospital and the number of late diagnosed DDH. The trial will include a qualitative process evaluation, an assessment of professional behavioural change and a full health economic evaluation. We will recruit 152 general practitioner practices in England. These will be randomised to conduct the hip checks with useof the study diagnostic aid and/or as per usual practice. The total number of infants seen during a15-month recruitment period will be 110 per practice. Two years after the 6-week hip check, we willmeasure the number of referred infants that are (1) clinically insignificant for DDH and (2) those that constitute appropriate referrals. Ethics and dissemination This study has approval from the Health Research Authority (16/1/2020) and the Confidentiality Advisory Group (18/2/2020). Results will be published in peer-reviewed academic journals, disseminated to patient organisations and the media. Trial registration number NCT04101903; Pre-results.
    • Theory-based electronic learning intervention to support appropriate antibiotic prescribing by nurses and pharmacists: intervention development and feasibility study protocol.

      Courtenay, Molly; Lim, Rosemary; Deslandes, Rhian; Ferriday, Rebecca; Gillespie, David; Hodson, Karen; Reid, Nicholas; Thomas, Neil; Chater, Angel M.; Cardiff University; et al. (BMJ, 2019-08-18)
      Introduction Nurse and pharmacist independent prescribers manage patients with respiratory tract infections and are responsible for around 8% of all primary care antibiotic prescriptions. A range of factors influence the prescribing behaviour of these professionals, however, there are no interventions available specifically to support appropriate antibiotic prescribing behaviour by these groups. The aims of this paper are to describe (1) the development of an intervention to support appropriate antibiotic prescribing by nurse and pharmacist independent prescribers and (2) an acceptability and feasibility study designed to test its implementation with these prescribers. Method and analysis Development of intervention: a three-stage, eight-step method was used to identify relevant determinants of behaviour change and intervention components based on the Behaviour Change Wheel. The intervention is an online resource comprising underpinning knowledge and an interactive animation with a variety of open and closed questions to assess understanding. Acceptability and feasibility of intervention: nurse and pharmacist prescribers (n=12–15) will use the intervention. Evaluation includes semi-structured interviews to capture information about how the user reacts to the design, delivery and content of the intervention and influences on understanding and engagement, and a pre-post survey to assess participants’ perceptions of the impact of the intervention on knowledge, confidence and usefulness in terms of application to practice. Taking an initial inductive approach, data from interview transcripts will be coded and then analysed to derive themes. These themes will then be deductively mapped to the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour model. Descriptive statistics will be used to analyse the survey data, and trends identified
    • Understanding physician behaviour in the 6-8 weeks hip check in primary care: a qualitative study using the COM-B

      Chater, Angel M.; Milton, Sarah; Green, Judith; Gilworth, Gill; Roposch, Andreas; ; University of Bedfordshire; King's College London; University College London; Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (BMJ Publishing Group, 2021-03-19)
      A compulsory hip check is performed on an infant at 6-8 weeks in primary care for the detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Missed diagnoses and infants incorrectly labelled with DDH remain an important problem. The nature of physician behaviour as a likely source of this problem has not been explored. The aims of this study were to make a behavioural diagnosis of general practitioners (GPs) who perform these hip checks, and identify potential behavioural change techniques that could make the hip checks more effective. Qualitative study with in-depth semistructured interviews of 6-8 weeks checks. We used the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation and Behaviour model in making a behavioural diagnosis and elicited factors that can be linked to improving the assessment. Primary care. 17 GPs (15 female) who had between 5 and 34 years of work experience were interviewed. Capability related to knowledge of evidence-based criteria and skill to identify DDH were important behavioural factors. Both physical (clinic time and space) and social (practice norms), opportunity were essential for optimal behaviour. Furthermore, motivation related to the importance of the 6-8 weeks check and confidence to perform the check and refer appropriately were identified in the behavioural diagnosis. Aspects of capability, opportunity and motivation affect GPs' diagnosis and referral behaviours in relation to DDH. The findings from this work extend current knowledge and will inform the development of an intervention aimed at improving the diagnosis of DDH.
    • Using patient data for patients' benefit

      Banerjee, Amitava; Mathew, David; Rouane, Katherine; University College London; University of Bedfordshire (BMJ, 2017-09-29)
      Editorial
    • What are user perspectives of exoskeleton technology? A literature review

      Hill, Deborah; Holloway, Catherine Sarah; Ramirez, Dafne Zuleima Morgado; Smitham, Peter; Pappas, Yannis; Jersey General Hospital; University College London; University of Bedfordshire (Cambridge University Press, 2017-08-29)
      Objectives: Exoskeletons are electromechanical devices that are worn by a human operator to increase their physical performance. Several exoskeletons have been developed to restore functional movements, such as walking, for those with paralysis due to neurological impairment. However, existing exoskeletons have limitations with respect to affordability, size, weight, speed, and efficiency, which may reduce their functional application. Therefore, the aim of this scoping review is to collect and narratively synthesize the perspectives of users of exoskeleton technology.Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted across several healthcare related online databases.Results: A total of 4,619 articles were identified, of which 51 were selected for full review. Only three studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Of these, one showed an incongruence between users' expectations and experiences of device use; another reported perspectives on potential rather than actual device use, ranking design features in order of perceived importance; and the other reported ratings of ease of device use in training.Conclusions: The heterogeneity of studies included within this review, leave the authors unable to suggest consensus as to user perspectives of exoskeleton technology. However, it is apparent that users are able to suggest priorities for exoskeleton design and that users' perspectives of exoskeleton technology might change in response to experience of use. The authors, therefore, suggest that exoskeleton design should be an iterative process, whereby user perspectives are sought, incorporated and refined by tangible experience, to ensure that devices developed are acceptable to and usable by the populations they seek to re-enable.