• Exploring factors contributing to low uptake of the NHS Breast Cancer Screening Programme among Black African women in the UK

      Bamidele, Olufikayo; Ali, Nasreen; Papadopoulos, Chris; Randhawa, Gurch; Ulster University; University of Bedfordshire (Insight Medical Publishing Group, 2017-08-14)
      Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in the United Kingdom (UK) accounting for about 15% of cancer deaths. The National Breast Cancer Screening Programme in the UK was introduced in 1988 to assist with early detection and better management of breast cancer. Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) women however have a low uptake of the National Breast Screening programme when compared to their White counterparts. Within the BME group, Black African women have the lowest uptake of screening services and are more likely to have an advanced stage of the disease at diagnosis, leading to poorer survival rates than White women. This study aimed to explore the factors that lead to low uptake of the National Breast Cancer Screening Programme  among Black African women living in Luton and present action points to local breast cancer services. Using a qualitative research design, six focus groups were conducted with a total of twenty-five Black African women residing in Luton between May and June in 2013. Data was analysed thematically using the framework approach. Four main themes emerged across the focus group discussions: knowledge and beliefs about breast cancer and risk factors, prevention of breast cancer and awareness of the NHS breast screening service, delays in attending the NHS breast screening service and suggestions for improving information on breast cancer and the NHS breast cancer screening service. The findings from this study suggest the need for more targeted information on breast cancer and screening services for Black African women. This could help improve the uptake of the NHS breast screening service, promote early help-seeking behaviour and improve breast cancer outcomes for this ethnic group. 
    • “Hard to reach, but not out of reach”: barriers and facilitators to recruiting Black African and Black Caribbean men with prostate cancer and their partners into qualitative research

      Bamidele, Olufikayo; McGarvey, Helen E.; Lagan, Briege M.; Chinegwundoh, Frank; Ali, Nasreen; McCaughan, Ellis; Ulster University; Barts Health NHS Trust; City University of London; University of Bedfordshire (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2018-12-12)
      Access and recruitment barriers may have contributed to the underrepresentation of Black African/Caribbean men and their partners in current psychosocial research related to prostate cancer survivors. Whilst some studies have explored recruitment barriers and facilitators from participants’ perspectives, little is known from researchers' point of view. This paper aimed to address this gap in the literature. Recruitment strategies included the following: cancer support groups, researchers’ networks, media advertisement, religious organisations, National Health Service hospitals and snowball sampling. Thirty-six eligible participants (men = 25, partners = 11) were recruited into the study. Recruitment barriers comprised of gate-keeping and advertisement issues and the stigma associated with prostate cancer disclosure. Facilitators which aided recruitment included collaborating with National Health Service hospitals, snowball sampling, flexible data collection, building rapport with participants to gain their trust and researcher's attributes. Findings highlight that “hard to reach” Black African/Caribbean populations may be more accessible if researchers adopt flexible but strategic and culturally sensitive recruitment approaches. Such approaches should consider perceptions of stigma associated with prostate cancer within these communities and the influence gatekeepers can have in controlling access to potential participants. Increased engagement with healthcare professionals and gatekeepers could facilitate better access to Black African/Caribbean populations so that their voices can be heard and their specific needs addressed within the healthcare agenda.