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A BEME systematic review of the effects of interprofessional education: BEME Guide No. 39Abstract: Background: Interprofessional education (IPE) aims to bring together different professionals to learn with, from, and about one another in order to collaborate more effectively in the delivery of safe, high-quality care for patients/clients. Given its potential for improving collaboration and care delivery, there have been repeated calls for the wider-scale implementation of IPE across education and clinical settings. Increasingly, a range of IPE initiatives are being implemented and evaluated which are adding to the growth of evidence for this form of education. Aim: The overall aim of this review is to update a previous BEME review published in 2007. In doing so, this update sought to synthesize the evolving nature of the IPE evidence. Methods: Medline, CINAHL, BEI, and ASSIA were searched from May 2005 to June 2014. Also, journal hand searches were undertaken. All potential abstracts and papers were screened by pairs of reviewers to determine inclusion. All included papers were assessed for methodological quality and those deemed as “high quality” were included. The presage–process–product (3P) model and a modified Kirkpatrick model were employed to analyze and synthesize the included studies. Results: Twenty-five new IPE studies were included in this update. These studies were added to the 21 studies from the previous review to form a complete data set of 46 high-quality IPE studies. In relation to the 3P model, overall the updated review found that most of the presage and process factors identified from the previous review were further supported in the newer studies. In regard to the products (outcomes) reported, the results from this review continue to show far more positive than neutral or mixed outcomes reported in the included studies. Based on the modified Kirkpatrick model, the included studies suggest that learners respond well to IPE, their attitudes and perceptions of one another improve, and they report increases in collaborative knowledge and skills. There is more limited, but growing, evidence related to changes in behavior, organizational practice, and benefits to patients/clients. Conclusions: This updated review found that key context (presage) and process factors reported in the previous review continue to have resonance on the delivery of IPE. In addition, the newer studies have provided further evidence for the effects on IPE related to a number of different outcomes. Based on these conclusions, a series of key implications for the development of IPE are offered.
Spotlight on equality of employment opportunities: a qualitative study of job seeking experiences of graduating nurses and physiotherapists from black and minority ethnic backgrounds.There is growing attention in the UK and internationally to the representation of black and minority ethnic groups in healthcare education and the workplace. Although the NHS workforce is very diverse, ethnic minorities are unevenly spread across occupations, and considerably underrepresented in senior positions. Previous research has highlighted that this inequality also exists at junior levels with newly qualified nurses from non-White/British ethnic groups being less likely to get a job at graduation than their White/British colleagues. Although there is better national data on the scale of inequalities in the healthcare workforce, there is a gap in our understanding about the experience of job seeking, and the factors that influence disadvantage in nursing and other professions such as physiotherapy. This qualitative study seeks to fill that gap and explores the experience of student nurses (n=12) and physiotherapists (n=6) throughout their education and during the first 6-months post qualification to identify key experiences and milestones relating to successful employment particularly focusing on the perspectives from different ethnic groups. Participants were purposively sampled from one university to ensure diversity in ethnic group, age and gender. Using a phenomenological approach, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted at course completion and 6 months later. Two main themes were identified. The 'proactive self' ('It's up to me') theme included perceptions of employment success being due to student proactivity and resilience; qualities valued by employers. The second theme described the need to 'fit in' with organisational culture. Graduates described accommodating strategies where they modified aspects of their identity (clothing, cultural markers) to fit in. At one extreme, rather than fitting in, participants from minority ethnic backgrounds avoided applying to certain hospitals due to perceptions of discriminatory cultures, 'I wouldn't apply there 'cos you know, it's not really an ethnic hospital'. In contrast, some participants recognised that other graduates (usually white) did not need to change and aspects of their identity brought unsolicited rewards 'if your face fits then the barriers are reduced'. The findings indicate that success in getting work is perceived as determined by individual factors, and fitting in is enabled by strategies adopted by the individual rather than the workplace. Demands for change are more acute for graduates from black and minority ethnic backgrounds. This is an issue for healthcare organisations seeking to be inclusive and challenges employers and educators to acknowledge inequalities and take action to address them. BACKGROUND AIM PARTICIPANTS METHODS RESULTS CONCLUSIONS