• Bereaved donor families' experiences of organ and tissue donation, and perceived influences on their decision making

      Sque, Magi; Walker, Wendy; Long-Sutehall, Tracy; Morgan, Myfanwy; Randhawa, Gurch; Rodney, Amanda; University of Wolverhampton; University of Southampton; King's College London; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2018-01-16)
      To elicit bereaved families' experiences of organ and tissue donation. A specific objective was to determine families' perceptions of how their experiences influenced donation decision-making. Retrospective, qualitative interviews were undertaken with 43 participants of 31 donor families to generate rich, informative data. Participant recruitment was via 10 National Health Service Trusts, representative of five regional organ donation services in the UK. Twelve families agreed to DBD, 18 agreed to DCD, 1 unknown. Participants' responses were contextualised using a temporal framework of 'The Past', which represented families' prior knowledge, experience, attitudes, beliefs, and intentions toward organ donation; 'The Present', which incorporated the moment in time when families experienced the potential for donation; and 'The Future', which corresponded to expectations and outcomes arising from the donation decision. Temporally interwoven experiences appeared to influence families' decisions to donate the organs of their deceased relative for transplantation. The influence of temporality on donation-decision making is worthy of consideration in the planning of future education, policy, practice, and research for improved rates of family consent to donation. PURPOSE METHODS RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
    • Culture and health

      Napier, A David; Ancarno, Clyde; Butler, Beverley; Calabrese, Joseph; Chater, Angel M.; Chaterjee, Helen; Guesnet, Francois; Horne, Robert; Jacyna, Stephen; Jadhav, Sushrut; et al. (Elsevier: Lancet, 2014-10-28)
    • The impact of COVID-19 on health behaviour, well-being, and long-term physical health.

      McBride, Emily; Arden, Madelynne A.; Chater, Angel M.; Chilcot, Joseph; ; University College London; Sheffield Hallam University; University of Bedfordshire; King's College London (Wiley, 2021-03-31)
      Editorial
    • Parents' expectations and experiences of the 6-week baby check: a qualitative study in primary care

      Gilworth, Gill; Milton, Sarah; Chater, Angel M.; Nazareth, Irwin; Roposch, Andreas; Green, Judith; King's College London; University of Bedfordshire; University College London (Royal College of General Practitioners, 2020-11-18)
      Background: The Newborn and Infant Physical Examination (NIPE) programme requires all babies to have a comprehensive health check at 6-8 weeks of age. These are typically completed by GPs. Although person-centred care has achieved prominence in maternity care policy in recent years, there is limited empirical evidence on what parents and/or carers expect from the check, and how far experiences meet their needs. Aim: To explore the expectations and experiences of parents attending their GP for a baby check. Design & setting: A qualitative study was undertaken in primary care in London. Method: Content analysis was undertaken of transcripts of semi-structured interviews. Interviews were conducted with a total of 16 participants (14 mothers and two fathers) who had recently attended for a 6-week check for their baby. Results: Despite the availability of plentiful sources of general advice on infants' health and development, a thorough check by a trusted GP was an important milestone for most parents. They had few specific expectations of the check in terms of what examinations were undertaken, but even experienced parents anticipated reassurance about their baby's normal development. Many also hoped for reassurance about their own parenting. Parents appreciated GPs who explained what they were doing during the examination; space to raise any concerns; and combined mother and baby checks. Referrals to secondary care were generally experienced as reassuring rather than a source of anxiety. Conclusion: The baby check meets needs beyond those of the NIPE screening programme. Protecting the time for a thorough consultation is important for parents at what can be a vulnerable time.
    • Self-stigma experiences among older adults with mental health problems residing in long term care facilities: a qualitative study

      Tzouvara, Vasiliki; Papadopoulos, Chris; Randhawa, Gurch; King's College London; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2017-12-29)
      Self-stigma is linked with a variety of deleterious consequences for the stigmatised individual. Much of the past research on self-stigma focuses on younger adults; however, little is known about the self-stigma experience among institutionalised older adults with mental health problems. This study aims to explore experiences of self-stigma among older adults with mental health problems in long-term care facilities. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted. Insight into mental illness was identified as having a key influence upon the self-stigma experiences among this group. Participants shared common understandings, views, and behavioural reactions towards mental health problems. Lacking control, public stigma, sympathy, disinterest, avoidance, and fear were key themes among them. Re-conceptualising self-stigma theories and implementing interventions that aim at reducing stigmatising attitudes among this group are essential.
    • Should the family have a role in deceased organ donation decision-making? a systematic review of public knowledge and attitudes towards organ procurement policies in Europe

      Molina-Pérez, Alberto; Delgado, Janet; Frunza, Mihaela; Morgan, Myfanwy; Randhawa, Gurch; Reiger-Van de Wijdeven, Jeantine; Schicktanz, Silke; Schiks, Eline; Wöhlke, Sabine; Rodríguez-Arias, David; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-11-26)
      Goal: To assess public knowledge and attitudes towards the family's role in deceased organ donation in Europe. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in CINHAL, MEDLINE, PAIS Index, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science on December 15th, 2017. Eligibility criteria were socio-empirical studies conducted in Europe from 2008 to 2017 addressing either knowledge or attitudes by the public towards the consent system, including the involvement of the family in the decision-making process, for post-mortem organ retrieval. Screening and data collection were performed by two or more independent reviewers for each record. Results: Of the 1482 results, 467 studies were assessed in full-text form, and 33 were included in this synthesis. When the deceased has not expressed any preference, a majority of the public support the family's role as a surrogate decision-maker. When the deceased expressly consented, the respondents' answers depend on whether they see themselves as potential donors or as a deceased's next-of-kin. Answers also depend on the relationship between the deceased and the decision-maker(s) within the family, and on their ethnic or cultural background. Conclusions: Public views on the authority of the family in organ donation decision-making requiere further research. A common conceptual framework and validated well-designed questionnaires are needed for future studies. The findings should be considered in the development of Government policy and guidance regarding the role of families in deceased organ donation.
    • Understanding physician behaviour in the 6-8 weeks hip check in primary care: a qualitative study using the COM-B

      Chater, Angel M.; Milton, Sarah; Green, Judith; Gilworth, Gill; Roposch, Andreas; ; University of Bedfordshire; King's College London; University College London; Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (BMJ Publishing Group, 2021-03-19)
      A compulsory hip check is performed on an infant at 6-8 weeks in primary care for the detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Missed diagnoses and infants incorrectly labelled with DDH remain an important problem. The nature of physician behaviour as a likely source of this problem has not been explored. The aims of this study were to make a behavioural diagnosis of general practitioners (GPs) who perform these hip checks, and identify potential behavioural change techniques that could make the hip checks more effective. Qualitative study with in-depth semistructured interviews of 6-8 weeks checks. We used the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation and Behaviour model in making a behavioural diagnosis and elicited factors that can be linked to improving the assessment. Primary care. 17 GPs (15 female) who had between 5 and 34 years of work experience were interviewed. Capability related to knowledge of evidence-based criteria and skill to identify DDH were important behavioural factors. Both physical (clinic time and space) and social (practice norms), opportunity were essential for optimal behaviour. Furthermore, motivation related to the importance of the 6-8 weeks check and confidence to perform the check and refer appropriately were identified in the behavioural diagnosis. Aspects of capability, opportunity and motivation affect GPs' diagnosis and referral behaviours in relation to DDH. The findings from this work extend current knowledge and will inform the development of an intervention aimed at improving the diagnosis of DDH.
    • Using Twitter™ to drive research impact: a discussion of strategies, opportunities and challenges

      Schnitzler, Katy; Davies, Nigel; Ross, Fiona; Harris, Ruth; ; Kingston University; University of Bedfordshire; St George's, University of London; Leadership Foundation for Higher Education; King's College London (Elsevier Ltd, 2016-02-16)
      Researchers have always recognised the importance of disseminating the findings of their work, however, recently the need to proactively plan and drive the impact of those findings on the wider society has become a necessity. Firstly, this is because funders require evidence of return from investment and secondly and crucially because national research assessments are becoming powerful determinants of future funding. In research studies associated with nursing, impact needs to be demonstrated by showing the effect on a range of stakeholders including service users, patients, carers, the nursing workforce and commissioners. Engaging these groups is a well-known challenge influenced by lack of access to academic journals, lack of time to read long complex research papers and lack of opportunities to interact directly with the researchers. This needs to be addressed urgently to enable nursing research to increase the impact that it has on health delivery and the work of clinical practitioners. Social media is potentially a novel way of enabling research teams to both communicate about research as studies progress and to disseminate findings and research funders are increasingly using it to publicise information about research programmes and studies they fund. A search of the healthcare literature reveals that advice and guidance on the use of social media for research studies is not well understood or exploited by the research community. This paper, therefore, explores how using social networking platforms, notably Twitter™ offers potential new ways for communicating research findings, accessing diverse and traditionally hard-to-reach audiences, knowledge exchange at an exponential rate, and enabling new means of capturing and demonstrating research impact. The paper discusses approaches to initiate the setup of social networking platforms in research projects and considers the practical challenges of using Twitter™ in nursing and healthcare research. The discussion is illuminated with examples from our current research. In summary, we suggest that the use of social media micro-blogging platforms is a contemporary, fast, easy and cost effective way to augment existing ways of disseminating research which helps drive impact.
    • What aspects of intentional rounding work in hospital wards, for whom and in what circumstances? A realist evaluation protocol

      Harris, Ruth; Sims, Sarah; Levenson, Ros; Gourlay, Stephen; Ross, Fiona; Davies, Nigel; Brearley, Sally; Favato, Giampiero; Grant, Robert; King's College London; et al. (BMJ Publishing Group, 2017-01-09)
      Intentional rounding (IR) is a structured process whereby nurses in hospitals carry out regular checks, usually hourly, with individual patients using a standardised protocol to address issues of positioning, pain, personal needs and placement of items. The widespread implementation of IR across the UK has been driven by the recommendations of the Francis Inquiry although empirical evidence of its effectiveness is poor. This paper presents a protocol of a multimethod study using a realist evaluation approach to investigate the impact and effectiveness of IR in hospital wards on the organisation, delivery and experience of care from the perspective of patients, their family members and staff. The study will be conducted in four phases. Phase 1: theory development using realist synthesis to generate hypotheses about what the mechanisms of IR may be, what particular groups may benefit most or least and what contextual factors might be important to its success or failure which will be tested in subsequent phases of the study. Phase 2: a national survey of all NHS acute trusts to explore how IR is implemented and supported across England. Phase 3: case studies to explore how IR is implemented 'on the ground', including individual interviews with patients, family members and staff, non-participant observation, retrieval of routinely collected patient outcomes and cost analysis. Phase 4: accumulative data analysis across the phases to scrutinise data for patterns of congruence and discordance and develop an overall evaluation of what aspects of IR work, for whom and in what circumstances. The study has been approved by NHS South East Coast-Surrey Research Ethics Committee. Findings will be published in a wide range of outputs targeted at key audiences, including patient and carer organisations, nursing staff and healthcare managers. INTRODUCTION METHODS AND ANALYSIS ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION