• Communication between South Asian patients and GPs: comparative study using the Roter Interactional Analysis System

      Neal, Richard D.; Ali, Nasreen; Atkin, Karl; Allgar, Victoria L.; Ali, Shahid; Coleman, Tim; Cardiff University; University of Leeds; University of Nottingham (Royal College of General Practitioners, 2018-06-22)
      Background The UK South Asian population has poorer health outcomes. Little is known about their process of care in general practice, or in particular the process of communication with GPs. Go to: Aim To compare the ways in which white and South Asian patients communicate with white GPs. Go to: Design of study Observational study of video-recorded consultations using the Roter Interactional Analysis System (RIAS). Go to: Setting West Yorkshire, UK. Go to: Method One hundred and eighty–three consultations with 11 GPs in West Yorkshire, UK were video-recorded and analysed. Go to: Results Main outcome measures were consultation length, verbal domination, 16 individual abridged RIAS categories, and three composite RIAS categories; with comparisons between white patients, South Asian patients fluent in English and South Asian patients non-fluent in English. South Asians fluent in English had the shortest consultations and South Asians non-fluent in English the longest consultations (one-way ANOVA F = 7.173, P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in verbal domination scores between the three groups. White patients had more affective (emotional) consultations than South Asian patients, and played a more active role in their consultations, as did their GPs. GPs spent less time giving information to South Asian patients who were not fluent in English and more time asking questions. GPs spent less time giving information to South Asian patients fluent in English compared with white patients. Go to: Conclusions These findings were expected between patients fluent and non-fluent in English but do demonstrate their nature. The differences between white patients and South Asian patients fluent in English warrant further explanation. How much of this was due to systematic differences in behaviour by the GPs, or was in response to patients' differing needs and expectations is unknown. These differences may contribute to differences in health outcomes.
    • Community nursing and antibiotic stewardship: the importance of communication and training

      Chater, Angel M.; Courtenay, Molly; University of Bedfordshire; University College London; Cardiff University (MA Healthcare Ltd, 2019-07-02)
      Antimicrobial stewardship (using antimicrobials responsibly) can reduce the risk of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Many health professionals identify themselves as ‘antibiotic guardians’, but patient expectations, time constraints, and a lack of confidence or underdeveloped communication skills can influence decisions to prescribe. Nurse prescribers have an important role to play in antibiotic stewardship, and their numbers continue to grow. While nurse prescribers welcome this extension to their traditional role, they are often faced with barriers to antibiotic stewardship activities. These barriers may relate to their Capability (knowledge/skill), Opportunity (norms of practice, influence of patients, environmental factors), and Motivation (attitudes and beliefs, concern over outcome, emotion and habit) [COM-B]. Education, training and enablement can help to overcome these barriers, and the development of knowledge, confidence and effective communication skills should be of priority. Further, communication skills can help nurse prescribers understand patient expectations, with the use of open-ended questions, active listening and creation of a patient-centred consultation that leads to a mutually agreed end goal and way forward.
    • Examining influences on antibiotic prescribing by nurse and pharmacist prescribers: a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework and COM-B.

      Courtenay, Molly; Rowbotham, Samantha; Lim, Rosemary; Peters, Sarah; Yates, Kathryn; Chater, Angel M.; Cardiff University; University of Sydney; Reading University; University of Manchester; et al. (BMJ, 2019-06-19)
      Respiratory tract infections are frequently managed by nurse and pharmacist prescribers, and these prescribers are responsible for 8% of all primary care antibiotic prescriptions. Few studies have explored antibiotic prescribing among these prescribers, and interventions to target their antibiotic prescribing behaviour do not exist. Research objectives were to: (1) use the Theoretical Domains Framework to identify the factors that influence nurse and pharmacist prescriber management of respiratory tract infections and (2) identify the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) that can be used as the basis for the development of a theoretically informed intervention to support appropriate prescribing behaviour. Qualitative design comprising semistructured interviews, using the Theoretical Domains Framework and Capability, Opportunity and Motivation for Behaviour. Primary care. Twenty one prescribers (4 pharmacists and 17 nurses). A range of factors across 12 domains of the TDF were found to influence prescriber behaviour, and 40 BCTs were identified as supporting appropriate prescribing. For example, patient expectations (social influence) was identified as a factor influencing prescribing decisions, and a number of BCTs (problem solving, goal setting and information about health consequences) were identified as supporting prescribers in managing these expectations. With increasing numbers of nurse and pharmacist prescribers managing infections in primary care, these findings will inform theoretically grounded interventions to support appropriate prescribing behaviour by these groups.
    • Influences on antibiotic prescribing by non-medical prescribers for respiratory tract infections: a systematic review using the theoretical domains framework

      Chater, Angel M.; Family, Hannah; Lim, Rosemary; Courtenay, Molly; University of Bedfordshire; University of Bristol; University of Reading; Cardiff University (Oxford University Press, 2020-08-07)
      Background The need to conserve antibiotic efficacy, through the management of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) without recourse to antibiotics, is a global priority. A key target for interventions is the antibiotic prescribing behaviour of healthcare professionals including non-medical prescribers (NMPs: nurses, pharmacists, paramedics, physiotherapists) who manage these infections. Objectives To identify what evidence exists regarding the influences on NMPs’ antimicrobial prescribing behaviour and analyse the operationalization of the identified drivers of behaviour using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Methods The search strategy was applied across six electronic bibliographic databases (eligibility criteria included: original studies; written in English and published before July 2019; non-medical prescribers as participants; and looked at influences on prescribing patterns of antibiotics for RTIs). Study characteristics, influences on appropriate antibiotic prescribing and intervention content to enhance appropriate antibiotic prescribing were independently extracted and mapped to the TDF. Results The search retrieved 490 original articles. Eight papers met the review criteria. Key issues centred around strategies for managing challenges experienced during consultations, managing patient concerns, peer support and wider public awareness of antimicrobial resistance. The two most common TDF domains highlighted as influences on prescribing behaviour, represented in all studies, were social influences and beliefs about consequences. Conclusions The core domains highlighted as influential to appropriate antibiotic prescribing should be considered when developing future interventions. Focus should be given to overcoming social influences (patients, other clinicians) and reassurance in relation to beliefs about negative consequences (missing something that could lead to a negative outcome).
    • The prescribing needs of community practitioner nurse prescribers: a qualitative investigation using the theoretical domains framework and COM-B.

      Chater, Angel M.; Williams, Jane; Courtenay, Molly; University of Bedfordshire; University College London; Cardiff University (Wiley, 2019-08-18)
      With several qualified community practitioner nurse prescribers (CPNPs) not prescribing, this research aimed to understand what influences this behaviour. A qualitative research design. Semi-structured interviews, based on the theoretical domains framework (TDF) were conducted with 20 CPNPs. Data collection took place between March-July 2018 and continued until data saturation was reached. Nine themes inductively explained prescribing behaviour: 1) 'Knowledge and experience'; 2) 'Consultation and communication skills'; 3) 'Professional confidence and identity'; 4) 'Wanting the best outcome'; 5) 'NHS versus patient cost'; 6) 'Emotion-led decisions'; 7) 'Time allocation'; 8) 'Formulary access' and 9) 'Supporting environment for patient-centred care'. Themes were then deductively mapped to the TDF and COM-B. There is an ongoing need to support community practitioner nurse prescribers' 'Capability' to prescribe in terms of knowledge and aquired skills; 'Opportunity' to make prescribing easier, such as access to a wider and up to date nurse formulary alongside effective clinical support; and 'Motivation' to feel confident in prescribing behaviour, highlighting positive patient outcomes while reducing perceived issues such as cost and non-adherence. Findings show that Capability, Opportunity and Motivation all influence the decision to prescribe. Those responsible for professional regulation and training should ensure community practitioner nurse prescribers have access to the relevant knowledge, skills and formulary to facilitate their prescribing behaviour. Professional confidence and identity as a prescriber should be encouraged, with acknowledgment of influences such as cost and emotion. An environment that allows for patient-centred care and the best outcome should be supported, this may mean increasing time allocated to consultations. AIM DESIGN METHODS RESULTS CONCLUSION IMPACT
    • A theory-based electronic learning intervention to support appropriate antibiotic prescribing by nurse and pharmacist independent prescribers: an acceptability and feasibility experimental study using mixed methods

      Lim, Rosemary; Courtenay, Molly; Deslandes, Rhian; Farriday, Rebecca; Gillespie, David; Hodson, Karen; Reid, Nicholas; Thomas, Neil; Chater, Angel M.; ; et al. (BMJ, 2019-08-18)
      Introduction: Nurse and pharmacist independent prescribers manage patients with respiratory tract infections and are responsible for around 8% of all primary care antibiotic prescriptions. A range of factors influence the prescribing behaviour of these professionals, however, there are no interventions available specifically to support appropriate antibiotic prescribing behaviour by these groups. The aims of this paper are to describe (1) the development of an intervention to support appropriate antibiotic prescribing by nurse and pharmacist independent prescribers and (2) an acceptability and feasibility study designed to test its implementation with these prescribers. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: Development of intervention: a three-stage, eight-step method was used to identify relevant determinants of behaviour change and intervention components based on the Behaviour Change Wheel. The intervention is an online resource comprising underpinning knowledge and an interactive animation with a variety of open and closed questions to assess understanding. Acceptability and feasibility of intervention: nurse and pharmacist prescribers (n=12-15) will use the intervention. Evaluation includes semi-structured interviews to capture information about how the user reacts to the design, delivery and content of the intervention and influences on understanding and engagement, and a pre-post survey to assess participants' perceptions of the impact of the intervention on knowledge, confidence and usefulness in terms of application to practice. Taking an initial inductive approach, data from interview transcripts will be coded and then analysed to derive themes. These themes will then be deductively mapped to the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour model. Descriptive statistics will be used to analyse the survey data, and trends identified.
    • Theory-based electronic learning intervention to support appropriate antibiotic prescribing by nurses and pharmacists: intervention development and feasibility study protocol.

      Courtenay, Molly; Lim, Rosemary; Deslandes, Rhian; Ferriday, Rebecca; Gillespie, David; Hodson, Karen; Reid, Nicholas; Thomas, Neil; Chater, Angel M.; Cardiff University; et al. (BMJ, 2019-08-18)
      Introduction Nurse and pharmacist independent prescribers manage patients with respiratory tract infections and are responsible for around 8% of all primary care antibiotic prescriptions. A range of factors influence the prescribing behaviour of these professionals, however, there are no interventions available specifically to support appropriate antibiotic prescribing behaviour by these groups. The aims of this paper are to describe (1) the development of an intervention to support appropriate antibiotic prescribing by nurse and pharmacist independent prescribers and (2) an acceptability and feasibility study designed to test its implementation with these prescribers. Method and analysis Development of intervention: a three-stage, eight-step method was used to identify relevant determinants of behaviour change and intervention components based on the Behaviour Change Wheel. The intervention is an online resource comprising underpinning knowledge and an interactive animation with a variety of open and closed questions to assess understanding. Acceptability and feasibility of intervention: nurse and pharmacist prescribers (n=12–15) will use the intervention. Evaluation includes semi-structured interviews to capture information about how the user reacts to the design, delivery and content of the intervention and influences on understanding and engagement, and a pre-post survey to assess participants’ perceptions of the impact of the intervention on knowledge, confidence and usefulness in terms of application to practice. Taking an initial inductive approach, data from interview transcripts will be coded and then analysed to derive themes. These themes will then be deductively mapped to the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour model. Descriptive statistics will be used to analyse the survey data, and trends identified