Recent Submissions

  • Factors associated with the implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions for reducing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review

    Regmi, Krishna; Lwin, Cho Mar; University of Bedfordshire; University of Dundee; University of Medicine Mandalay (MDPI, 2021-04-17)
    There has been much discussion recently about the importance of implementing nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to protect the public from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) infection. Different governments across the world have adopted NPIs (e.g., social distancing, quarantine, isolation, lockdowns, curfews, travel restrictions, closures of schools and colleges). Two fundamental strategies, namely a strict containment strategy—also called suppression strategy— and a mitigation strategy have been adopted in different countries, mainly to reduce the reproduction number (R) to below one and hence to reduce case numbers to low levels or eliminate humanto-human transmission, as well as to use NPIs to interrupt transmission completely and to reduce the health impact of epidemics, respectively. However, the adoption of these NPI strategies is varied and the factors impacting NPI are inconsistent and unclear. This study, therefore, aimed to review the factors associated with the implementation of NPIs (social distancing, social isolation and quarantine) for reducing COVID-19. Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched for published and unpublished studies, undertaking a systematic search of: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine, COVID-19 Research, WHO database on COVID-19, and Google Scholar. Thirtythree studies were included in the study. Seven descriptive themes emerged on enablers and barriers to NPIs: the positive impact of NPIs, effective public health interventions, positive change in people’s behaviour and concerns about COVID-19, the role of mass media, physical and psychological impacts, and ethnicity/age associated with COVID-19. This study has highlighted that the effectiveness of NPIs in isolation is likely to be limited, therefore, a combination of multiple measures e.g., SD, isolation and quarantine, and workplace distancing appeared more effective in reducing COVID-19. Studies suggest that targeted approaches alongside social distancing might be the way forward, and more acceptable. Further research to promote country- and context-specific adoption of NPIs to deliver public health measures is needed. Studies comparing the effectiveness of interventions and strategies will help provide more evidence for future pandemics.
  • Improving support for breastfeeding mothers: a qualitative study on the experiences of breastfeeding among mothers who reside in a deprived and culturally diverse community

    Cook, Erica Jane; Powell, Faye; Ali, Nasreen; Penn-Jones, Catrin Pedder; Ochieng, Bertha; Randhawa, Gurch; ; University of Bedfordshire; De Montfort University (BMC, 2021-04-06)
    The United Kingdom has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates in Europe, with the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding shown to be closely related to the mothers' age, ethnicity and social class. Whilst the barriers that influence a woman's decision to breastfeed are well documented, less is known how these barriers vary by the UK's diverse population. As such, this study aimed to explore mothers' experiences of breastfeeding and accessing breastfeeding services offered locally amongst a deprived and culturally diverse community. A qualitative interpretive study comprising of 63 mothers (white British n = 8, Pakistani n = 13, Bangladeshi n = 10, black African n = 15 and Polish n = 17) who took part in single-sex focus groups, conducted in local community centres across the most deprived and ethnically diverse wards in Luton, UK. The focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically using Framework Analysis. The most common barriers to breastfeeding irrespective of ethnicity were perceptions surrounding pain and lack of milk. Confidence and motivation were found to be crucial facilitators of breastfeeding; whereby mothers felt that interventions should seek to reassure and support mothers not only during the early stages but throughout the breastfeeding journey. Mothers particularly valued the practical support provided by health care professions particularly surrounding positioning and attachment techniques. However, many mothers felt that the support from health care professionals was not always followed through. The findings presented inform important recommendations for the design and implementation of future programs and interventions targeted at reducing breastfeeding inequalities. Interventions should focus on providing mothers practical support and reassurance not only during the early stages but throughout their breastfeeding journey. The findings also highlight the need for tailoring services to support diverse communities which acknowledge different traditional and familial practices.
  • The impact of COVID-19 on health behaviour, well-being, and long-term physical health.

    McBride, Emily; Arden, Madelynne A.; Chater, Angel M.; Chilcot, Joseph; ; University College London; Sheffield Hallam University; University of Bedfordshire; King's College London (Wiley, 2021-03-31)
    Editorial
  • Overcoming hurdles to intervention studies with autistic children with profound communication difficulties and their families

    McKinney, Ailbhe; Weisblatt, Emma J.L.; Hotson, Kathryn L.; Ahmed, Zahra Bilal; Dias, Claudia; BenShalom, Dorit; Foster, Juliet; Murphy, Suzanne; Villar, Sofia S.; Belmonte, Matthew K.; et al. (Sage, 2021-04-07)
    Autistic children and adults who are non-verbal/minimally verbal or have an intellectual disability have often been excluded from Autism Spectrum Disorder research. Historical, practical and theoretical reasons for this exclusion continue to deter some researchers from work with this underserved population. We discuss why these reasons are neither convincing nor ethical, and provide strategies for dealing with practical issues. As part of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention for children with profound autism, we reflected as a multi-disciplinary team on what we had learnt from these children, their families and each other. We provide 10 strategies to overcome what appeared initially to be barriers to collecting data with this population. These hurdles and our solutions are organised by theme: interacting physically with children, how to play and test, navigating difficult behaviours, selecting suitable outcome measures, relating with parents, managing siblings, involving stakeholders, timing interactions, the clinician’s role in managing expectations, and recruitment. The aim of this article is to provide researchers with the tools to feel motivated to conduct research with children with profound autism and their families, a difficult but worthwhile endeavour. Many of these lessons also apply to conducting research with non-autistic children with intellectual disabilities.
  • A randomised-controlled feasibility study of the REgulate your SItting Time (RESIT) intervention for reducing sitting time in individuals with type 2 diabetes: study protocol

    Bailey, Daniel Paul; Edwardson, Charlotte L.; Pappas, Yannis; Dong, Feng; Hewson, David; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Brierley, Marsha L.; Chater, Angel M. (BMC, 2021-03-19)
    People with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) generally spend a large amount of time sitting. This increases their risk of cardiovascular disease, premature mortality, diabetes-related complications and mental health problems. There is a paucity of research that has evaluated interventions aimed at reducing and breaking up sitting in people with T2DM. The primary aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of delivering and evaluating a tailored intervention to reduce and break up sitting in ambulatory adults with T2DM.
  • Cognitive impairment and treatment outcomes among people attending an alcohol intervention service for those aged 50+

    Seddon, Jennifer L.; Wadd, Sarah; Madoc-Jones, Iolo; Elliot, L.; University of Bedfordshire; Glasgow Caledonian University; Wrexham Glyndwr University (Emerald, 2021-03-22)
    Purpose: No studies have evaluated the relationship between cognitive impairment and alcohol treatment outcomes among older drinkers. This study sought to explore the extent of cognitive impairment among older adults seeking alcohol treatment, and examine the relationship between cognitive impairment, treatment retention and alcohol use following treatment. Design/ methodology/ approach: The study used data from the Drink Wise Age Well programme; an alcohol intervention service for older adults (aged 50+). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was used to screen for cognitive impairment; alcohol use was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Findings: 531 participants completed assessment at treatment entry. Over half the sample were male (57%), with a mean age of 60 years (SD: 7.09). Almost half (48.4%) had cognitive impairment at entry to treatment: 51.6% had normal cognitive function, 41.4% had mild cognitive impairment, 5.8% had moderate cognitive impairment and 1.1% had severe cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment was not associated with increased treatment drop-out and was not predictive of alcohol use following treatment. Alcohol treatment was associated with a significant improvement in cognitive functioning. Originality/ value: This study suggests there may be a significant amount of unidentified cognitive impairment among older adults attending alcohol treatment. Assessment and routine screening for cognitive impairment in drug and alcohol services may help in care planning and setting treatment goals; in the absence of routine screening opportunities for treatment planning and intervention may be missed.
  • Addressing the needs of older adults receiving alcohol treatment during the Covid-19 pandemic: a qualitative study

    Seddon, Jennifer L.; Trevena, Paulina; Wadd, Sarah; Elliott, Lawrie; Dutton, Maureen; McCann, Michelle; Willmott, Sarah; University of Bedfordshire; Glasgow Caledonian University (Taylor and Francis, 2021-03-22)
    Background: The Covid-19 global pandemic resulted in major changes to the provision of alcohol treatment in the UK, these changes coincided with increases in the use of alcohol. This study sought to understand the impact of the pandemic on older adults in alcohol treatment, and to explore how changes in the provision of alcohol treatment were experienced. Method: Semi-structured interviews were completed with older adults (aged 55+) in alcohol treatment, as well as alcohol practitioners providing support to older adults. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Alcohol use was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – Consumption (AUDIT-C). Results: Thirty older adults in alcohol treatment and fifteen alcohol practitioners were recruited. The Covid-19 pandemic was found to result in both increases and decreases in alcohol use; changes in alcohol use depended on a number of factors, such as living arrangements, family support, physical and mental health. Many alcohol treatment services moved to a model of remote support during the pandemic. However, face-to-face service provision was considered to be essential by both older adults in alcohol treatment and alcohol practitioners. Engagement with online support was low, with older adults facing barriers in using online technology. Conclusion: The study highlights the importance of face-to-face treatment and intervention for older adults in alcohol treatment. Addiction services may see increased demand for treatment as a result of the pandemic; it is important that services consider the needs of older adults, many of whom may be marginalised by a remote model of service provision.
  • Parents' expectations and experiences of the 6-week baby check: a qualitative study in primary care

    Gilworth, Gill; Milton, Sarah; Chater, Angel M.; Nazareth, Irwin; Roposch, Andreas; Green, Judith; King's College London; University of Bedfordshire; University College London (Royal College of General Practitioners, 2020-11-18)
    Background: The Newborn and Infant Physical Examination (NIPE) programme requires all babies to have a comprehensive health check at 6-8 weeks of age. These are typically completed by GPs. Although person-centred care has achieved prominence in maternity care policy in recent years, there is limited empirical evidence on what parents and/or carers expect from the check, and how far experiences meet their needs. Aim: To explore the expectations and experiences of parents attending their GP for a baby check. Design & setting: A qualitative study was undertaken in primary care in London. Method: Content analysis was undertaken of transcripts of semi-structured interviews. Interviews were conducted with a total of 16 participants (14 mothers and two fathers) who had recently attended for a 6-week check for their baby. Results: Despite the availability of plentiful sources of general advice on infants' health and development, a thorough check by a trusted GP was an important milestone for most parents. They had few specific expectations of the check in terms of what examinations were undertaken, but even experienced parents anticipated reassurance about their baby's normal development. Many also hoped for reassurance about their own parenting. Parents appreciated GPs who explained what they were doing during the examination; space to raise any concerns; and combined mother and baby checks. Referrals to secondary care were generally experienced as reassuring rather than a source of anxiety. Conclusion: The baby check meets needs beyond those of the NIPE screening programme. Protecting the time for a thorough consultation is important for parents at what can be a vulnerable time.
  • Effect of e-learning on health sciences education: a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis

    Regmi, Krishna; Jones, Linda; University of Bedfordshire; University of Dundee (Routledge, 2021-02-24)
    E-learning has been widely used in higher education as it provides better access to learning resources online, utilising technology to enhance learning. Despite growing evidence claiming that e-learning is as effective as traditional means of learning, the evidence is still very limited. This protocol aims to measure the impact of e-learning as compared to traditional face-to-face learning, both measured and perceived, on health sciences education – in terms of improving students’/health professionals’ satisfaction, knowledge, skills, and behaviours and patient-related outcomes. We will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of both randomised controlled trials and non-randomised controlled trials. Major databases will be searched for studies, and will be reported in accordance with PRISMA. A thematic analysis will be conducted for the included studies. If sufficient data are available, the random-effects model for meta-analysis will be performed. The outcome of this study will provide a basis for developing the best methods of e-learning in health sciences education.
  • Women's experiences of living with albinism in Taiwan and perspectives on reproductive decision making: a qualitative study

    Huang, Mei-Zen; Chen, Li-Li; Hung, Shu-Ling; Puthussery, Shuby; National Tainan Junior College of Nursing; National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2020-12-21)
    People with Albinism tend to face multiple adverse physical, psychological and social consequences. Very little is known about experiences of women with Albinism and their deliberations whilst making reproductive decisions. This study aimed to explore lived experiences of women with Albinism and to understand their perspectives on reproductive decision making. Qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten women with Albinism in Taiwan. Five key themes emerged from the accounts which were centred around the sense of discrimination that they felt whilst growing up, their strive for normality, making difficult choices in their reproductive decisions, desire to protect children from harm and reflections of parenting struggles from own experiences and the experiences of their parents. We call for global and national policy makers and practitioners to introduce explicit measures to challenge the myths, stereotypes and prejudices associated with Albinism including specific interventions towards supporting women in pregnancy decision making.
  • Parents’ experiences of complementary feeding among a United Kingdom culturally diverse and deprived community

    Cook, Erica Jane; Powell, Faye; Ali, Nasreen; Penn-Jones, Catrin; Ochieng, Bertha; Randhawa, Gurch; University of Bedfordshire; DeMontfort University (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2020-11-09)
    Complementary feeding practices and adherence to health recommendations are influenced by a range of different and often interrelating factors such as socio-economic and cultural factors. However, the factors underlying these associations are often complex with less awareness of how complementary feeding approaches vary across the UK’s diverse population. This paper describes a qualitative investigation undertaken in a deprived and culturally diverse community in the UK which aimed to explore parents’ knowledge, beliefs and practices of complementary feeding. One hundred and ten mothers and fathers, self-identified as being White British, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black African/Caribbean or Polish took part in twenty-four focus group discussions, organised by age group, sex and ethnicity. The findings revealed that most parents initiated complementary feeding before the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendation of 6 months. Early initiation was strongly influenced by breast feeding practices alongside the extent to which parents believed that their usual milk; that is, breastmilk or formula was fulfilling their infants' nutritional needs. The composition of diet and parents' approach to complementary feeding was closely aligned to traditional cultural practices; however, some contradictions were noted. The findings also acknowledge the pertinent role of the father in influencing the dietary practices of the wider household. Learning about both the common and unique cultural feeding attitudes and practices held by parents may help us to tailor healthy complementary feeding advice in the context of increasing diversity in the United Kingdom.
  • Knowledge and practice of organ donation among police personnel in Tamil Nadu: a cross-sectional study

    Thyagarajan, Ishwarya; Shroff, Sunil; Vincent, Britzer Paul; Rajendran, Juhija; Kanvinde, Hemal; Shankar, Siva; Aneesh, Kavitha; MOHAN Foundation; Madras Medical Mission Hospital; University of Bedfordshire (Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications, 2020-07-06)
    Context: Police officers are one of the key stakeholders involved in the process of deceased organ donation. In India, as road traffic accidents account for the majority of brain deaths, the police play an important role to ensure legal and ethical practices of organ donation. In many instances, the undue delays in the inquest and postmortem lead to difficulties in completing the donation and also cause distress among the family members who have said yes to organ donation despite their grief. Aim: This study aims to assess the police officers' knowledge of the organ donation process and their practice toward it. Design and Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 627 police officers in the state of Tamil Nadu in India within a period of 18 months. A structured questionnaire with multiple choice questions was used. Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 21 were used to compile and statistically analyze the data collected. The knowledge level and willingness of the officers to follow certain practices were analyzed. Results: It was found that 95.5% of the participants were aware of organ donation. Further analysis revealed that 86.6% of the police personnel were aware of brain death, but only 35.6% were aware of the transplant law, 12.1% knew about the green corridor, and 20.7% about the donor card. Very few participants (9.6%) had experience in processing brain deaths and organ donation cases. Knowledge about postmortem formalities and inquest protocols was unsatisfactory. A significant association between work experience and the knowledge and awareness about organ donation was noted. Conclusions: Including modules on organ donation awareness, transplant law, and hospital protocols in the training syllabus for the recruited personnel, followed by regular refresher courses on the subject, would be the key to enhance the knowledge and work practices of this important group to help ease pain points in the medicolegal cases where organ donation consent is provided by the relatives. A change in the attitude of police officers while handling organ donation cases would have an overall positive impact on the program.
  • Operationalising domain 4: additional care for women and newborn infants with complications

    Madeley, Anna; University of Bedfordshire (All4Holdings Ltd, 2020-12-31)
    In this ninth article of The Practising Midwife’s education series, Domain 4 from the new Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) standards for proficiency is discussed. Domain 4 emphasises the midwife’s role as a coordinator of women and neonate’s care where additional care may be required. Highlighting curriculum changes at the University of Bedfordshire, Anna Madeley provides insights to how this domain has been implemented.
  • Analysis of routinely collected data: determining associations of maternal risk factors and infant outcomes with gestational diabetes, in Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi and white British pregnant women in Luton, England

    Garcia, Rebecca; Ali, Nasreen; Guppy, Andy; Griffiths, Malcolm; Randhawa, Gurch; ; Open University; University of Bedfordshire; Luton & Dunstable University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (Elsevier, 2020-12-15)
    This study aims to compare the prevalence of gestational diabetes in Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and British women in Luton, England and further examine associations in maternal risk factors (age BMI, smoking status and birth outcome), with gestational diabetes, with maternal ethnicity. A retrospective analysis using routinely collected secondary data from Ciconia Maternity information System (CMiS), between 2008 and 2013. The ethnicity of women recorded as Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and white British, residing in [removed] were included in the study. The outcomes for n=15,211 cases were analysed using adjusted standardised residuals, Pearson Chi-square, frequencies and percentages of women with gestational diabetes. = 43.1 df=4, p<0.001) and an early gestational age at delivery (24-37 weeks) (χ2= 4.084 df=1, p=0.043). There are important differences in the prevalence rates of gestational diabetes which varied by maternal ethnicity. Of the women who had GDM, 48.7% were Pakistani, compared with 28.3% Bangladeshi, 16.4% white British and 6.6% Indian. It is essential policy makers and service providers target GDM screening and associated interventions and future research seeks to understand the reasons behind these differences.
  • Cloud services for culture aware conversation: socially assistive robots and virtual assistants

    Recchuto, Carmine; Gava, Luna; Grassi, Lucrezia; Grillo, Alberto; Lagomarsino, Marta; Lanza, Davide; Liu, Zijian; Papadopoulos, Chris; Papadopoulos, Irena; Scalmato, Antonello; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-07-21)
    This paper introduces a new Cloud platform providing services for culturally competent interaction, that has been developed to expand the capabilities of Socially Assistive Robots and virtual assistants interacting with older persons. The rationale behind the proposed architecture is discussed, by outlining key principles as well as the functionalities provided, with a specific focus on verbal interaction. Three case studies, the humanoid robot Pepper, a robotic medicine dispenser Pillo, and a custom-built Android-based virtual assistant, are analyzed in detail, by showing how robots and other assistants may easily access culturally competent Cloud services to expand their interaction capabilities. Transcripts of conversations are reported and commented, in order to outline both the positive features and the limitations of the system.
  • A randomised controlled trial of energetic activity for depression in young people (READY): a multi-site feasibility trial protocol

    Howlett, Neil; Bottoms, Lindsay; Chater, Angel M.; Clark, A.B.; Clarke, T.; David, L.; Irvine, K.; Jones, A.; Jones, J.; Mengoni, S.E.; et al. (BioMed Central Ltd, 2021-01-04)
    Background: Prevalence of depression is increasing in young people, and there is a need to develop and evaluate behavioural interventions which may provide benefits equal to or greater than talking therapies or pharmacological alternatives. Exercise could be beneficial for young people living with depression, but robust, large-scale trials of effectiveness and the impact of exercise intensity are lacking. This study aims to test whether a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of an intervention targeting young people living with depression is feasible by determining whether it is possible to recruit and retain young people, develop and deliver the intervention as planned, and evaluate training and delivery. Methods: The design is a three-arm cluster randomised controlled feasibility trial with embedded process evaluation. Participants will be help-seeking young people, aged 13–17 years experiencing mild to moderate low mood or depression, referred from three counties in England. The intervention will be delivered by registered exercise professionals, supported by mental health support workers, twice a week for 12 weeks. The three arms will be high-intensity exercise, low-intensity exercise, and a social activity control. All arms will receive a ‘healthy living’ behaviour change session prior to each exercise session and the two exercise groups are energy matched. The outcomes are referral, recruitment, and retention rates; attendance at exercise sessions; adherence to and ability to reach intensity during exercise sessions; proportions of missing data; adverse events, all measured at baseline, 3, and 6 months; resource use; and reach and representativeness. Discussion: UK National Health Service (NHS) policy is to provide young people with advice about using exercise to help depression but there is no evidence-based exercise intervention to either complement or as an alternative to medication or talking therapies. UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines suggest that exercise can be an effective treatment, but the evidence base is relatively weak. This feasibility trial will provide evidence about whether it is feasible to recruit and retain young people to a full RCT to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an exercise intervention for depression. Trial registration: ISRCTN, ISRCTN66452702. Registered 9 April 2020.
  • Ethnic differences in body fat deposition and liver fat content in two UK-based cohorts

    Alenaini, Wareed; Parkinson, James R.; McCarthy, John; Goldstone, Anthony P.; Wilman, Henry R.; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Bell, Jimmy D.; Thomas, E. Louise; University of Westminster; et al. (Wiley, 2020-09-16)
    Objective: Differences in the content and distribution of body fat and ectopic lipids may be responsible for ethnic variations in metabolic disease susceptibility. The aim of this study was to examine the ethnic distribution of body fat in two separate UK-based populations. Methods: Anthropometry and body composition were assessed in two separate UK cohorts: the Hammersmith cohort and the UK Biobank, both comprising individuals of South Asian descent (SA), individuals of Afro-Caribbean descent (AC), and individuals of European descent (EUR). Regional adipose tissue stores and liver fat were measured by magnetic resonance techniques. Results: The Hammersmith cohort (n = 747) had a mean (SD) age of 41.1 (14.5) years (EUR: 374 men, 240 women; SA: 68 men, 22 women; AC: 14 men, 29 women), and the UK Biobank (n = 9,533) had a mean (SD) age of 55.5 (7.5) years (EUR: 4,483 men, 4,873 women; SA: 80 men, 43 women, AC: 31 men, 25 women). Following adjustment for age and BMI, no significant differences in visceral adipose tissue or liver fat were observed between SA and EUR individuals in the either cohort. Conclusions: Our data, consistent across two independent UK-based cohorts, present a limited number of ethnic differences in the distribution of body fat depots associated with metabolic disease. These results suggest that the ethnic variation in susceptibility to features of the metabolic syndrome may not arise from differences in body fat.
  • The vital role of health psychology in the response to COVID-19

    Arden, Madelynne A.; Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Chater, Angel M.; Hart, Jo; McBride, Emily; Chilcot, Joseph (John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2020-10-27)
    We had a huge response to our editorial and call for submissions of health psychology research related to the coronavirus pandemic (Arden & Chilcot, 2020). A total of 177 brief reports and papers have been submitted to BJHP since that call in March 2020. It has been a mammoth task for our associate editors, reviewers, and production team at Wiley to manage these papers (alongside non‐COVID submissions) in a shortened time frame, and the editors, Prof Arden and Dr Chilcot, would like to extend our sincere thanks to all who contributed their time and energies to this endeavour at what was a difficult time for everyone. This issue of BJHP includes a special section entitled COVID‐19: Health Psychology Theory and Research which includes the papers and brief reports on this topic accepted for publication to date.
  • Health behaviour change considerations for weight loss and type 2 diabetes: nutrition, physical activity and sedentary behaviour

    Chater, Angel M.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Ferrandino, Louise; Wyld, Kevin; Bailey, Daniel Paul (John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2020-11-30)
    Good nutrition, regular physical activity and low levels of sedentary behaviour are important in the prevention, management and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Self-management requires individuals to have the capability to enact, opportunity to enable and motivation to perform relevant health behaviours. These behaviours, and the bio-psycho-social drivers of them, should be considered when working in the area of T2DM.
  • Should we decolonise midwifery education?

    Beckford-Procyk, Chelsea; University of Bedfordshire (All4Holdings Ltd, 2020-11-30)
    This year the Black Lives Matter movement gained momentum globally and more people are having uncomfortable but necessary conversations around race. While the recent focus on racism within healthcare has largely been on outcomes because of inequality, we must also examine how the education of healthcare professionals can also play a part in dismantling racism in clinical practice. In this article, Chelsea Beckford-Procyk discusses the ways in which student midwives, birthing people and society as a whole would benefit from the decolonisation of midwifery education.

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