• Defining integrated reading-into-writing constructs: evidence at the B2 C1 interface

      Chan, Sathena Hiu Chong (Cambridge University Press, 2018-06-01)
    • Developing rubrics to assess the reading-into-writing skills: a case study

      Chan, Sathena Hiu Chong; Inoue, Chihiro; Taylor, Lynda; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier Ltd, 2015-08-08)
      The integrated assessment of language skills, particularly reading-into-writing, is experiencing a renaissance. The use of rating rubrics, with verbal descriptors that describe quality of L2 writing performance, in large scale assessment is well-established. However, less attention has been directed towards the development of reading-into-writing rubrics. The task of identifying and evaluating the contribution of reading ability to the writing process and product so that it can be reflected in a set of rating criteria is not straightforward. This paper reports on a recent project to define the construct of reading-into-writing ability for designing a suite of integrated tasks at four proficiency levels, ranging from CEFR A2 to C1. The authors discuss how the processes of theoretical construct definition, together with empirical analyses of test taker performance, were used to underpin the development of rating rubrics for the reading-into-writing tests. Methodologies utilised in the project included questionnaire, expert panel judgement, group interview, automated textual analysis and analysis of rater reliability. Based on the results of three pilot studies, the effectiveness of the rating rubrics is discussed. The findings can inform decisions about how best to account for both the reading and writing dimensions of test taker performance in the rubrics descriptors.
    • Investigating the cognitive validity of EAP reading-into-writing test tasks: a pilot study

      Chan, Sathena Hiu Chong; University of Bedfordshire (2011-07-07)
    • Some evidence of the development of L2 reading-into-writing skills at three levels

      Chan, Sathena Hiu Chong; University of Bedfordshire (Castledown, 2018-09-05)
      While an integrated format has been widely incorporated into high-stakes writing assessment, there is relatively little research on students’ cognitive processing involved in integrated reading-into-writing tasks. Even research which reviews how the reading-into-writing construct is distinct from one level to the other is scarce. Using a writing process questionnaire, we examined and compared test takers’ cognitive processes on integrated reading-into-writing tasks at three levels. More specifically, the study aims to provide evidence of the predominant reading-into-writing processes appropriate at each level (i.e., the CEFR B1, B2, and C1 levels). The findings of the study reveal the core processes which are essential to the reading-into-writing construct at all three levels. There is also a clear progression of the reading-into-writing skills employed by the test takers across the three CEFR levels. A multiple regression analysis was used to examine the impact of the individual processes on predicting the writers’ level of reading-into-writing abilities. The findings provide empirical evidence concerning the cognitive validity of reading-into-writing tests and have important implications for task design and scoring at each level.
    • Using keystroke logging to understand writers’ processes on a reading-into-writing test

      Chan, Sathena Hiu Chong (Springer Open, 2017-05-19)
      Background Integrated reading-into-writing tasks are increasingly used in large-scale language proficiency tests. Such tasks are said to possess higher authenticity as they reflect real-life writing conditions better than independent, writing-only tasks. However, to effectively define the reading-into-writing construct, more empirical evidence regarding how writers compose from sources both in real-life and under test conditions is urgently needed. Most previous process studies used think aloud or questionnaire to collect evidence. These methods rely on participants’ perceptions of their processes, as well as their ability to report them. Findings This paper reports on a small-scale experimental study to explore writers’ processes on a reading-into-writing test by employing keystroke logging. Two L2 postgraduates completed an argumentative essay on computer. Their text production processes were captured by a keystroke logging programme. Students were also interviewed to provide additional information. Keystroke logging like most computing tools provides a range of measures. The study examined the students’ reading-into-writing processes by analysing a selection of the keystroke logging measures in conjunction with students’ final texts and interview protocols. Conclusions The results suggest that the nature of the writers’ reading-into-writing processes might have a major influence on the writer’s final performance. Recommendations for future process studies are provided.
    • Validating two types of EAP reading-into-writing test tasks

      Chan, Sathena Hiu Chong; University of Bedfordshire (2013-07-11)