• The cognitive validity of tests of listening and speaking designed for young learners

      Field, John (Cambridge University Press, 2018-06)
      The notion of cognitive validity becomes considerably more complicated when one extends it to  tests designed for Young Learners. It then becomes necessary to take full account of the level of cognitive development of the target population (their ability to handle certain mental operations and not others). It may also be necessary to include some consideration of their level of linguistic development in L1: in particular, the degree of proficiency they may have achieved in each of the four skills. This chapter examines the extent to which awareness of the cognitive development of young learners up to the age of 12 should and does influence the decisions made by those designing tests of second language listening and speaking. The limitations and strengths of young learners of this age range are matched against the various processing demands entailed in second language listening and speaking and are then related to characteristics of the Young Learners tests offered by the Cambridge English examinations.
    • Computer delivered listening tests: a sad necessity or an opportunity?

      Field, John; University of Bedfordshire (2017-07-06)
    • The effects of single and double play upon listening test outcomes and cognitive processing

      Field, John; British Council (British Council, 2015-01-01)
      Report on a project investigating the effects of playing recorded material twice upon test taker scores and upon their behaviour
    • The role of listening in oral interview tests

      Nakatsuhara, Fumiyo; University of Bedfordshire (2012-03-15)