• Development of empirically driven checklists for learners’ interactional competence

      Nakatsuhara, Fumiyo; May, Lyn; Lam, Daniel M. K.; Galaczi, Evelina D.; University of Bedfordshire; Queensland University of Technology; Cambridge Assessment English (2019-03-27)
    • Don't turn a deaf ear: a case for assessing interactive listening

      Lam, Daniel M. K.; ; University of Bedfordshire (Oxford University Press, 2021-01-11)
      The reciprocal nature of spoken interaction means that participants constantly alternate between speaker and listener roles. However, listener or recipient actions – also known as interactive listening (IL) – are somewhat underrepresented in language tests. In conventional listening tests, they are not directly assessed. In speaking tests, they have often been overshadowed by an emphasis on production features or subsumed under broader constructs such as interactional competence. This paper is an effort to represent the rich IL phenomena that can be found in peer interactive speaking assessments, where the candidate-candidate format and discussion task offer opportunities to elicit and assess IL. Taking a close look at candidate discourse and non-verbal actions through a conversation analytic approach, the analysis focuses on three IL features: 1) listenership displays, 2) contingent responses, and 3) collaborative completions, and unpacks their relative strength in evidencing listener understanding. This paper concludes by making a case for revisiting the role of interactive listening, calling for more explicit inclusion of IL in L2 assessment as well as pedagogy.
    • Interactional competence in the workplace: challenges and opportunities

      Galaczi, Evelina D.; Taylor, Lynda; Cambridge Assessment English; University of Bedfordshire (2018-11-25)
    • Interactional competence: conceptualisations, operationalisations, and outstanding questions

      Galaczi, Evelina D.; Taylor, Lynda (Routledge, 2018-04-30)
      This article on interactional competence provides an overview of the historical influences that have shaped theoretical conceptualisations of this construct as it relates to spoken language use, leading to the current view of it as involving both cognitive and social dimensions, and then describes its operationalisation in tests and assessment scales, and the challenges associated with this activity. Looking into the future, issues that need to be dealt with include developing a fuller representation of the construct and of more contextually relevant assessments, deciding upon additional assessment criteria and the appropriate interpretation thereof, and determining how technology can be applied in assessment practice and the extent to which technology fundamentally changes the construct itself. These all have implications for testing if it is to be relevant and fit for purpose.