• Interactional competence with and without extended planning time in a group oral assessment

      Lam, Daniel M. K. (Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2019-05-02)
      Linking one’s contribution to those of others’ is a salient feature demonstrating interactional competence in paired/group speaking assessments. While such responses are to be constructed spontaneously while engaging in real-time interaction, the amount and nature of pre-task preparation in paired/group speaking assessments may have an influence on how such an ability (or lack thereof) could manifest in learners’ interactional performance. Little previous research has examined the effect of planning time on interactional aspects of paired/group speaking task performance. Within the context of school-based assessment in Hong Kong, this paper analyzes the discourse of two group interactions performed by the same four student-candidates under two conditions: (a) with extended planning time (4–5 hours), and (b) without extended planning time (10 minutes), with the aim of exploring any differences in student-candidates’ performance of interactional competence in this assessment task. The analysis provides qualitative discourse evidence that extended planning time may impede the assessment task’s capacity to discriminate between stronger and weaker candidates’ ability to spontaneously produce responses contingent on previous speaker contribution. Implications for the implementation of preparation time for the group interaction task are discussed.
    • The mediation and organisation of gestures in vocabulary instructions: a microgenetic analysis of interactions in a beginning-level adult ESOL classroom

      Tai, Kevin W.H.; Khabbazbashi, Nahal (Taylor & Francis, 2019-04-26)
      There is limited research on second language (L2) vocabulary teaching and learning which provides fine-grained descriptions of how vocabulary explanations (VE) are interactionally managed in beginning-level L2 classrooms where learners have a limited L2 repertoire, and how the VEs could contribute to the learners’ conceptual understanding of the meaning(s) of the target vocabulary items (VIs). To address these research gaps, we used a corpus of classroom video-data from a beginning-level adult ESOL classroom in the United States and applied Conversation Analysis to examine how the class teacher employs various gestural and linguistic resources to construct L2 VEs. We also conducted a 4-month microgenetic analysis to document qualitative changes in learners’ understanding of the meaning of specific L2 VIs which were previously explained by the teacher. Findings revealed that the learners’ use of gestures allows for an externalization of thinking processes providing visible output for inspection by the teacher and peers. These findings can inform educators’ understanding about L2 vocabulary development as a gradual process of controlling the right gestural and linguistic resources for appropriate communicative purposes.
    • Vocabulary explanations in beginning-level adult ESOL classroom interactions: a conversation analysis perspective

      Tai, Kevin W.H.; Khabbazbashi, Nahal; University College London; University of Bedfordshire (Linguistics and Education, Elsevier, 2019-07-19)
      Re­cent stud­ies have ex­am­ined the in­ter­ac­tional or­gan­i­sa­tion of vo­cab­u­lary ex­pla­na­tions (VEs) in sec­ond lan­guage (L2) class­rooms. Nev­er­the­less, more work is needed to bet­ter un­der­stand how VEs are pro­vided inthese class­rooms, par­tic­u­larly in be­gin­ning-level Eng­lish for Speak­ers of Other Lan­guages (ESOL) class­room con­texts where stu­dents have dif­fer­ent first lan­guages (L1s) and lim­ited Eng­lish pro­fi­ciency and theshared lin­guis­tic re­sources be­tween the teacher and learn­ers are typ­i­cally lim­ited. Based on a cor­pus of be­gin­ning-level adult ESOL lessons, this con­ver­sa­tion-an­a­lytic study of­fers in­sights into how VEs are in­ter­ac­tion­ally man­aged in such class­rooms. Our find­ings con­tribute to the cur­rent lit­er­a­ture in shed­ding light on thena­ture of VEs in be­gin­ning-level ESOL class­rooms.