• Applying the socio-cognitive framework: gathering validity evidence during the development of a speaking test

      Nakatsuhara, Fumiyo; Dunlea, Jamie; University of Bedfordshire; British Council (UCLES/Cambridge University Press, 2020-06-18)
      This chapter describes how Weir’s (2005; further elaborated in Taylor (Ed) 2011) socio-cognitive framework for validating speaking tests guided two a priori validation studies of the speaking component of the Test of English for Academic Purposes (TEAP) in Japan. In this chapter, we particularly reflect upon the academic achievements of Professor Cyril J Weir, in terms of: • the effectiveness and value of the socio-cognitive framework underpinning the development of the TEAP Speaking Test while gathering empirical evidence of the construct underlying a speaking test for the target context • his contribution to developing early career researchers and extending language testing expertise in the TEAP development team.
    • Comparing rating modes: analysing live, audio, and video ratings of IELTS Speaking Test performances

      Nakatsuhara, Fumiyo; Inoue, Chihiro; Taylor, Lynda; (Taylor & Francis, 2020-08-26)
      This mixed methods study compared IELTS examiners’ scores when assessing spoken performances under live and two ‘non-live’ testing conditions using audio and video recordings. Six IELTS examiners assessed 36 test-takers’ performances under the live, audio, and video rating conditions. Scores in the three rating modes were calibrated using the many-facet Rasch model (MFRM). For all three modes, examiners provided written justifications for their ratings, and verbal reports were also collected to gain insights into examiner perceptions towards performance under the audio and video conditions. Results showed that, for all rating criteria, audio ratings were significantly lower than live and video ratings. Examiners noticed more negative performance features under the two non-live rating conditions, compared to the live condition. However, richer information about test-taker performance in the video mode appeared to cause raters to rely less on such negative evidence than audio raters when awarding scores. Verbal report data showed that having visual information in the video-rating mode helped examiners to understand what the test-takers were saying, to comprehend better what test-takers were communicating using non-verbal means, and to understand with greater confidence the source of test-takers’ hesitation, pauses, and awkwardness.
    • Comparing writing proficiency assessments used in professional medical registration: a methodology to inform policy and practice

      Chan, Sathena Hiu Chong; Taylor, Lynda; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2020-10-13)
      Internationally trained doctors wishing to register and practise in an English-speaking country typically have to demonstrate that they can communicate effectively in English, including writing proficiency. Various English language proficiency (ELP) tests are available worldwide and are used for such licensing purposes. This means that medical registration bodies face the question of which test(s) will meet their needs, ideally reflecting the demands of their professional environment. This article reports a mixed-methods study to survey the policy and practice of health-care registration organisations in the UK and worldwide. The study aimed to identify ELP tests that were, or could be, considered as suitable for medical registration purposes and to understand the differences between them. The paper discusses what the study revealed about the function and comparability of different writing tests used in professional registration as well as the complex criteria a professional body may prioritise when selecting a test. Although the original study was completed in 2015, the paper takes account of subsequent changes in policy and practice. It offers a practical methodology and worked example which may be of interest and value to other researchers, language testers and policymakers as they face challenges in selecting and making comparisons across tests.
    • Opening the black box: exploring automated speaking evaluation

      Khabbazbashi, Nahal; Xu, Jing; Galaczi, Evelina D. (Springer, 2021-02-10)
      The rapid advances in speech processing and machine learning technologies have attracted language testers’ strong interest in developing automated speaking assessment in which candidate responses are scored by computer algorithms rather than trained human examiners. Despite its increasing popularity, automatic evaluation of spoken language is still shrouded in mystery and technical jargon, often resembling an opaque "black box" that transforms candidate speech to scores in a matter of minutes. Our chapter explicitly problematizes this lack of transparency around test score interpretation and use and asks the following questions: What do automatically derived scores actually mean? What are the speaking constructs underlying them? What are some common problems encountered in automated assessment of speaking? And how can test users evaluate the suitability of automated speaking assessment for their proposed test uses? In addressing these questions, the purpose of our chapter is to explore the benefits, problems, and caveats associated with automated speaking assessment touching on key theoretical discussions on construct representation and score interpretation as well as practical issues such as the infrastructure necessary for capturing high quality audio and the difficulties associated with acquiring training data. We hope to promote assessment literacy by providing the necessary guidance for users to critically engage with automated speaking assessment, pose the right questions to test developers, and ultimately make informed decisions regarding the fitness for purpose of automated assessment solutions for their specific learning and assessment contexts.
    • Placing construct definition at the heart of assessment: research, design and a priori validation

      Chan, Sathena Hiu Chong; Latimer, Nicola (Cambridge University Press, 2020-04-01)
      In this chapter, we will first highlight Professor Cyril Weir’s major research into the nature of academic reading. Using one of his test development pro- jects as an example, we will describe how the construct of academic reading was operationalised in the local context of a British university by theoretical construct definition together with empirical analyses of students’ reading patterns on the test through eye-tracking. As we progress through the chapter we reflect on how Weir’s various research projects fed into the development of the test and a new method of analysing eye-tracking data in relation to different types of reading.
    • Research and practice in assessing academic reading: the case of IELTS

      Weir, Cyril J.; Chan, Sathena Hiu Chong (Cambridge University Press, 2019-08-29)
      The focus for attention in this volume is the reading component of the IELTS Academic module, which is principally used for admissions purposes into ter- tiary-level institutions throughout the world (see Davies 2008 for a detailed history of the developments in EAP testing leading up to the current IELTS). According to the official website (www.cambridgeenglish.org/exams-and- tests/ielts/test-format/), there are three reading passages in the Academic Reading Module with a total of c.2,150–2,750 words. Individual tasks are not timed. Texts are taken from journals, magazines, books, and newspapers. All the topics are of general interest and the texts have been written for a non-specialist audience. The readings are intended to be about issues that are appropriate to candidates who will enter postgraduate or undergraduate courses. At least one text will contain detailed logical argument. One of the texts may contain non-verbal materials such as graphs, illustrations or diagrams. If there are technical terms, which candidates may not know in the text, then a glossary is provided. The texts and questions become more difficult through the paper. A number of specific critical questions are addressed in applying the socio- cognitive validation framework to the IELTS Academic Reading Module: * Are the cognitive processes required to complete the IELTS Reading test tasks appropriate and adequate in their coverage? (Focus on cognitive validity in Chapter 4.) * Are the contextual characteristics of the test tasks and their administration appropriate and fair to the candidates who are taking them? (Focus on context validity in Chapter 5.) * What effects do the test and test scores have on various stakeholders? (Focus on consequential validity in Chapter 6.) * What external evidence is there that the test is fair? (Focus on criterion- related validity in Chapter 7.)
    • Video-conferencing speaking tests: do they measure the same construct as face-to-face tests?

      Nakatsuhara, Fumiyo; Inoue, Chihiro; Berry, Vivien; Galaczi, Evelina D.; ; University of Bedfordshire; British Council; Cambridge Assessment English (Routledge, 2021-08-23)
      This paper investigates the comparability between the video-conferencing and face-to-face modes of the IELTS Speaking Test in terms of scores and language functions generated by test-takers. Data were collected from 10 trained IELTS examiners and 99 test-takers who took two speaking tests under face-to-face and video-conferencing conditions. Many-facet Rasch Model (MFRM) analysis of test scores indicated that the delivery mode did not make any meaningful difference to test-takers’ scores. An examination of language functions revealed that both modes equally elicited the same language functions except asking for clarification. More test-takers made clarification requests in the video-conferencing mode (63.3%) than in the face-to-face mode (26.7%). Drawing on the findings, as well as practical implications, we extend emerging thinking about video-conferencing speaking assessment and the associated features of this modality in its own right.