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The origins and adaptations of English as a school subjectThis chapter will consider the particular manifestation of English as a ‘school subject’, principally in the country called England and using some small space for significant international comparisons, and it will mainly focus on the secondary school version. We will call this phenomenon School Subject English (SSE). The chapter will argue that historically SSE has gone through phases of development and adaptation, some aspects of these changes inspired by new theories and concepts and by societal change, some others, especially more recently, entirely reactive to external impositions (for an analysis of the current position of SSE, see Roberts, this volume). This chapter considers SSE to have been ontologically ‘expanded’ between 1870 and (about) 1990, increasing the ambition and scope of the ‘subject’ and the emancipatory ideology of its teachers. This ontological expansion was principally a result of adding ‘models’ of SSE, models that each emphasise different epistemologies of what counts as significant knowledge, and can only exist in a dynamic tension. In relation to this volume, SSE has always incorporated close attention to language but only very briefly (1988–1992) has something akin to Applied Linguistics had any real influence in the secondary classroom. However, with varying emphasis historically, there has been attention (the Adult Needs/Skills model, see later) to the conventions of language, especially ‘secretarial’ issues of spelling and punctuation, some understanding of grammar, and a focus on notions of Standard English, in writing and in speech; but these have never been the driving ideology of SSE. Of the two conceptual giants ‘Language’ and ‘Literature’, it is the latter that has mattered most over those 120 years.
Study writing: a course in written English for academic purposesStudy Writing is an ideal reference book for EAP students who want to write better academic essays, projects, research articles or theses. The book helps students at intermediate level develop their academic writing skills and strategies by: * introducing key concepts in academic writing, such as the role of generalizations and definitions, and their application. * exploring the use of information structures, including those used to develop and present an argument. * familiarizing learners with the characteristics of academic genre and analysing the grammar and vocabulary associated with them. * encouraging students to seek feedback on their own writing and analyse expert writers' texts in order to become more reflective and effective writers. This second edition has been updated to reflect modern thinking in the teaching of writing. It includes more recent texts in the disciplines presented and takes into account new media and the growth of online resources.