Now showing items 1-20 of 217

    • Breakfast consumption suppresses appetite but does not increase daily energy intake or physical activity energy expenditure when compared with breakfast omission in adolescent girls who habitually skip breakfast: a 7-day randomised crossover trial

      Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Seall, Claire; Tolfrey, Keith; ; University of Bedfordshire; Loughborough University (MDPI, 2021-11-26)
      With concerns that adolescent girls often skip breakfast, this study compared the effects of breakfast consumption versus breakfast omission on free-living physical activity (PA) energy expenditure (PAEE) and dietary intakes among adolescent girls classified as habitual breakfast skippers. The participants went through two 7-day conditions in a trial with a crossover design: daily standardised breakfast consumption (energy content: 25% of resting metabolic rate) before 09:00 (BC) and daily breakfast omission (no energy-providing nutrients consumed) until 10:30 (BO). Free-living PAEE, dietary intakes, and perceived appetite, tiredness, and energy levels were assessed. Analyses were linear mixed models. Breakfast manipulation did not affect PAEE or PA duration. Daily fibre intake was higher (p = 0.005; d = 1.31), daily protein intake tended to be higher (p = 0.092; d = 0.54), post-10:30 carbohydrate intake tended to be lower (p = 0.096; d = 0.41), and pre-10:30 hunger and fullness were lower and higher, respectively (p ≤ 0.065; d = 0.33–1.01), in BC versus BO. No other between-condition differences were found. Breakfast-skipping adolescent girls do not compensate for an imbalance in energy intake caused by breakfast consumption versus omission through subsequent changes in PAEE but may increase their carbohydrate intakes later in the day to partially compensate for breakfast omission. Furthermore, breakfast can make substantial contributions to daily fibre intake among adolescent girls.
    • Perceived influences on reducing prolonged sitting in police staff: a qualitative investigation using the Theoretical Domains Framework and COM-B model

      Brierley, Marsha L.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Bailey, Daniel Paul; Every, Sofie A.; Staines, Taylor A.; Chater, Angel M.; ; University of Bedfordshire; University College London; Brunel University (Biomed Central, 2021-11-19)
      Background: Workplace interventions have shown promise for reducing sitting in office workers. Police office staff remain an understudied population group that work within a disciplined organisation with distinctive work tasks around public safety, potentially affecting their capability, opportunity, and motivation to change sitting behaviour. This study aimed to assess the perceived influences on reducing workplace sitting in non-operational, desk-based police staff in order to derive theoretical determinants for behaviour change. Methods: Ten police staff from a single police force in Bedfordshire, England [eight female; 39.5±11.5 years] took part in face-to-face semi-structured interviews lasting 46±11 minutes on average. Thematic analysis identified key themes which were then mapped onto the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and linked to the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B) model. Results: Seven themes were identified: ‘Work tasks are seated’, ‘Social norm is to sit’, ‘Belief in ability to regulate behaviour’, ‘Knowledge of health risks’, ‘Organisational support’, ‘Impact on productivity’, and ‘Perceived autonomy for sitting reduction’. Conclusions: Awareness of behaviour and health impacts (Capability), social and physical support to sit less (Opportunity), and habit formation techniques (Motivation) are recommended considerations in sitting reduction workplace interventions for police staff.
    • Left ventricular remodeling in rugby is a physiological adaptation to exercise: a pilot study conducted with high-level athletes

      Rato, Nuno Dias; Richards, Joanna C.; University of Bedfordshire; University of Maia (Springer, 2021-10-11)
      Purpose Literature examining left ventricular (LV) structural adaptations to combined strength and endurance training is inconsistent. Rugby is a sport that combines these two exercise modalities, both during training and match play. This study aimed to explore differences in LV structure between high-level rugby players and untrained controls. Body composition analysis was performed to determine the most appropriate indexing variable for LV mass (LVM) and understand if increases in LV represent either a training-related physiological adaptation or reflect the groups’ anthropometric differences. Methods A cross-sectional design compared 10 rugby players and 10 untrained age-matched, male controls. Body composition was obtained by bioelectrical impedance. M-mode echocardiographic imaging was performed on the LV from the parasternal long axis view. Results Significantly greater end-diastolic interventricular septum, LV internal diameter, posterior wall thickness, LVM and LVM/fat-free mass (FFM) (p < 0.05) were found in rugby players compared to age-matched controls. Moreover, Pearson’s correlation tests revealed FFM to be the body composition variable with the strongest correlation to LVM (r = 0.775, p < 0.001). Conclusion The differences in LV structure between groups suggest that the combined endurance and strength training that rugby athletes are subjected to, induce a process of concentric and eccentric enlargement of the LV structure. Furthermore, the association found with FFM, suggests it to be the most appropriate body scaling variable to index to LVM and, thus, should be considered when describing increases in LVM. The present research suggests that increased LVM in the athletes group represents true physiological adaptations to training.
    • What influences people’s responses to public health messages for managing risks and preventing infectious diseases? a rapid systematic review of the evidence and recommendations

      Ghio, Daniela; Lawes-Wickwar, Sadie; Tang, Mei Yee; Epton, Tracy; Howlett, Neil; Jenkinson, Elizabeth; Stanescu, Sabina; Westbrook, Juliette; Kassianos, Angelos P.; Watson, Daniella; et al. (BMJ, 2021-10-05)
      Background Individual behaviour changes, such as hand hygiene and physical distancing, are required on a population scale to reduce transmission of infectious diseases such as COVID-19. However, little is known about effective methods of communicating risk reducing information, and how populations might respond. Objective To synthesise evidence relating to what: a) characterises effective public health messages for managing risk and preventing infectious disease, b) influences people’s responses to messages. Design A rapid systematic review was conducted. Protocol is published on Prospero CRD42020188704. Data sources Electronic databases were searched: Ovid Medline, Ovid PsycINFO and Healthevidence.org, and grey literature (PsyarXiv, OSF Preprints) up to May 2020. Study selection All study designs were included that: (a) evaluated public health messaging interventions targeted at adults, (b) concerned a communicable disease spread via primary route of transmission of respiratory and/or touch. Outcomes included preventative behaviours, perceptions/awareness and intentions. Non-English language papers were excluded. Synthesis Due to high heterogeneity studies were synthesised narratively focusing on determinants of intentions in the absence of measured adherence/preventative behaviours. Themes were developed independently by two researchers and discussed within team to reach consensus. Recommendations were translated from narrative synthesis to provide evidence-based methods in providing effective messaging. Results Sixty-eight eligible papers were identified. Characteristics of effective messaging include delivery by credible sources, community engagement, increasing awareness/knowledge, mapping to stage of epidemic/pandemic. To influence intent effectively, public health messages need to be acceptable, increase understanding/perceptions of health threat and perceived susceptibility. Discussion There are four key recommendations: (1) engage communities in development of messaging, (2) address uncertainty immediately and with transparency, (3) focus on unifying messages from sources, and (4) frame messages aimed at increasing understanding, social responsibility and personal control. Embedding principles of behavioural science into public health messaging is an important step towards more effective health-risk communication during epidemics/pandemics.
    • The health benefits of horse riding in the UK

      Church, Andrew; Taylor, Becky; Maxwell, Neil S.; Gibson, Oliver R.; Twomey, Rosemary (The British Horse Society, 2010-01-01)
      Key findings:The physical health benefits of horse riding and associated activities: 1. Horse riding and activities associated with horse riding, such asmucking out, expend sufficient energy to be classed as moderateintensity exercise. 2. Regular periods of trotting in a riding session may enhance the energyexpended and associated health benefits. 3. More than two thirds (68 percent) of questionnaire respondentsparticipate in horse riding and associated activities for 30 minutes ormore at least three times a week. Sport England estimate that such alevel of sporting activity will help an individual achieve or exceed thegovernment{ extquoteright}s recommended minimum level of physical activity. 4. A range of evidence indicates the vast majority (90 percent plus) ofhorse riders are female and more than a third (37 percent) of the femaleriders who took part in the survey were above 45 years of age. Horseriding is especially well placed to play a valuable role in initiatives toencourage increased physical activity amongst women of all ages. 5. Amongst the horse riders who took part in the survey, 39 percent hadtaken no other form of physical activity in the last four weeks. Thishighlights the importance of riding to these people, who might otherwisebe sedentary. 6. Horse riders with a long-standing illness or disability who took part inthe survey are able to undertake horse riding and associated activitiesat the same self-reported level of frequency and physical intensity asthose without such an illness or disability. The psychological and social benefits of horse riding: 1. Horse riding stimulates mainly positive psychological feelings. 2. Horse riders are strongly motivated to take part in riding by the senseof well-being they gain from interacting with horses. This importantpositive psychological interaction with an animal occurs in a very fewsports. 3. Being outdoors and in contact with nature is an important motivationfor the vast majority of horse riders.
    • Power, space and the new stadium: the example of Arsenal Football Club

      Church, Andrew; Penny, Simon (Routledge, 2013-01-03)
      In many sports, but especially professional soccer in the UK, clubs have recently relocated to new stadiums so as to meet new health and safety requirements and also develop new opportunities for income generation. The process of stadium relocation involves the emergence of new spaces that have implications for the power relations between stadium owners, managers and sport supporters. Existing studies provide a limited understanding of the changing nature of power relations in new stadiums. This paper reveals the power modalities and resources involved in the constantly changing new stadium spaces. A case study of Arsenal Football Club in London and the process of ‘Arsenalisation’ in the club's new stadium reveals how material and virtual spaces are used by supporters to resist, confirm and negotiate the resources and practices of stadium managers seeking to control their activities.
    • Questioning policy, youth participation and lifestyle sports

      King, Katherine; Church, Andrew (Routledge, 2014-05-05)
      Young people have been identified as a key target group for whom participation in sport and physical activity could have important benefits to health and well-being and consequently have been the focus of several government policies to increase participation in the UK. Lifestyle sports represent one such strategy for encouraging and sustaining new engagements in sport and physical activity in youth groups, however, there is at present a lack of understanding of the use of these activities within policy contexts. This paper presents findings from a government initiative which sought to increase participation in sport for young people through provision of facilities for mountain biking in a forest in south-east England. Findings from qualitative research with 40 young people who participated in mountain biking at the case study location highlight the importance of non-traditional sports as a means to experience the natural environments through forms of consumption which are healthy, active and appeal to their identities. In addition, however, the paper raises questions over the accessibility of schemes for some individuals and social groups, and the ability to incorporate sports which are inherently participant-led into state-managed schemes. Lifestyle sports such as mountain biking involve distinct forms of participation which present a challenge for policy-makers who seek to create and maintain sustainable communities of youth participants.
    • Oxygen cost of recreational horse-riding in females

      Beale, Louisa; Maxwell, Neil S.; Gibson, Oliver R.; Twomey, Rosemary; Taylor, Becky; Church, Andrew (Human Kinetics, 2014-01-01)
      BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to characterize the physiological demands of a riding session comprising different types of recreational horse riding in females. METHODS Sixteen female recreational riders (aged 17-54 years) completed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test to determine peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and a 45 minute riding session based upon a British Horse Society Stage 2 riding lesson (including walking, trotting, cantering and work without stirrups). Oxygen consumption (VO2), from which metabolic equivalent (MET) and energy expenditure values were derived, was measured throughout. RESULTS The mean VO2 requirement for trotting/cantering (18.4 ± 5.1 ml.kg-1.min-1; 52 ± 12% VO2peak; 5.3 ± 1.1 METs) was similar to walking/trotting (17.4 ± 5.1 ml.kg-1.min-1; 48 ± 13% VO2peak; 5.0 ± 1.5 METs) and significantly higher than for work without stirrups (14.2 ± 2.9 ml.kg-1.min-1; 41 ± 12% VO2peak; 4.2 ± 0.8 METs) (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The oxygen cost of different activities typically performed in a recreational horse riding session meets the criteria for moderate intensity exercise (3-6 METs) in females, and trotting combined with cantering imposes the highest metabolic demand. Regular riding could contribute to the achievement of the public health recommendations for physical activity in this population.
    • Lifestyle sports delivery and sustainability: clubs, communities and user-managers

      King, Katherine; Church, Andrew (Taylor & Francis, 2017-02-22)
      Lifestyle and informal sports have been recognised by policy makers as offering opportunities to increase participation in physical activity, particularly amongst hard to reach groups. Lifestyle sports are, however, double edged in their potential to achieve these goals. Their playful and non-traditional features may attract new participants less interested in traditional sports but the very liquidity of these activities may mean that the engagement of participants is fragmented and not sustained beyond a particular period in their lives. This article presents the perspective of mountain biking user-managers; those involved in the delivery, clubs and communities of mountain bikers across the United Kingdom. Findings suggest that whilst lifestyle sport communities are dependent on the work of formalised clubs to gain access to the funding and resources they need to sustain their activities, core participants will not always want to have to liaise or become involved formally within a club structure. In addition, clubs will not succeed in delivering sustained activities in line with sport policy to increase and maintain participation by relying on individual grants and without the support of an active informal user community. Accounts highlight the importance of engaging informal user communities with a sense of ownership such as locals to ensure new participants are integrated and the community is able to replenish.
    • Beyond transgression: mountain biking, young people and managing green spaces

      King, Katherine; Church, Andrew (Routledge, 2019-01-24)
      The importance of regular participation in physical activity in youth has seen attention turn to the role of lifestyle sports. Existing research on lifestyle sports lacks consideration of young people’s use of green spaces and the approaches of managers to conflicts in these spaces. Young people’s experiences of leisure are closely tied to those who oversee their use of leisure spaces and this paper is a rare example of research that draws upon qualitative methods from 40 mountain biking participants and 9 managers to explore both perspectives. Findings reveal young people seek opportunities for autonomy in green spaces through mountain biking but contest normative management practices. Managers recognized the benefits of engaging young people in mountain biking and discussed experimenting with various strategies to accommodate their practices. The paper therefore discusses the importance of moving beyond constructions of young people’s participation in lifestyle sports as transgressive and troublesome.
    • Community pharmacists' views on providing a reproductive health service to women receiving opioid substitution treatment: a qualitative study using the TDF and COM-B

      Alhusein, Nour; Scott, Jenny; Neale, Jo; Chater, Angel M.; Family, Hannah; University of Bristol; University of Bath; King's College London; University of New South Wales; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2021-09-21)
      Background The absence of menstruation is common in women who use drugs. This can give a belief that conception is unlikely. When stabilised on Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST), fertility often returns, initially without realisation as ovulation precedes menstruation. This leaves women vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies. Community pharmacists (CPs) are frequently in contact with this patient group through the Supervised Consumption of OST service. This provides a timely opportunity to provide reproductive health (RH) advice. The aim of this study was to investigate pharmacists' views on providing a RH service to women receiving OST. Methods Twenty semi-structured interviews based on the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation to Behaviour (COM-B) model and the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) were conducted between 2016 and 2017. Data analysis involved deductive coding using the TDF domains. The TDF domains were mapped onto the elements of the COM-B and used in the second step to create the framework and chart the data. The third step involved re-reading and clustering the codes, and inductive themes were generated to explain the data in depth. Results Nine of the 14 TDF domains, mapped into five elements of the COM-B, were identified. Five inductive themes were generated: 1) The pharmacists' experience and knowledge of reproductive health (RH) needs of women receiving OST, 2) The pharmacists' approach to providing advice, 3) The pharmacists' perception of the relationship with women receiving OST, 4) Social influences, and 5) Environmental factors. Community pharmacists feared causing offense to women receiving OST and described requiring cues as to when the service was needed. Pharmacists' highlighted a power imbalance in the relationship with women receiving OST. This could influence how receptive this patient group would be to pharmacy RH interventions. Conclusions CPs' concerns of providing RH service could hinder a proactive service provision. Supporting good rapport and providing a structured consultation would increase the accessibility of such a service.
    • Template for Rapid Iterative Consensus of Experts (TRICE)

      Chater, Angel M.; Shorter, Gillian; Swanson, Vivien; Kamal, Atiya; Epton, Tracy; Arden, Madelynne A.; Hart, Jo; Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Drury, John; Whittaker, Ellie; et al. (MDPI, 2021-09-29)
      Background: Public health emergencies require rapid responses from experts. Differing viewpoints are common in science, however, “mixed messaging” of varied perspectives can undermine credibility of experts; reduce trust in guidance; and act as a barrier to changing public health behaviours. Collation of a unified voice for effective knowledge creation and translation can be challenging. This work aimed to create a method for rapid psychologically-informed expert guidance during the COVID-19 response. Method: TRICE (Template for Rapid Iterative Consensus of Experts) brings structure, peer-review and consensus to the rapid generation of expert advice. It was developed and trialled with 15 core members of the British Psychological Society COVID-19 Behavioural Science and Disease Prevention Taskforce. Results: Using TRICE; we have produced 18 peer-reviewed COVID-19 guidance documents; based on rapid systematic reviews; co-created by experts in behavioural science and public health; taking 4–156 days to produce; with approximately 18 experts and a median of 7 drafts per output. We provide worked-examples and key considerations; including a shared ethos and theoretical/methodological framework; in this case; the Behaviour Change Wheel and COM-B. Conclusion: TRICE extends existing consensus methodologies and has supported public health collaboration; co-creation of guidance and translation of behavioural science to practice through explicit processes in generating expert advice for public health emergencies.
    • Exercise-induced salivary hormone responses to high-intensity, self-paced running

      Leal, Diogo Luis Campos Vaz; Taylor, Lee; Hough, John (Human Kinetics, 2021-01-20)
      Physical overexertion can lead to detrimental overreaching states without sufficient recovery, which may be identifiable by blunted exercise-induced cortisol and testosterone responses. A running test (RPETP) elicits reproducible plasma cortisol and testosterone elevations (in a healthy state) and may detect blunted hormonal responses in overreached athletes. This current study determined the salivary cortisol and testosterone responses reproducibility to the RPETP, to provide greater practical validity using saliva compared with the previously utilized blood sampling. Second, the relationship between the salivary and plasma responses was assessed. A total of 23 active, healthy males completed the RPETP on 3 occasions. Saliva (N = 23) and plasma (N = 13) were collected preexercise, postexercise, and 30 minutes postexercise. Salivary cortisol did not elevate in any RPETP trial, and reduced concentrations occurred 30 minutes postexercise (P = .029, η2 = .287); trial differences were observed (P < .001, η2 = .463). The RPETP elevated (P < .001, η2 = .593) salivary testosterone with no effect of trial (P = .789, η2 = .022). Intraindividual variability was 25% in cortisol and 17% in testosterone. "Fair" intraclass coefficients of .46 (cortisol) and .40 (testosterone) were found. Salivary and plasma cortisol positively correlated (R = .581, P = .037) yet did not for testosterone (R = .345, P = .248). The reproducibility of salivary testosterone response to the RPETP is evident and supports its use as a potential tool, subject to further confirmatory work, to detect hormonal dysfunction during overreaching. Salivary cortisol responds inconsistently in a somewhat individualized manner to the RPETP.
    • Biochemistry of buffering capacity and ingestion of buffers in exercise and athletic performance

      Saunders, Bryan; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Dolan, Eimear; Jones, Rebecca Louise; Matthews, Joseph; Sale, Craig (Routledge International Handbooks, 2021-01-22)
    • The prevalence of daily sedentary time in south Asian adults: a systematic review

      Dey, Kamalesh C.; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Jones, Rebecca Louise; Bailey, Daniel Paul (MDPI, 2021-09-01)
      This study aimed to systematically review total daily sedentary time in South Asian adults. Seven electronic databases were searched, identifying relevant articles published in peer-reviewed journals between March 1990 and March 2021. The study was designed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Prospective or cross-sectional design studies reporting total daily sedentary time in South Asian adults (aged ≥18 years), reported in English, were included. Study quality and risk of bias were assessed, and the weighted mean total daily sedentary time was calculated. Fourteen full texts were included in this systematic review from studies that were conducted in Bangladesh, India, Norway, Singapore, and the United Kingdom. Pooled sedentary time across all studies was 424 ± 8 min/day. Sedentary time was measured using self-report questionnaires in seven studies, with a weighted mean daily sedentary time of 416 ± 19 min/day. Eight studies used accelerometers and inclinometers with a weighted mean sedentary time of 527 ± 11 min/day. South Asian adults spend a large proportion of their time being sedentary, especially when recorded using objective measures (~9 h/day). These findings suggest that South Asians are an important target population for public health efforts to reduced sedentary time, and researchers and practitioners should seek to standardise and carefully consider the tools used when measuring sedentary time in this population.
    • An evolving model of best practice in a community physical activity programme: a case study of ‘Active Herts’

      Carr, Shelby; Burke, Amanda; Chater, Angel M.; Howlett, Neil; Jones, Andy (Human Kinetics, 2021-08-23)
      Background: Community-based physical activity programmes typically evolve to respond to local conditions and feedback from stakeholders. Process evaluations are essential for capturing how programmes are implemented, yet often fail to capture delivery evolution over time, meaning missed opportunities for capturing lessons learnt. Methods: This research paper reports on a staged approach to a process evaluation undertaken within a community-based UK 12-month physical activity programme that aimed to capture change and adaptation to programme implementation. Twenty-five one-to-one interviews, and twelve focus groups took place over the three years of programme delivery. Participants included programme participants, management, and service deliverers. Results: Programme adaptations that were captured through the ongoing process evaluation included changes to the design of promotional material, programme delivery content, ongoing training in behaviour change and the addition of regular participant community events. We address how these strands evolved over programme delivery, and how the process evaluation was able to capture them. Conclusion: The pragmatic evaluation approach enabled changes in response to the local context, as well as improvements in the programme to be captured in a timely manner, allowing the delivery to be responsive and the evaluation flexible.
    • Running performance and thermal sensation in the heat are improved with menthol mouth rinse but not ice slurry ingestion

      Dascombe BJ; Stevens, C.J.; Thoseby, B.; Sculley, D.V.; Callister, R.; Taylor, Lee; ; University of Newcastle, Australia; University of Bedfordshire (Blackwell Munksgaard, 2015-09-26)
      The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a cooling strategy designed to predominately lower thermal state with a strategy designed to lower thermal sensation on endurance running performance and physiology in the heat. Eleven moderately trained male runners completed familiarization and three randomized, crossover 5-km running time trials on a non-motorized treadmill in hot conditions (33 °C). The trials included ice slurry ingestion before exercise (ICE), menthol mouth rinse during exercise (MEN), and no intervention (CON). Running performance was significantly improved with MEN (25.3 ± 3.5 min; P = 0.01), but not ICE (26.3 ± 3.2 min; P = 0.45) when compared with CON (26.0 ± 3.4 min). Rectal temperature was significantly decreased with ICE (by 0.3 ± 0.2 °C; P < 0.01), which persisted for 2 km of the run and MEN significantly decreased perceived thermal sensation (between 4 and 5 km) and ventilation (between 1 and 2 km) during the time trial. End-exercise blood prolactin concentration was elevated with MEN compared with CON (by 25.1 ± 24.4 ng/mL; P = 0.02). The data demonstrate that a change in the perception of thermal sensation during exercise from menthol mouth rinse was associated with improved endurance running performance in the heat. Ice slurry ingestion reduced core temperature but did not decrease thermal sensation during exercise or improve running performance.
    • Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA transcription is characterised by large, sustained changes in core temperature during heat acclimation

      Gibson, Oliver R.; Tuttle, James A.; Watt, Peter W.; Maxwell, Neil S.; Taylor, Lee; ; Brunel University; University of Brighton; University of Bedfordshire; Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital; et al. (Springer, 2016-08-11)
      Increased intracellular heat shock protein-72 (Hsp72) and heat shock protein-90α (Hsp90α) have been implicated as important components of acquired thermotolerance, providing cytoprotection during stress. This experiment determined the physiological responses characterising increases in Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA on the first and tenth day of 90-min heat acclimation (in 40.2 °C, 41.0 % relative humidity (RH)) or equivalent normothermic training (in 20 °C, 29 % RH). Pearson’s product-moment correlation and stepwise multiple regression were performed to determine relationships between physiological [e.g. (Trec, sweat rate (SR) and heart rate (HR)] and training variables (exercise duration, exercise intensity, work done), and the leukocyte Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA responses via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) (n = 15). Significant (p < 0.05) correlations existed between increased Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA (r = 0.879). Increased core temperature was the most important criteria for gene transcription with ΔTrec (r = 0.714), SR (r = 0.709), Trecfinal45 (r = 0.682), area under the curve where Trec ≥ 38.5 °C (AUC38.5 °C; r = 0.678), peak Trec (r = 0.661), duration Trec ≥ 38.5 °C (r = 0.650) and ΔHR (r = 0.511) each demonstrating a significant (p < 0.05) correlation with the increase in Hsp72 mRNA. The Trec AUC38.5 °C (r = 0.729), ΔTrec (r = 0.691), peak Trec (r = 0.680), Trecfinal45 (r = 0.678), SR (r = 0.660), duration Trec ≥ 38.5 °C (r = 0.629), the rate of change in Trec (r = 0.600) and ΔHR (r = 0.531) were the strongest correlate with the increase in Hsp90α mRNA. Multiple regression improved the model for Hsp90α mRNA only, when Trec AUC38.5 °C and SR were combined. Training variables showed insignificant (p > 0.05) weak (r < 0.300) relationships with Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA. Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA correlates were comparable on the first and tenth day. When transcription of the related Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA is important, protocols should rapidly induce large, prolonged changes in core temperature.
    • Chronic probiotic supplementation with or without glutamine does not influence the eHsp72 response to a multi-day ultra-endurance exercise event

      Marshall, Hannah; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Suckling, Craig Anthony; Roberts, Justin D.; Foster, Josh; Taylor, Lee; ; University of Bedfordshire; Qatar University; Anglia Ruskin University; et al. (Canadian Science Publishing, 2017-05-01)
      Probiotic and glutamine supplementation increases tissue Hsp72, but their influence on extracellular Hsp72 (eHsp72) has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic probiotic supplementation, with or without glutamine, on eHsp72 concentration before and after an ultramarathon. Thirty-two participants were split into 3 independent groups, where they ingested probiotic capsules (PRO; n = 11), probiotic + glutamine powder (PGLn; n = 10), or no supplementation (CON; n = 11), over a 12-week period prior to commencement of the Marathon des Sables (MDS). eHsp72 concentration in the plasma was measured at baseline, 7 days pre-race, 6-8 h post-race, and 7 days post-race. The MDS increased eHsp72 concentrations by 124% (F[1,3] = 22.716, p < 0.001), but there was no difference in the response between groups. Additionally, PRO or PGLn supplementation did not modify pre- or post-MDS eHsp72 concentrations compared with CON (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the MDS caused a substantial increase in eHsp72 concentration, indicating high levels of systemic stress. However, chronic PRO or PGLn supplementation did not affect eHsp72 compared with control pre- or post-MDS. Given the role of eHsp72 in immune activation, the commercially available supplements used in this study are unlikely to influence this cascade.
    • Muscle-damaging exercise 48 h prior to a maximal incremental exercise treadmill test reduces time to exhaustion: is it time to reconsider our pretest procedures?

      Chrismas, Bryna C.; Taylor, Lee; Siegler, Jason C.; Midgley, Adrian W.; ; Qatar University; University of Bedfordshire; University of Western Sydney; Edge Hill University (Taylor and Francis Inc., 2016-11-15)
      Pretest guidelines typically stipulate that no exercise should be performed 48 h prior to a maximal incremental exercise (Formula presented.) test. However, no study has specifically investigated if this timescale alters key outcome variables associated with (Formula presented.). Twenty apparently healthy males split into two equal groups performed (Formula presented.) during three visits (visits 1–(Formula presented.) EXP1, 2–(Formula presented.) EXP2 and 4–(Formula presented.) EXP3). The experimental group only, performed muscle-damaging exercise during visit 3. From (Formula presented.) EXP2 to (Formula presented.) EXP3 average time to exhaustion (TTE) decreased by 45 s (9%) (p < 0.01), maximum blood lactate decreased by 1.2 mmol/L (11%) (p = 0.03), and perceived readiness decreased by 8 mm (18%) (p = 0.01). There were no changes in any (Formula presented.) variables in the control group (p ≥ 0.37). Performing (Formula presented.) 48 h following muscle-damaging exercise impairs specific, but not all, physiological outcome variables.