• Salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to high intensity cycling before and after an 11-day intensified training period

      Hough, John; Corney, Robert; Kouris, Antonios; Gleeson, Michael; Loughborough University (Routledge, 2013-05-28)
      This study examined salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to two, different high-intensity, ~30-min cycles separated by 2 h rest before and after an 11-day intensified training period. Twelve recreationally active, healthy males completed the study. Saliva samples were collected before, immediately after and 30 min after both bouts with salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations assessed. Compared with pre-training blunted exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone responses to both bouts post-training were observed (P < 0.05 for all). Comparing pre- with posttraining the absolute exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone decreased from 11.1 to 3.1 and 7.0 to 4.4 nmol · L−1 (cortisol), from 407 to 258 and from 473 to 274 pmol · L−1 (testosterone) and from 12 to 4 and 7 to 5 (cortisol/testosterone) for the first and second bouts, respectively (P < 0.05). No differences in the pre- and post-training rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) responses during the cycles or times to fatigue were found (P > 0.05). Fatigue and Burnout scores were higher post- compared with pre-training (P < 0.05). These high-intensity exercise bouts can detect altered hormonal responses following intensified training. This test could assess an athlete’s current hormonal status, reductions in salivary cortisol and testosterone responses suggestive of increased fatigue.
    • Scaffolding student–coaches’ instructional leadership toward student-centred peer interactions: a yearlong action-research intervention in sport education

      Farias, Cláudio; Hastie, Peter A.; Mesquita, Isabel; University of Bedfordshire; University of Auburn; University of Porto (SAGE, 2017-01-13)
      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide a year-long examination of the scaffolding processes used by a teacher in order to support student coaches in their instructional leadership responsibilities during seasons of Sport Education. The intervention sought to enable coaches to conduct problem-solving activities and instructional interactions that would actively involve teammates in the discovery of knowledge and construction of their own learning experiences. Method: Twenty-six seventh grade students participated in four consecutive seasons of Sport Education (Basketball, Handball, Soccer, and Volleyball). The research involved four action-research iterative cycles of planning, acting, monitoring, and fact-finding. Data collection included semi-structured interviews with teams as well as exclusively with the coaches, lesson observations, and a field diary kept by the first author who assumed the role of practitioner-researcher. Results: The findings showed it was necessary to explicitly teach the coaches specific instructional strategies for constructivist peer interactions to emerge. However as coaches became increasingly self-assisted, they were able to promote activities more relevant to the learning needs of teammates. Further, the involvement of the students in taking responsibility for peer-teaching emerged late in the school year. The scaffolding process was found to be a non-linear process contingently adjusted in reference to aspects such as coaches’ mastery of processes, the complexity of the domain-specific content, and nature of the sport. Conclusions: This study gives credence to the advocacy that specific training is necessary if students are to develop the ability to engage teammates actively in learning interactions. 
    • Seven steps to help patients overcome a ‘Fear of Finding Out - FOFO’

      Chater, Angel M.; University of Bedfordshire (RCN Publishing (RCNi), 2018-04-01)
      Health psychologist Angel Chater explains the techniques that can help nurses to connect with patients who seem ambivalent about accessing healthcare, even when they may have potentially serious conditions
    • Sitting time and risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Hewson, David; Champion, Rachael B.; Sayegh, Suzan M.; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2019-08-01)
      Context: Whether physical activity attenuates the association of total daily sitting time with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes incidence is unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the association of total daily sitting time with CVD and diabetes with and without adjustment for physical activity. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed, Web of Science, BASE, MEDLINE, Academic Search Elite and ScienceDirect were searched for prospective studies published between 1st January 1989 and 15th February 2019 examining the association of total daily sitting time with CVD or diabetes outcomes. Data extraction and  study quality assessments were conducted by two independent reviewers. Pooled Hazard Ratios (HRs) were calculated using a fixed-effects model. The quality assessment and meta-analytic procedures were completed in 2018. Evidence Synthesis: Nine studies with 448,285 40 participants were included. Higher total daily sitting time was associated with a significantly increased risk of CVD (HR 1.29; 95%CI 1.27-1.30, p=<0.001) and diabetes (HR 1.13; 95%CI 1.04-1.22, p=<0.001) incidence when physical activity was not adjusted for. The increased risk for diabetes was unaffected when adjusting for physical activity (HR 1.11;  95%CI 1.01-1.19, p=<0.001). For CVD, the increased risk was attenuated but remained significant (HR 1.14; 95%CI 1.04-1.23, p=<0.001). Conclusions: Higher levels of total daily sitting time are associated with an increased risk of CVD and diabetes, independent of physical activity. Reductions in total daily sitting may thus be recommended in public health guidelines.
    • “Small steps, or giant leaps?” Comparing game demands of U23, U18, and U16 English academy soccer and their associations with speed and endurance

      Smalley, Ben; Bishop, Chris; Maloney, Sean J.; Middlesex University; Queens Park Rangers Football Club (SAGE Publications Inc., 2021-05-26)
      The current study aimed to compare locomotive outputs across English U16, U18 and U23 academy soccer and investigate possible relationships with neuromuscular and aerobic capacities. Participants included 46 outfield players from an English Category Two soccer academy. Global positioning system (18 Hz) data were utilised to analyse locomotive outputs across twenty eleven-a-side matches in each age group. Maximal sprinting speed (MSS) and aerobic speed (MAS) were assessed at the beginning of the season. Absolute total distance (TD), high-speed running (HSR), acceleration and deceleration workloads were higher in U18’s and U23’s vs. U16’s (g = 1.09–2.58; p &lt; 0.05), and absolute sprinting distances were higher in U23’s vs. U16’s (g = 0.96; p &lt; 0.05). In addition, relative HSR outputs were higher in U23’s vs. U18’s (g = 1.84–2.07; p &lt; 0.05). Across the whole cohort, players’ MSS was positively associated with absolute HSR and sprinting distances (ρ = 0.53–0.79; p &lt; 0.05) but not with relative parameters. MAS was positively associated with total distance, decelerations, and both absolute and relative HSR outputs (ρ = 0.33–0.56; p &lt; 0.05). Overall, absolute locomotive outputs were significantly higher in U23’s and U18’s vs. U16’s. Locomotive outputs were also associated with maximal sprinting and aerobic speeds. Thus, training programmes should be tailored to competition demands to optimally prepare each age group for competition and reflect the increasing demands of each level of competition. Further, improving physical fitness (speed and endurance) is likely to drive greater outputs in competition.
    • Sodium bicarbonate ingestion improves cycling performance, irrespective of single or split dose ingestion

      Jones, Rebecca Louise; Stellingwerff, Trent; Swinton, P.; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Sale, Craig (2016-12-21)
    • Sport and the media

      Wu, Ping (Sage, 2016-01-01)
    • Sports injuries: basic classifications, aetiology and pathophysiology

      Ward, Keith; Mitchell, Andrew C.S. (Routledge, 2018-09-21)
    • Sprint-based exercise and cognitive function in adolescents.

      Cooper, Simon B.; Bandelow, Stephan; Nute, Maria L.; Dring, Karah J.; Stannard, Rebecca L.; Morris, John G.; Nevill, Mary E.; University of Bedfordshire; Loughborough University (Elsevier, 2016-06-07)
      Moderate intensity exercise has been shown to enhance cognition in an adolescent population, yet the effect of high-intensity sprint-based exercise remains unknown and was therefore examined in the present study. Following ethical approval and familiarisation, 44 adolescents (12.6 ± 0.6 y) completed an exercise (E) and resting (R) trial in a counter-balanced, randomised crossover design. The exercise trial comprised of 10 × 10 s running sprints, interspersed by 50 s active recovery (walking). A battery of cognitive function tests (Stroop, Digit Symbol Substitution (DSST) and Corsi blocks tests) were completed 30 min pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise and 45 min post-exercise. Data were analysed using mixed effect models with repeated measures. Response times on the simple level of the Stroop test were significantly quicker 45 min following sprint-based exercise (R: 818 ± 33 ms, E: 772 ± 26 ms; p = 0.027) and response times on the complex level of the Stroop test were quicker immediately following the sprint-based exercise (R: 1095 ± 36 ms, E: 1043 ± 37 ms; p = 0.038), while accuracy was maintained. Sprint-based exercise had no immediate or delayed effects on the number of items recalled on the Corsi blocks test (p = 0.289) or substitutions made during the DSST (p = 0.689). The effect of high intensity sprint-based exercise on adolescents' cognitive function was dependant on the component of cognitive function examined. Executive function was enhanced following exercise, demonstrated by improved response times on the Stroop test, whilst visuo-spatial memory and general psycho-motor speed were unaffected. These data support the inclusion of high-intensity sprint-based exercise for adolescents during the school day to enhance cognition.
    • Supporting young people who have been parentally bereaved: can physical activity help and what services are available?

      Williams, Jane; Shorter, Gillian; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Howlett, Neil; Chater, Angel M.; University of Bedfordshire; University of Hertfordshire; Ulster University (2019-07-17)
      Background: Annually, 41,000 UK children and young people are parentally bereaved. Grief is an individual process and must be supported properly. Many mental health aspects that cross over with grief outcomes (i.e. anxiety and depression) can be improved through physical activity. Yet there is limited research investigating whether physical activity can support bereaved individuals with their grief and what services are currently available. Methods: A systematic review of the literature (10 databases) and service provision (five search engines) was performed. Empirical studies (qualitative and quantitative) had used physical activity (of any type) to help individuals (of any age) who had experienced a bereavement (of any human, other than national loss). Organisations which provide bereavement support to young people were contacted (via questionnaire and telephone) to record details about their service and if they offer physical activity support. Results: From 564 studies screened, 20 met the inclusion criteria, with five reporting using physical activity to support parental bereavement. Running and martial arts were noted as types of beneficial activity. Of the 373 organisations identified, 26 provided physical activity (i.e. residential retreats, football) support for bereaved young people. Conclusion: From this review, there is evidence that physical activity can support young people who have been parentally bereaved. However, this evidence is limited, with just a small number of organisations offering physical activity. There is a clear need for more work in this area, to understand and increase the use of physical activity to support young people following the death of their parent.
    • Tackling in physical education rugby: an unnecessary risk?

      White, Adam John; Batten, John; Robinson, Stefan; Anderson, Eric; Burns, Andrew; Batey, Jo; Ryan-Stewart, Helen; Discombe, Russell (BMJ, 2018-01-14)
      Since 2016, we have been strong advocates for the removal of tackling from rugby (League and Union) played in school physical education in the United Kingdom [1]. This is because (a) tackling is the leading cause of injury in rugby, (b) rugby has a level of risk that is higher than non-contact sports, (c) there is no requirement or need for tackling as part of the school physical education curriculum, and (d) many children are compelled to participate in contact rugby [2]. In response to this call, the Chief Medical Officers and the Physical Activity Expert Group commented: ‘The Committee reject the call to ban tackling, as they do not feel rugby participation poses an unacceptable risk of harm’ [3]. Yet, the notion of risk (un) acceptability is a construct that needs further discussion, which we will start here [4].
    • Template for Rapid Iterative Consensus of Experts (TRICE)

      Chater, Angel M.; Shorter, Gillian; Swanson, Vivien; Kamal, Atiya; Epton, Tracy; Arden, Madelynne A.; Hart, Jo; Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Drury, John; Whittaker, Ellie; et al. (MDPI, 2021-09-29)
      Background: Public health emergencies require rapid responses from experts. Differing viewpoints are common in science, however, “mixed messaging” of varied perspectives can undermine credibility of experts; reduce trust in guidance; and act as a barrier to changing public health behaviours. Collation of a unified voice for effective knowledge creation and translation can be challenging. This work aimed to create a method for rapid psychologically-informed expert guidance during the COVID-19 response. Method: TRICE (Template for Rapid Iterative Consensus of Experts) brings structure, peer-review and consensus to the rapid generation of expert advice. It was developed and trialled with 15 core members of the British Psychological Society COVID-19 Behavioural Science and Disease Prevention Taskforce. Results: Using TRICE; we have produced 18 peer-reviewed COVID-19 guidance documents; based on rapid systematic reviews; co-created by experts in behavioural science and public health; taking 4–156 days to produce; with approximately 18 experts and a median of 7 drafts per output. We provide worked-examples and key considerations; including a shared ethos and theoretical/methodological framework; in this case; the Behaviour Change Wheel and COM-B. Conclusion: TRICE extends existing consensus methodologies and has supported public health collaboration; co-creation of guidance and translation of behavioural science to practice through explicit processes in generating expert advice for public health emergencies.
    • Train the engine or the brakes? influence of momentum on the change of direction deficit

      Fernandes, Rebecca; Bishop, Chris; Turner, Anthony; Chavda, Shyam; Maloney, Sean J.; Middlesex University (Human Kinetics, 2020-10-28)
      PURPOSE: Currently, it is unclear which physical characteristics may underpin the change of direction deficit (COD-D). This investigation sought to determine if momentum, speed-, and jump-based measures may explain variance in COD-D. METHODS: Seventeen males from a professional soccer academy (age, 16.76 [0.75] y; height, 1.80 [0.06] m; body mass, 72.38 [9.57] kg) performed 505 tests on both legs, a 40-m sprint, and single-leg countermovement and drop jumps. RESULTS: The regression analyses did not reveal any significant predictors for COD-D on either leg. "Large" relationships were reported between the COD-D and 505 time on both limbs (r = .65 to .69; P &lt; .01), but COD-D was not associated with linear momentum, speed-, or jump-based performances. When the cohort was median split by COD-D, the effect sizes suggested that the subgroup with the smaller COD-D was 5% faster in the 505 test (d = -1.24; P &lt; .001) but 4% slower over 0-10 m (d = 0.79; P = .33) and carried 11% less momentum (d = -0.81; P = .17). CONCLUSION: Individual variance in COD-D may not be explained by speed- and jump-based performance measures within academy soccer players. However, when grouping athletes by COD-D, faster athletes with greater momentum are likely to display a larger COD-D. It may, therefore, be prudent to recommend more eccentric-biased or technically focused COD training in such athletes and for coaches to view the COD action as a specific skill that may not be represented by performance time in a COD test.
    • Tweet me, message me, like me: using social media to facilitate pedagogical change within an emerging community of practice

      Goodyear, Victoria A.; Casey, Ashley; Kirk, David; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2014-04-22)
      While e-support has been positioned as a means, to overcome some of the time and financial constraints to professional learning, it has largely failed to act as a medium for professional learning in physical education. Consequently, this paper positions teachers prior interest with social media acts as a type of ‘leverage’ for using sites such as Facebook and Twitter for professional learning purposes. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore how social media operates as a communicative space, external to the physical site of an emerging community of practice (CoP) that supported teachers' professional learning and their subsequent longer term changing practice. This study is nested within a wider longitudinal project that explores how teachers learnt and refined their use of a pedagogical innovation (Cooperative Learning) through the overarching methodology, participatory action research. Social media emerged as a form of communication that was not in the study's original design. The paper explores 2125 interactions, through Facebook and Twitter, between five physical education teachers and a facilitator over a two-year period. Through social media, the facilitator re-enforced teachers changing practice, aided the development of the practices of an emerging CoP, and by the CoP situating their use of the innovation in the virtual world, teachers were supported in changing their practice over time, and the use of the pedagogical innovation was sustained. Interactions promoted teacher inquiry, challenged teachers to develop their existing use of the innovation further and encouraged them to work together and develop shared practices. Therefore, social media is presented here as a ‘new’ method for professional learning that supports pedagogical change and overcomes some of the financial and time implications of facilitators and teachers working together.
    • Unilateral stiffness interventions augment vertical stiffness and change of direction speed

      Maloney, Sean J.; Richards, Joanna C.; Jelly, Luke; Fletcher, Iain M. (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2017-07-13)
      It has previously been shown that pre-conditioning interventions can augment change of direction speed (CODS). However, the mechanistic nature of these augmentations has not been well considered. The current study sought to determine the effects of pre-conditioning interventions designed to augment vertical stiffness on CODS. Following familiarization, ten healthy males (age: 22 ± 2 years; height: 1.78 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 75.1 ± 8.7 kg) performed three different stiffness interventions in a randomized and counterbalanced order. The interventions were: a) bilateral-focused, b) unilateral-focused, and c) a control of CODS test practice. Vertical stiffness and joint stiffness was determined pre- and post-intervention using a single leg drop jump task. CODS test performance was assessed post-intervention using a double 90o cutting task. Performances following the unilateral intervention were significantly faster than control (1.7%; P = 0.011; d = -1.08), but not significantly faster than the bilateral intervention (1.0% faster; P = 0.14; d = -0.59). Versus control, vertical stiffness was 14% greater (P = 0.049; d = 0.39) following the unilateral intervention and 11% greater (P = 0.019; d = 0.31) following the bilateral intervention; there was no difference between unilateral and bilateral interventions (P = 0.94; d = -0.08). The findings of the current study suggest that unilateral pre-conditioning interventions designed to augment vertical stiffness improve CODS within this experimental cohort.
    • Using participatory and visual methods to address power and identity in research with young people

      Hill, Joanne (Amsterdam University Press, 2013-05-01)
      Research with young people and children has developed over a number of years an argument for researching with, rather than on, younger participants (Thomson, 2008; Valentine, 1999). In qualitative research, the ways in which we carry out empirical research, the relationships that are developed between researchers and participants, the knowledge that is produced and the epistemological and theoretical foundations can be affected by how as powerful researchers we aim to observe and analyse. Where age, gender and ethnicity intersect in creating something of a “difference” between researcher and participants, these issues can need greater consideration. This paper presents some methodological background to the choices made concerning data production during a project in which a white, female, late-20s researcher with a feminist theoretical background investigated physical activity engagement by a diverse cohort of 13-14 year old students in an inner city secondary school in the Midlands, UK. By combining visual ethnography, interviews and collaborative photography, the project aimed to address concerns about student voice in research with young people on their school and sport experiences (O’Sullivan & MacPhaill, 2010). The paper considers some possibilities and challenges of using this methodology within school-based studies. Reflections from this project are offered on the ways in which participants retained power over content and meaning of their photographic contributions, and researcher relationships in the field. Visual methods are argued to offer an additional tool in tackling traditional power relations and encouraging participant investment.
    • Vertical stiffness asymmetries during drop jumping are related to ankle stiffness asymmetries

      Maloney, Sean J.; Richards, Joanna C.; Nixon, Daniel G.D.; Harvey, Lewis J.; Fletcher, Iain M. (Wiley, 2016-03-31)
      Asymmetry in vertical stiffness has been associated with increased injury incidence and impaired performance. The determinants of vertical stiffness asymmetry have not been previously investigated. Eighteen healthy males performed three unilateral drop jumps during which vertical stiffness and joint stiffness of the ankle and knee were calculated. Reactive strength index was also determined during the jumps using the ratio of flight time to ground contact time. ‘Moderate’ differences in vertical stiffness (t17 = 5.49; P < 0.001), ‘small’ differences in centre of mass displacement (t17 = -2.19; P = 0.043) and ‘trivial’ differences in ankle stiffness (t17 = 2.68; P = 0.016) were observed between stiff and compliant limbs. A model including ankle stiffness and reactive strength index symmetry angles explained 79% of the variance in vertical stiffness asymmetry (R2 = 0.79; P < 0.001). None of the symmetry angles were correlated to jump height or reactive strength index. Results suggest that asymmetries in ankle stiffness may play an important role in modulating vertical stiffness asymmetry in recreationally trained males.
    • Warm-up intensity does not affect the ergogenic effect of sodium bicarbonate in adult men

      Jones, Rebecca Louise; Stellingwerff, Trent; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Saunders, Bryan; Sale, Craig; Swinton, Paul; ; University of Bedfordshire; Canadian Sport Institute–Pacific; University of Victoria; et al. (Human Kinetics, 2021-09-03)
      This study determined the influence of a high (HI) vs. low-intensity (LI) cycling warm-up on blood acid-base responses and exercise capacity following ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB; 0.3 g·kg-1 body-mass (BM)) or a placebo (PLA; maltodextrin) 3-hours prior to warm-up. Twelve men (21±2 years, 79.2±3.6 kg BM, maximum power output (Wmax) 318±36 W) completed a familiarisation and four double-blind trials completed in a counterbalanced order: HI warm-up with SB (HISB); HI warm-up with PLA (HIPLA); LI warm-up with SB (LISB); and LI warm-up with PLA (LIPLA). LI warm-up was 15-minutes at 60%Wmax, while the HI warm-up (typical of elites) featured LI followed by 2 x 30-sec (3-minute break) at Wmax, finishing 30-minute prior to a cycling capacity test at 110%Wmax (CCT110%). Blood bicarbonate and lactate were measured throughout. SB supplementation increased blood bicarbonate (+6.4 [95%CI: 5.7 to 7.1 mmol·L-1]) prior to greater reductions with high intensity warm-up (-3.8 [95%CI: -5.8 to -1.8 mmol·L-1]). However, during the 30-minute recovery, blood bicarbonate rebounded and increased in all conditions, with concentrations ~5.3mmol·L-1 greater with SB supplementation (P&lt;0.001). Blood bicarbonate significantly declined during the CCT110% with greater reductions following SB supplementation (-2.4 [95%CI: -3.8 to -0.90 mmol·L-1]). Aligned with these results, SB supplementation increased total work done during the CCT110% (+8.5 [95%CI: 3.6 to 13.4 kJ], ~19% increase) with no significant main effect of warm-up intensity (+0.0 [95%CI: -5.0 to 5.0 kJ). Collectively, the results demonstrate that SB supplementation can improve HI cycling capacity irrespective of prior warm-up intensity, likely due to blood alkalosis.
    • Warm-up intensity does not influence the beneficial effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on cycling performance

      Jones, Rebecca Louise; Stellingwerff, Trent; Swinton, P.; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Sale, Craig (2016-12-21)
    • What are the most effective behaviour change techniques to promote physical activity and/or reduce sedentary behaviour in inactive adults? : a systematic review protocol

      Howlett, Neil; Trivedi, Daksha; Troop, Nicholas A.; Chater, Angel M.; University of Hertfordshire; University College London (BMJ, 2015-08-05)
      Introduction: A large proportion of the population are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity and have increasingly sedentary lifestyles. Low levels of physical activity are predictive of poor health outcomes and time spent sedentary is related to a host of risk factors independently of physical activity levels. Building an evidence base of the best approaches to intervene in the lifestyles of inactive individuals is crucial in preventing longterm disease, disability, and higher mortality rates. Methods and Analysis: Systematic searches will be conducted on all relevant databases (e.g. PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, PsycINFO). Studies will be included if they assess interventions aimed at changing physical activity or sedentary behaviour levels in adults (over 18) who are inactive and do not suffer from chronic conditions. Studies must also be randomised controlled trials (RCT), have a primary outcome of physical activity or sedentary behaviour, and measure outcomes at least six months after intervention completion. Studies will be coded using the Behaviour Change Technique (BCT) taxonomy v1 and TIDieR guidelines. Two reviewers will independently screen full-text articles and extract data on study characteristics, participants, BCTs, intervention features, and outcome measures. Study quality will also be assessed independently by two reviewers using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. A meta-analysis will be considered if there is sufficient homogeneity across outcomes. GRADE criteria will be used to assess quality of evidence. Dissemination: This will be the first review to systematically appraise interventions aimed at changing the physical activity or sedentary behaviour of inactive individuals using RCT designs with a six-month follow-up post intervention. This review will better inform intervention designers targeting inactive populations and inform the design of a future complex intervention. Review registration: This protocol was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) on 17th October 2014 (registration number: CRD42014014321).