• Questioning policy, youth participation and lifestyle sports

      King, Katherine; Church, Andrew (Routledge, 2014-05-05)
      Young people have been identified as a key target group for whom participation in sport and physical activity could have important benefits to health and well-being and consequently have been the focus of several government policies to increase participation in the UK. Lifestyle sports represent one such strategy for encouraging and sustaining new engagements in sport and physical activity in youth groups, however, there is at present a lack of understanding of the use of these activities within policy contexts. This paper presents findings from a government initiative which sought to increase participation in sport for young people through provision of facilities for mountain biking in a forest in south-east England. Findings from qualitative research with 40 young people who participated in mountain biking at the case study location highlight the importance of non-traditional sports as a means to experience the natural environments through forms of consumption which are healthy, active and appeal to their identities. In addition, however, the paper raises questions over the accessibility of schemes for some individuals and social groups, and the ability to incorporate sports which are inherently participant-led into state-managed schemes. Lifestyle sports such as mountain biking involve distinct forms of participation which present a challenge for policy-makers who seek to create and maintain sustainable communities of youth participants.
    • Randomised controlled feasibility study of the MyHealthAvatar-Diabetes smartphone app for reducing prolonged sitting time in Type 2 diabetes mellitus

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Mugridge, Lucie; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Xu; Chater, Angel M.; Brunel University; University of Bedfordshire; University of Strathclyde (MDPI, 2020-06-19)
      This study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a self-regulation smartphone app for reducing prolonged sitting in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This was a two-arm, randomised, controlled feasibility trial. The intervention group used the MyHealthAvatar-Diabetes smartphone app for 8 weeks. The app uses a number of behaviour change techniques aimed at reducing and breaking up sitting time. Eligibility, recruitment, retention, and completion rates for the outcomes (sitting, standing, stepping, and health-related measures) assessed trial feasibility. Interviews with participants explored intervention acceptability. Participants with T2DM were randomised to the control (n = 10) and intervention groups (n = 10). Recruitment and retention rates were 71% and 90%, respectively. The remaining participants provided 100% of data for the study measures. The MyHealthAvatar-Diabetes app was viewed as acceptable for reducing and breaking up sitting time. There were preliminary improvements in the number of breaks in sitting per day, body fat %, glucose tolerance, attitude, intention, planning, wellbeing, and positive and negative affect in favour of the intervention group. In conclusion, the findings indicate that it would be feasible to deliver and evaluate the efficacy of the MyHealthAvatar-Diabetes app for breaking up sitting time and improving health outcomes in a full trial.
    • A rapid systematic review of public responses to health messages encouraging vaccination against infectious diseases in a pandemic or epidemic

      Lawes-Wickwar, Sadie; Ghio, Daniela; Tang, Mei Yee; Keyworth, Chris; Stanescu, Sabina; Westbrook, Juliette; Jenkinson, Elizabeth; Kassianos, Angelos P.; Scanlan, Daniel; Garnett, Natalie; et al. (MDPI, 2021-01-20)
      Public health teams need to understand how the public responds to vaccination messages in a pandemic or epidemic to inform successful campaigns encouraging the uptake of new vaccines as they become available. A rapid systematic review was performed by searching PsycINFO, MEDLINE, healthevidence.org, OSF Preprints and PsyArXiv Preprints in May 2020 for studies including at least one health message promoting vaccine uptake of airborne-, droplet- and fomite-spread viruses. Included studies were assessed for quality using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) or the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), and for patient and public involvement (PPI) in the research. Thirty-five articles were included. Most reported messages for seasonal influenza (n = 11; 31%) or H1N1 (n = 11; 31%). Evidence from moderate to high quality studies for improving vaccine uptake included providing information about virus risks and vaccination safety, as well as addressing vaccine misunderstandings, offering vaccination reminders, including vaccination clinic details, and delivering mixed media campaigns across hospitals or communities. Behavioural influences (beliefs and intentions) were improved when: shorter, risk-reducing or relative risk framing messages were used; the benefits of vaccination to society were emphasised; and beliefs about capability and concerns among target populations (e.g., vaccine safety) were addressed. Clear, credible, messages in a language target groups can understand were associated with higher acceptability. Two studies (6%) described PPI in the research process. Future campaigns should consider the beliefs and information needs of target populations in their design, including ensuring that vaccine eligibility and availability is clear, and messages are accessible. More high quality research is needed to demonstrate the effects of messaging interventions on actual vaccine uptake.
    • Reducing prolonged sedentary time using a treadmill desk acutely improves cardiometabolic risk markers in male and female adults

      Champion, Rachael B.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Smith, Jennifer; Hirlav, Bogdana; Maylor, Benjamin D.; White, Stephanie L.; Bailey, Daniel Paul (Taylor & Francis, 2018-04-18)
      The objectives of this study were to evaluate the acute effects of interrupting prolonged sitting with an accumulated 2 h of light-intensity walking on postprandial cardiometabolic risk markers. In this randomised crossover trial, 24 participants (twelve males) aged 18-55 years took part in two, 6.5 h conditions: 1) prolonged sitting (SIT) and 2) sitting interrupted hourly with 20 min light-intensity treadmill desk walking at between 1.2-3.5 km/h-1 (INT-SIT). Standardized meals were provided at 0 h and 3 h. Blood samples and blood pressure measures were taken hourly. Statistical analyses were completed using linear mixed models. Postprandial incremental area under the curve responses (mmol/L∙6.5 h) for glucose (4.52 [3.47, 5.56] and 6.66 [5.62, 7.71] for INT-SIT and SIT, respectively) and triglycerides (1.96 [0.96, 2.96] and 2.71 [1.70, 3.71] mmol/L∙6.5 h, for INT-SIT and SIT, respectively) were significantly lower in INT-SIT than SIT. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses were lower by 3% and 4%, respectively, in INT-SIT than SIT (P<0.05). There was no significant condition x sex interaction effect for any outcomes (P>0.05). These findings suggest that interrupting sitting with an accumulated 2 h of light-intensity walking acutely improves cardiometabolic risk levels in males and females compared with prolonged sitting.
    • Reflecting on the Stage 2 Health Psychology independent training route: a survey of trainee and graduate experiences of employability

      Bull, Eleanor; Newman, Kristina; Cassidy, Tony; Anderson, Niall; Chater, Angel M. (British Psychological Society, 2021-02-02)
      ‘This is a pre-publication version of the following article: [Bull E, Newman K, Cassidy T, Anderson N, Chater A (2020) 'Reflecting on the Stage 2 Health Psychology independent training route: a survey of trainee and graduate experiences of employability', Health Psychology Update, (in press).]’ A couple of the most common questions we may encounter from psychology students thinking about their career choices are: “What roles are there in health psychology?” and “How do I become a health psychologist?” Our discipline has made many advances into diverse spheres of employment, which then often leads to a response: “How long have you got?!” Health psychologists offer their knowledge and skills in psychological intervention, research, training and consultancy to improve health and wellbeing in a wealth of different settings, working at all levels from one-to-one with patients/clients/healthcare professionals, to groups, whole communities and populations. An increasingly wide range of stakeholders are recognising that they may benefit from collaborating with and employing a Health Psychologist, with Health Psychologists working in health and social care, education, culture, justice, and military, as well as working within global health partnerships through volunteering collaboratives (e.g. Byrne-Davis et al. 2017). The development of the Health Psychology and Public Health Network (HPPHN: Chater, 2014; McManus, 2014; Chater & McManus, 2016; renamed the Behavioural Science and Public Health Network, BSPHN in 2018) is also importantly strengthening our links with public health colleagues and creating new opportunities. Recent initiatives have also had success in raising the profile of Health Psychologists working in diverse areas, nationally and internationally. Some of these include Health Psychology Update’s new ‘Teaching, training and consultancy’ section (Cross, 2020), accounts of trainees’ experiences (e.g. Smith, 2018), the British Psychological Society (BPS) Division of Health Psychology’s (DHP) social media hashtag #DayInLifeOfHealthPsychology, the Oral History of UK Health Psychology project (Quinn, Morrison & Chater, 2020) and the BPS DHP Scotland’s case studies of Health Psychologists. Reflecting this diversity, in the UK there are currently several different options for training in health psychology.
    • The relationship between asymmetry and athletic performance: a critical review

      Maloney, Sean J.; University of Bedfordshire (NLM (Medline), 2019-09-01)
      Maloney, SJ. The relationship between asymmetry and athletic performance: A critical review. J Strength Cond Res 33(9): 2579-2593, 2019-Symmetry may be defined as the quality to demonstrate an exact correspondence of size, shape, and form when split along a given axis. Although it has been widely asserted that the bilateral asymmetries are detrimental to athletic performance, research does not wholly support such an association. Moreover, the research rarely seeks to distinguish between different types of bilateral asymmetry. Fluctuating asymmetries describe bilateral differences in anthropometric attributes, such as nostril width and ear size, and are thought to represent the developmental stability of an organism. There is evidence to suggest that fluctuating asymmetries may be related to impaired athletic performance, although contradictory findings have been reported. Sporting asymmetries is a term that may better describe bilateral differences in parameters, such as force output or jump height. These asymmetries are likely to be a function of limb dominance and magnified by long-standing participation within sport. Sporting asymmetries do not seem to carry a clear influence on athletic performance measures. Given the vast discrepancy in the methodologies used by different investigations, further research is warranted. Recent investigations have demonstrated that training interventions can reduce sporting asymmetries and improve performance. However, studies have not sought to determine whether the influence of sporting asymmetry is independent of improvements in neuromuscular parameters. It may be hypothesized that the deficient (weaker) limb has a greater potential for adaptation in comparison to the strong limb and may demonstrate greater responsiveness to training.
    • The relationship between vertical stiffness during bilateral and unilateral hopping tests performed with different strategies and vertical jump performances

      Mohammadian, Mohammadamin; Sadeghi, Heydar; Khaleghi Tazji, Mehdi; Maloney, Sean J.; Kharazmi University; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2021-03-20)
      Vertical stiffness has been highlighted as a potential determinant of performance and may be estimated across a range of different performance tasks. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between vertical stiffness determined during 9 different hopping tests and performance of vertical jumps. Twenty healthy, active males performed vertical hopping tests with three different strategies (self-selected, maximal, and controlled) and three different limb configurations (bilateral, unilateral preferred, and unilateral non-preferred), resulting in nine different variations, during which vertical stiffness was determined. In addition, participants performed squat jump (SQJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) during which jump height, CMJ stiffness, and eccentric utilization ratio (EUR) were determined. Vertical stiffness in bilateral and unilateral preferred tasks performed with a self-selected and maximal, but not controlled, strategy was associated with stiffness in the CMJ (r = 0.61-0.64; p &lt; 0.05). However, stiffness obtained during unilateral preferred and non-preferred hopping with self-selected strategy was negatively associated with performance in SQJ and CMJ tasks (r = -0.50 to -0.57; p &lt; 0.05). These findings suggest that high levels of vertical stiffness may be disadvantageous to static vertical jumping performance. In addition, unilateral hopping with a self-selected strategy may be the most appropriate task variation if seeking to determine relationships with vertical jumping performance. HighlightsStiffness obtained during unilateral hopping with a preferred strategy was negatively associated with vertical jumping performancesStiffness obtained during hopping with preferred and maximal strategies was associated with stiffness obtained during a countermovement jumpIn this population, hopping stiffness may therefore be reflective of an individual's countermovement jump strategyHigh levels of stiffness may be disadvantageous to static-start vertical jumping.
    • Relationships between Challenge Tour golfers’ clubhead velocity and force producing capabilities during a countermovement jump and isometric mid-thigh pull

      Wells, Jack E.T.; Charalambous, Laura H.; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Coughlan, Daniel; Brearley, Simon L.; Hawkes, Roger A.; Murray, Andrew D.; Hillman, Robert G.; Fletcher, Iain M.; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2018-12-21)
      A number of field-based investigations have evidenced significant relationships between clubhead velocity (CHV), vertical jump performance and maximum strength. Unfortunately, whilst these investigations provide a great deal of external validity, they are unable to ascertain vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) variables that may relate to golfers’ CHV. The aim of this investigation was to examine the relationship between Challenge Tour golfers’ CHV and countermovement jump (CMJ) positive impulse, isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) peak force (PF) and rate of force development (RFD) from 0-50 ms, 0-100 ms, 0-150 ms and 0-200 ms. Thirty-One elite level (Challenge Tour) golfers performed a CMJ and IMTP on dual force platforms at a tournament venue, with CHV measured on a driving range. Pearson’s correlation coefficients revealed a significant relationship between CHV and both CMJ positive impulse (r = 0.616, p < 0.0001) and IMTP PF (r = 0.319, p < 0.05), with each of the RFD time integrals being non-significant. The results of this investigation indicate that it is the magnitude and not the rate in which force is developed that has the greatest relationship with Challenge Tour golfers’ CHV.
    • Relationships between highly skilled golfers' clubhead velocity and force producing capabilities during vertical jumps and an isometric mid-thigh pull

      Wells, Jack E.T.; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Charalambous, Laura H.; Fletcher, Iain M.; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2018-01-04)
      Whilst previous research has highlighted significant relationships between golfers' clubhead velocity (CHV) and their vertical jump height and maximum strength, these field-based protocols were unable to measure the actual vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) variables that may correlate to performance. The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ) and drop jump (DJ) vGRF variables and CHV in highly skilled golfers. Twenty-seven male category 1 golfers performed IMTP, CMJ, SJ and DJ on a dual force platform. The vertical jumps were used to measure positive impulse during different stretch-shortening cycle velocities, with the IMTP assessing peak force (PF) and rate of force development (RFD). Clubhead velocity was measured using a TrackMan launch monitor at a golf driving range. Pearsons correlation coefficient analyses revealed significant relationships between peak CHV and CMJ positive impulse (r = 0.788, p < 0.001), SJ positive impulse (r = 0.692; p < 0.001), DJ positive impulse (r = 0.561, p < 0.01), PF (r = 0.482, p < 0.01), RFD from 0-150 ms (r = 0.343, p < 0.05) and RFD from 0-200 ms (r = 0.398, p < 0.05). The findings from this investigation indicate strong relationships between vertical ground reaction force variables and clubhead velocity.
    • Relationships between highly skilled golfers’ clubhead velocity and vertical ground reaction force asymmetry during vertical jumps and an isometric mid-thigh pull

      Wells, Jack E.T.; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Charalambous, Laura H.; Fletcher, Iain M.; University of Bedfordshire (Wolters Kluwer, 2020-10)
      Clubhead velocity (CHV) is a commonly measured variable within golf due to strong associations with increased drive distance. Previous research has revealed significant relationships between CHV and vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) variables during bilateral tasks including a countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), drop jump (DJ) and isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). Asymmetries have been linked to performance outcomes in a number of sports, however few studies have assessed asymmetries within golf. The current study, therefore, examined the relationships between CHV and vGRF asymmetries for CMJ positive impulse, SJ positive impulse, DJ positive impulse and IMTP peak force (PF). Furthermore, the level of agreement for asymmetries between protocols were assessed via Kappa coefficients. Fifty highly skilled (handicap ≤5) male golfers attended laboratory and range-based testing sessions. Positive impulse and PF were measured using a dual force platform system, with CHV measured using a TrackMan 3e launch monitor. There was no significant relationship (r = -0.14 to 0.22) between CHV and each of the vGRF asymmetry measures. Of the golfers tested, 26 had a ‘real’ asymmetry in the CMJ, 18 had a ‘real’ asymmetry in the SJ, 25 had a ‘real’ asymmetry in the DJ and 27 had a ‘real’ asymmetry in the IMTP.  Kappa coefficients indicated that asymmetries rarely favoured the same limb (k = 0.06 to 0.39) with asymmetries varying for individual golfers between protocols. As such, asymmetries are nether beneficial or detrimental to CHV, but are inherently individual and dependent on the task.
    • The reliability and validity of a soccer-specific non-motorised treadmill simulation (intermittent soccer performance test)

      Aldous, Jeffrey William Frederick; Akubat, Ibrahim; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Watkins, Samuel L.; Mauger, Alexis R.; Midgley, Adrian W.; Abt, Grant; Taylor, Lee; University of Bedfordshire; Newman University; et al. (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2014-07-01)
      The current study investigated the reliability and validity of a novel non-motorised treadmill (NMT) based soccer simulation utilising a novel activity category called a ‘variable run’ to quantify fatigue during high-speed running. Twelve male University soccer players completed three familiarisation sessions and one peak speed assessment before completing the Intermittent Soccer Performance Test (iSPT) twice. The two iSPT’s were separated by 6 – 10 days. The total distance, sprint distance and high-speed running distance were 8968 ± 430 m, 980 ± 75 m and 2122 ± 140 m, respectively. No significant difference (p>0.05) was found between repeated trials of the iSPT for all physiological and performance variables. Reliability measures between iSPT1 and iSPT2 showed good agreement (CV: <4.6%; ICC: >0.80). Furthermore, the variable run phase showed high-speed running distance significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the last 15 min (89.24 ± 6.16 m) compared to the first 15 min (85.38 ± 7.28 m), quantifying decrements in high-speed exercise compared to previous literature. The current study validates the iSPT as a NMT based soccer simulation compared to previous match-play data, and is a reliable tool for assessing and monitoring physiological and performance variables in soccer players. The iSPT could be utilised in a number of ways including player rehabilitation, understanding the efficacy of nutritional interventions, and also the quantification of environmentally mediated decrements upon soccer-specific performance. 
    • Reliability of an experimental method to analyse the impact point on a golf ball during putting

      Richardson, Ashley K; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Hughes, Gerwyn T.G.; University of Abertay Dundee; University of Bedfordshire; University of Hertfordshire (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2015-06-23)
      This study aimed to examine the reliability of an experimental method identifying the location of the impact point on a golf ball during putting. Forty trials were completed using a mechanical putting robot set to reproduce a putt of 3.2m, with four different putter-ball combinations. After locating the centre of the dimple pattern (centroid) the following variables were tested; distance of the impact point from the centroid, angle of the impact point from the centroid and distance of the impact point from the centroid derived from the X, Y coordinates. Good to excellent reliability was demonstrated in all impact variables reflected in very strong relative (ICC=0.98-1.00) and absolute reliability (SEM%=0.9-4.3%). The highest SEM% observed was 7% for the angle of the impact point from the centroid. In conclusion, the experimental method was shown to be reliable at locating the centroid location of a golf ball, therefore allowing for the identification of the point of impact with the putter head and is suitable for use in subsequent studies.
    • Reliability of salivary cortisol and testosterone to a high-intensity cycling protocol to highlight overtraining

      Hough, John; Leal, Diogo Luis Campos Vaz; Scott, Gemma; Taylor, Lee; Townsend, Dominic; Gleeson, Michael; Nottingham Trent University; University of Bedfordshire; University Institute of Maia; Loughborough University; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2021-04-27)
      Athletes physically overload to improve performance. Unbalanced stress/recovery may induce overtraining, which is difficult to diagnosis as no diagnostic marker exists. Hormonal responses to a 55/80 cycle (30-min of alternating blocks of 1-min at 55% and 4-min at 80% maximum work rate) may highlight early-stage overtraining (overreaching), as blunted cortisol and testosterone responses to 55/80 follows intensified training. However, the reliability of hormonal responses to 55/80 when not overreached is unknown. Therefore, reported blunted hormonal responses could be due to inconsistent cortisol and testosterone responses to 55/80. Participants (n = 23) completed three 55/80 bouts, >7 days apart, with no exercise 24 h pre-trials. Pre-exercise urine osmolality and stress questionnaire responses were measured. Pre, post, and 30-min post-exercise saliva samples were collected for cortisol and testosterone assessment. Salivary cortisol and testosterone responses, osmolality and well-being were not different between trials. Salivary cortisol and testosterone elevated from pre- to post-exercise [by 4.2 nmol.L-1 (cortisol) and 307 pmol.L-1 (testosterone)], and 30 min post-exercise [by 160 pmol.L-1 (testosterone) only]. Intraclass correlation coefficients for pre to peak post-exercise cortisol (0.89; good) and testosterone (0.53; moderate) were calculated. This demonstrates that 55/80 induces reliable elevations of salivary cortisol and testosterone when in a healthy state.
    • Reliability of unilateral vertical leg stiffness measures assessed during bilateral hopping

      Maloney, Sean J.; Fletcher, Iain M.; Richards, Joanna C.; University of Bedfordshire (Human Kinetics, 2019-03-15)
      The assessment of vertical leg stiffness is an important consideration given its relationship to performance. Vertical stiffness is most commonly assessed during a bilateral hopping task. The current study sought to determine the inter-session reliability, quantified by the coefficient of variation, of vertical stiffness during bilateral hopping when assessed for the left and right limbs independently, this had not been previously investigated. On four separate occasions, ten healthy males performed 30 unshod bilateral hops on a dual force plate system with data recorded independently for the left and right limbs. Vertical stiffness was calculated as the ratio of peak ground reaction force to the peak negative displacement of the centre of mass during each hop and was averaged over the 6-10th hops. For vertical stiffness, average coefficients of variation of 15.3% and 14.3% were observed for the left and right limbs respectively. An average coefficient of variation of 14.7% was observed for bilateral vertical stiffness. The current study reports that calculations of unilateral vertical stiffness demonstrate reliability comparable to bilateral calculations. Determining unilateral vertical stiffness values and relative discrepancies may allow the coach to build a more complete stiffness profile of an individual athlete and better inform the training process.
    • Replacing sugary snacks with fruit, nuts and seeds at nurses’ stations within a UK oncology unit: a pilot intervention study

      Thomas, Robert; Williams, Madeleine; Smit, Graham; Chater, Angel M.; Bedford Hospital NHS Trust; University of Bedfordshire (2021-02-02)
      Aim - This real-world service intervention study evaluated NHS staff weight and subjective happiness over a three-month period, by replacing processed, sugary foodstuffs with fruit, nuts and seeds. Method - Forty four staff at the Primrose Oncology Unit, Bedford Hospital, volunteered to abstain from cakes, biscuits, sweets, sugary drinks and chocolates whilst at work between June 2019 and September 2019. Participants’ weight and subjective happiness scores were recorded at baseline, three months (completion) and five months (post-completion). Fresh and dried fruit, and bags of raw nuts and seeds were made available to all staff (including those not participating). Participants resumed their usual diet outside of working hours. One hundred consecutive patients attending the department during the intervention were asked whether removing sugary food from public view was a positive move and whether it would have a likely influence on their future eating habits. Results - At five months, twenty (46%) participants lost weight >1kg (average 3.01 kg), seven participants gained >1kg (average 2.23 kg), and 17 remained the same weight (T-test p&lt; 0.03). Average happiness score increased from 21.65 to 23.44 (+6.6%), T-test p&lt; 0.04). Amongst those who lost >1kg weight, average happiness score increased from 21.54 to 23.75 (+9.3%), p&lt;0.03. In those who gained >1 kg weight, average happiness score decreased from 22.28 to 21.43 (-3.8%), p&lt; 0.08. There was a 13.1% difference in the happiness score in those loosing >1kg compared to those gaining >1kg in weight p&lt; 0.001). 94 (94%) patients indicated that this initiative gave a good impression and ninety seven (97%) indicated that the initiative would encourage them to reduce sugar in their own diet. Conclusion - The results demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in weight loss and increase in mood in just under half of the participants. Whilst this level of weight loss was similar to the best designed weight loss programmes, a larger study is required to validate these results.
    • Representations of Chinese gendered and racialised bodies in contemporary media sites

      Pang, Bonnie; Hill, Joanne; Western Sydney University; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2018-06-16)
      Social media are influential sociocultural forces that construct and transmit information about gender, health and bodies to young people in the digital age. In health and physical activity, Chinese people are often represented and positioned differently to other (minority) ethnic groups. For example, Black young people are often understood as having low academic motivations and aspirations but as ‘natural’ athletes; in contrast, Chinese young people, seen as the ‘model minority’ who excel in STEM subjects, are fragile, reserved and disinterested in physical movements. These public forms of representation may sit in opposition to the young people’s embodied identity. When these misrepresentations are internalised, issues such as micro-aggression and racism may have an impact on Chinese young people’s health and wellbeing. This paper aims to examine how Chinese bodies are gendered and racialised in contemporary social media sites (e.g. Google News, LiveJournal, Medium, Wordpress). Drawing on critical discourse analysis and Foucault’s concepts of normalisation and discursive practice, the paper will problematise the often taken-for-granted gendered and racialised stereotypes related to Chinese physicality and health on social media sites. Implications for developing future research and teaching resources in critical media health literacy for young people on issues related to gender and equity will be provided. The results affect how we understand, represent, and discuss Chinese (young) people on social media sites, thereby how Chinese young people engage, construct, and perform their embodied identities in Western, English speaking societies.
    • Reproducibility of acute steroid hormone responses in men to short-duration running

      Leal, Diogo Luis Campos Vaz; Taylor, Lee; Hough, John; University of Bedfordshire; University Institute of Maia; Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital; Loughborough University; Nottingham Trent University (Human Kinetics, 2019-11-30)
      Purpose: Progressively overloading the body to improve physical performance may lead to detrimental states of overreaching/overtraining syndrome. Blunted cycling-induced cortisol and testosterone concentrations have been suggested to indicate overreaching after intensified training periods. However, a running-based protocol is yet to be developed or demonstrated as reproducible. This study developed two 30-min running protocols, (1) 50/70 (based on individualized physical capacity) and (2) RPETP (self-paced), and measured the reproducibility of plasma cortisol and testosterone responses. Methods:Thirteen recreationally active, healthy men completed each protocol (50/70 and RPETP) on 3 occasions. Venous blood was drawn preexercise, postexercise, and 30 min postexercise. Results: Cortisol was unaffected (both P > .05; 50/70, η2p = .090; RPETP, η2p = .252), while testosterone was elevated (both P < .05; 50/70, 35%, η2p = .714; RPETP, 42%, η2p = .892) with low intraindividual coefficients of variation (CVi) as mean (SD) (50/70, 7% [5%]; RPETP, 12% [9%]). Heart rate (50/70, effect size [ES] = 0.39; RPETP, ES = −0.03), speed (RPETP, ES = −0.09), and rating of perceived exertion (50/70 ES = −0.06) were unchanged across trials (all CVi < 5%, P < .05). RPETP showed greater physiological strain (P < .01). Conclusions: Both tests elicited reproducible physiological and testosterone responses, but RPETP induced greater testosterone changes (likely due to increased physiological strain) and could therefore be considered a more sensitive tool to potentially detect overtraining syndrome. Advantageously for the practitioner, RPETP does not require a priori exercise-intensity determination, unlike the 50/70, enhancing its integration into practice.
    • Rethinking the ‘aspirations’ of Chinese girls within and beyond Health and Physical Education and physical activity in Greater Western Sydney

      Pang, Bonnie; Hill, Joanne (Routledge, 2016-08-09)
      This paper aims to explore young Chinese girls’ aspirations and ideal environments for engagement in Health and Physical Education (HPE) and physical activity (PA) in Greater Western Sydney. Interviews are used to elicit these girls’ perceptions of their future and ideal environments in relation to HPEPA. Their data offer insights into key influences regarding what is thinkable, desirable and achievable in their HPEPA environments. Results showed dimensions of environments, such as social and pedagogical aspects, that are conducive to these girls’ aspirations in HPEPA (e.g. social support from parents, and functional built environment for HPE). This paper aligns with a strengths-based approach to understanding and recognising young Chinese girls’ perceived aspirations within their socio-cultural environment. In doing so, we discuss how feminism and femininity are positioned from a Chinese perspective that may provide alternative views to a post-feminist panorama in promoting advancement of all young girls in HPEPA. Results invite us to take into account some of the girls’ ambivalence towards being an ‘autonomous’ and ‘dependent’ modern Chinese young girl. This paper calls for a rethinking of how aspirations that shape young people’s future in HPEPA in much of the contemporary Western world are conceptualised in academic research.
    • Review of the badminton lunge and specific training considerations

      Maloney, Sean J. (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2018-08-31)
      Lunge performance is integral to performance in the sport of badminton. For the strength and conditioning coach to appropriately condition the lunge pattern, it is important that the unique demands of the badminton lunge are well understood. This article will consider the kinetics, kinematics, and different variations of the badminton lunge, identify the potential determinants of lunge performance, and highlight some of the key training considerations. It is proposed that programs designed to develop the lunge should ultimately consider 4 components: stability, strength, power, and specific endurance.
    • The role of PETE in developing and sustaining physical literacy informed practitioners

      Flemons, Michelle; Diffey, Fiona; Cunliffe, Dominic; University of Bedfordshire; Cardiff Metroplitain University; Southampton Solent University (Human Kinetics, 2018-04-19)
      This paper discusses teacher preparation in relation to encouraging and empowering future teachers to appreciate the potential and value of adopting physical literacy as the goal of PE. The paper addresses the issue of the role of schools and teacher training programs in developing the next generation of PE teachers entering PE Teacher Education (PETE) with respect to thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and beliefs that underpin the concept of physical literacy, and providing high quality learning experiences that are crucial to continuing physical activity throughout the life course for all children, not just those that have a natural aptitude in this area. Many advocates for radical change in physical education have repeatedly argued that physical education curricula around the world are too focused on a traditional, one size fits all, sport technique based, multi-activity form. Others have argued that the traditional curricula have a primary focus on physical competence in running, jumping, and balls skills rather than providing experience in a wide range of physical activities including, inter alia, those with a focus on aesthetic awareness and those related to outdoor adventure.   Keywords: occupational socialisation, pre-service teachers, PE teacher education, models based practise, physical literacy