• Mediating peer teaching for learning games: an action research intervention across three consecutive sport education seasons

      Farias, Cláudio; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.; O’Donovan, Toni; University of Porto; University of Bedfordshire; Auburn University (Routledge, 2017-12-08)
      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide an integrated analysis of a teacher’s peer-teaching mediation strategies, the student-coaches’ instruction, and the students’ gameplay development across 3 consecutive seasons of sport education. Method: Twenty-six 7th-grade students participated in 3 consecutive sport education seasons of invasion games (basketball, handball, and soccer). The research involved 3 action research cycles, 1 per season, and each cycle included the processes of planning, acting and monitoring, reflecting, and fact finding. Data collection consisted of videotape and audiotape records of all 47 lessons, a reflective field diary kept by the first author in the role of teacher-researcher, and a total of 24 semistructured focus-group interviews. Trustworthiness criteria for assuring the quality of qualitative research included extensive data triangulation, stakeholders’ crosschecking, and collaborative interpretational analysis. Results: Through the application of systematic preparation strategies, student-coaches were able to successfully conduct team instruction that resulted in students’ tactical development and improved performance. Aspects such as the study of predominant configurations of players’ gameplay and similar tactical principles across games within the same category prevented a setback in the complexity of the learning content addressed at the beginning of each season. Players also showed an increasing ability to adapt gameplay to game conditions. Conclusions: While sport education has the capacity to develop competent players, different levels of teacher guidance and learners’ instructional responsibility are necessary when teaching tactics.
    • Metabolic responses to carbohydrate ingestion during exercise: associations between carbohydrate dose and endurance performance

      Newell, Michael; Wallis, Gareth A.; Hunter, Angus M.; Tipton, Kevin D.; Galloway, Stuart D.R.; ; University of Birmingham; University of Stirling; University of Westminster (MDPI, 2018-01-03)
      Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion during exercise lasting less than three hours improves endurance exercise performance but there is still debate about the optimal dose. We utilised stable isotopes and blood metabolite profiles to further examine metabolic responses to CHO (glucose only) ingestion in the 20–64 g·h−1 range, and to determine the association with performance outcome. In a double-blind, randomized cross-over design, male cyclists (n = 20, mean ± SD, age 34 ± 10 years, mass 75.8 ± 9 kg, peak power output 394 ± 36 W, VO2max 62 ± 9 mL·kg−1·min−1) completed four main experimental trials. Each trial involved a two-hour constant load ride (185 ± 25 W) followed by a time trial, where one of three CHO beverages, or a control (water), were administered every 15 min, providing 0, 20, 39 or 64 g CHO·h−1. Dual glucose tracer techniques, indirect calorimetry and blood analyses were used to determine glucose kinetics, exogenous CHO oxidation (EXO), endogenous CHO and fat oxidation; and metabolite responses. Regression analysis revealed that total exogenous CHO oxidised in the second hour of exercise, and suppression of serum NEFA concentration provided the best prediction model of performance outcome. However, the model could only explain ~19% of the variance in performance outcome. The present data demonstrate that consuming ~40 g·h−1 of CHO appears to be the minimum ingestion rate required to induce metabolic effects that are sufficient to impact upon performance outcome. These data highlight a lack of performance benefit and few changes in metabolic outcomes beyond an ingestion rate of 39 g·h−1. Further work is required to explore dose-response effects of CHO feeding and associations between multiple metabolic parameters and subsequent performance outcome.
    • Metabolism and exercise during youth

      Tolfrey, Keith; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Smallcombe, J.; Loughborough University; University of Bedfordshire (HUMAN KINETICS PUBL INC, 2017-02-01)
      Three publications were selected based on the strength of the research questions, but also because they represent different research designs that are used with varying degrees of frequency in the pediatric literature. The first, a prospective, longitudinal cohort observation study from 7 to 16 years with girls and boys reports an intrinsic reduction in absolute resting energy expenditure after adjustment for lean mass, fat mass, and biological maturity. The authors suggest this could be related to evolutionary energy conservation, but may be. problematic now that food energy availability is so abundant. The second focuses on the effect of acute exercise on neutrophil reactive oxygen species production and inflammatory markers in independent groups of healthy boys and men. The authors suggested the boys experienced a "sensitized" neutrophil response stimulated by the exercise bout compared with the men; moreover, the findings provided information necessary to design future trials in this important field. In the final study, a dose-response design was used to examine titrated doses of high intensity interval training on cardiometabolic outcomes in adolescent boys. While the authors were unable to identify a recognizable dose-response relationship, there are several design strengths in this study, which was probably underpowered.
    • Middle and elementary school students’ changes in self-determined motivation in a basketball unit taught using the Tactical Games Model

      Harvey, Stephen; Gil-Arias, Alexander; Smith, Megan L.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Ohio University; Rey Juan Carlos University; West Virginia University; University of Bedfordshire (de Gruyter, 2017-10-17)
      Studies examining student motivation levels suggest that this is a significant factor in students’ engagement in physical education and may be positively affected when teachers employ alternative pedagogical models such as game-centered approaches (GCAs). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in self-determined motivation of students as they participated in a GCA-basketball unit taught using the Tactical Games Model (TGM). Participants were 173 students (84 girls), 79 middle school (45 girls) and 94 (39 girls) elementary school students from four seventh and five fourth/fifth grade co-educational classes. Two teachers taught 32 (middle) and 33 (elementary) level one TGM basketball lessons. Need satisfaction and self-determined motivation data were collected using a previously validated instrument, while lesson context and teacher behavior data were recorded using systematic observation instruments. Repeated measures MANOVAs were employed to examine pre-posttest differences. Results revealed a significant main effect for time in need satisfaction for both middle (relatedness increased) and elementary school students (autonomy decreased) and a significant main effect in self-determined motivation for middle school students only (introjected regulation, external regulation, and amotivation all increased). Approximately 48%/42% (middle/elementary) of lesson time was game play, 22%/22% skill practice, 17%/17% management, and 13%/19% knowledge. The primary teacher behaviors used were instruction, management, specific observation, corrective feedback and modelling. Results indicate that it is important for future research to pay greater attention to the contextual factors associated with the application of the TGM, such as the students’ previous exposure to TGM lessons, and the teachers’ training and experience in utilizing the TGM. Indeed, results of the present study demonstrate that a longer-term commitment to the TGM is necessary to reduce controlling teacher behaviors, which will lead to positive changes in students’ need satisfaction and self-determined motivation. Future research is therefore needed to embrace this challenge to provide an increased evidence-base for GCAs such as the TGM.
    • Mixed-methods pre-match cooling improves simulated soccer performance in the heat : cooling during simulated soccer

      Aldous, Jeffrey William Frederick; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Akubat, Ibrahim; Stringer, Charlotte Anne; Abt, Grant; Taylor, Lee; University of Bedfordshire; Qatar University; Newman University; University of Hull; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2018-07-24)
      This investigation examined the effects of three pre-match and half-time cooling manoeuvres on physical performance and associated physiological and perceptual responses in eight University soccer players during a non-motorised treadmill based individualised soccer-specific simulation [intermittent soccer performance test (iSPT)] at 30oC. Four randomised experimental trials were completed; following 30-min (pre-match) and 15-min (half-time) cooling manoeuvres via: (1) ice slurry ingestion (SLURRY); (2) ice-packs placed on the quadriceps and hamstrings (PACKS); (3) mixed-methods (MM; PACKS and SLURRY concurrently); or no-cooling (CON). In iSPT first half, a moderate increase in total (Mean ± Standard Deviation: 108 ± 57m, qualitative inference: most likely, Cohen’s d: 0.87, 90%CL: ±0.31), high-speed (56 ± 46m, very likely, 0.68 ±0.38) and variable run (15 ± 5m, very likely, 0.81 ±0.47) distance covered was reported in MM compared with CON. Additionally, pre-match reductions in thermal sensation (-1.0 ± 0.5, most likely, -0.91 ±0.36), rectal (-0.6 ± 0.1oC, very likely, -0.86 ±0.35) and skin temperature (-1.1 ± 0.3oC, very likely, -0.88 ±0.42) continued throughout iSPT first half. Physical performance during iSPT first half was unaltered in SLURRY and PACKS compared to CON. Rectal temperature was moderately increased in SLURRY at 45-min (0.2 ± 0.1oC, very likely, 0.67 ±0.36). Condition did not influence any measure in iSPT second half compared to CON. Only MM pre-match cooling augmented physical performance during iSPT first half, likely due to peripheral and central thermoregulatory factors favourably influencing first half iSPT performance. Further practical half-time cooling manoeuvres which enhance second half performance are still required.
    • Modifying adherence-related beliefs in inflammatory bowel disorder: randomized controlled trial of an online intervention

      Chapman, S.; Sibelli, A.; Bondarek, P.; Horne, R.; Forbes, A.; Driscoll, R.; Chater, Angel M. (2014-08-31)
    • Muscle reaction time during a simulated lateral ankle sprain after wet-ice application or cold-water immersion

      Thain, Peter K.; Bleakley, Christopher M.; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; University of Hertfordshire; Ulster University; University of Bedfordshire (NATL ATHLETIC TRAINERS ASSOC INC, 2015-07-01)
      Context: Cryotherapy is used widely in sport and exercise medicine to manage acute injuries and facilitate rehabilitation. The analgesic effects of cryotherapy are well established; however, a potential caveat is that cooling tissue negatively affects neuromuscular control through delayed muscle reaction time. This topic is important to investigate because athletes often return to exercise, rehabilitation, or competitive activity immediately or shortly after cryotherapy.Objective: To compare the effects of wet-ice application, cold-water immersion, and an untreated control condition on peroneus longus and tibialis anterior muscle reaction time during a simulated lateral ankle sprain.Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial.Setting: University of Hertfordshire human performance laboratory.Patients or Other Participants: A total of 54 physically active individuals (age = 20.1 +/- 1.5 years, height = 1.7 +/- 0.07 m, mass = 66.7 +/- 5.4 kg) who had no injury or history of ankle sprain.Intervention(s): Wet-ice application, cold-water immersion, or an untreated control condition applied to the ankle for 10 minutes.Main Outcome Measure(s): Muscle reaction time and muscle amplitude of the peroneus longus and tibialis anterior in response to a simulated lateral ankle sprain were calculated. The ankle-sprain simulation incorporated a combined inversion and plantar-flexion movement.Results: We observed no change in muscle reaction time or muscle amplitude after cryotherapy for either the peroneus longus or tibialis anterior (P < .05).Conclusions: Ten minutes of joint cooling did not adversely affect muscle reaction time or muscle amplitude in response to a simulated lateral ankle sprain. These findings suggested that athletes can safely return to sporting activity immediately after icing. Further evidence showed that ice can be applied before ankle rehabilitation without adversely affecting dynamic neuromuscular control. Investigation in patients with acute ankle sprains is warranted to assess the clinical applicability of these interventions.
    • Muscle-damaging exercise 48 h prior to a maximal incremental exercise treadmill test reduces time to exhaustion: is it time to reconsider our pretest procedures?

      Chrismas, Bryna C.; Taylor, Lee; Siegler, Jason C.; Midgley, Adrian W.; ; Qatar University; University of Bedfordshire; University of Western Sydney; Edge Hill University (Taylor and Francis Inc., 2016-11-15)
      Pretest guidelines typically stipulate that no exercise should be performed 48 h prior to a maximal incremental exercise (Formula presented.) test. However, no study has specifically investigated if this timescale alters key outcome variables associated with (Formula presented.). Twenty apparently healthy males split into two equal groups performed (Formula presented.) during three visits (visits 1–(Formula presented.) EXP1, 2–(Formula presented.) EXP2 and 4–(Formula presented.) EXP3). The experimental group only, performed muscle-damaging exercise during visit 3. From (Formula presented.) EXP2 to (Formula presented.) EXP3 average time to exhaustion (TTE) decreased by 45 s (9%) (p &lt; 0.01), maximum blood lactate decreased by 1.2 mmol/L (11%) (p = 0.03), and perceived readiness decreased by 8 mm (18%) (p = 0.01). There were no changes in any (Formula presented.) variables in the control group (p ≥ 0.37). Performing (Formula presented.) 48 h following muscle-damaging exercise impairs specific, but not all, physiological outcome variables.
    • Negative psychological experiences and saliva secretory immunoglobulin A in field hockey players

      Taylor, Ian M.; Turner, James E.; Gleeson, Michael; Hough, John (Taylor and Francis Inc., 2014-11-11)
      Understanding psychological factors that affect immunity in sport might help to reduce infection risk in athletes. The present study examined within-person changes and individual differences in perceived coach control, intentions to drop out, and saliva secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA). Thirty-two field hockey players completed questionnaires and provided saliva samples over a 2-month period. Within-person increases in individuals’ perceptions of psychological control and intentions to drop out were positively associated with SIgA concentration. Individual differences in control or drop-out intentions were not associated with SIgA. Interventions in athletes to prevent immune disturbances and reduce infection should consider these psychological factors.
    • NIHR Themed Review: interventions to increase physical activity

      Fortescue-Webb, Duncan; Evans, Tansy; Hanss, Katharine; Lamont, Tara; Behrendt, Hannah; Brannan, Michael; Chater, Angel M.; Coles, Allison; Cope, Andy; Dooley, Michael; et al. (NIHR Dissemination Centre., 2019-07-29)
      Being active matters because it is an important way of staying healthy. We know that people can reduce their risk of many serious diseases by staying physically active. Activity is also important for mental wellbeing and keeping socially connected. Finding enjoyable ways to be active can benefit people in so many ways. But it is often hard for people to start and keep the habit of regular activity. Around a quarter of people are inactive and less than two thirds meet recommended activity levels. We need to know more about what works in getting people active and sustaining this, particularly for those who are least active now. This review focuses on National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)-funded research evaluating interventions to increase physical activity for individuals and populations. This features over 50 published and ongoing studies. Evaluations range from programmes in schools and communities to changes in transport and the environment, which are designed to promote greater activity.
    • No evidence of dehydration with moderate daily coffee intake: a counterbalanced cross-over study in a free-living population

      Killer, Sophie C.; Blannin, Andrew K.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.; ; University of Birmingham (Public Library of Science, 2014-01-09)
      It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3-6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4X200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na+ excretion was higher in C than W (p = 0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p&lt;0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. © 2014 Killer et al.
    • Overview of the interactive task in BioCreative V

      Wang, Qinghua; Abdul, Shabbir S.; Almeida, Lara; Ananiadou, Sophia; Balderas-Martínez, Yalbi I.; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Campos, David; Chilton, Lucy; Chou, Hui-Jou; Contreras, Gabriela; et al. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2016-09-01)
      Fully automated text mining (TM) systems promote efficient literature searching, retrieval, and review but are not sufficient to produce ready-to-consume curated documents. These systems are not meant to replace biocurators, but instead to assist them in one or more literature curation steps. To do so, the user interface is an important aspect that needs to be considered for tool adoption. The BioCreative Interactive task (IAT) is a track designed for exploring user-system interactions, promoting development of useful TM tools, and providing a communication channel between the biocuration and the TM communities. In BioCreative V, the IAT track followed a format similar to previous interactive tracks, where the utility and usability of TM tools, as well as the generation of use cases, have been the focal points. The proposed curation tasks are user-centric and formally evaluated by biocurators. In BioCreative V IAT, seven TM systems and 43 biocurators participated. Two levels of user participation were offered to broaden curator involvement and obtain more feedback on usability aspects. The full level participation involved training on the system, curation of a set of documents with and without TM assistance, tracking of time-on-task, and completion of a user survey. The partial level participation was designed to focus on usability aspects of the interface and not the performance per se In this case, biocurators navigated the system by performing pre-designed tasks and then were asked whether they were able to achieve the task and the level of difficulty in completing the task. In this manuscript, we describe the development of the interactive task, from planning to execution and discuss major findings for the systems tested.Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org.
    • Oxygen cost of recreational horse-riding in females

      Beale, Louisa; Maxwell, Neil S.; Gibson, Oliver R.; Twomey, Rosemary; Taylor, Becky; Church, Andrew (Human Kinetics, 2014-01-01)
      BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to characterize the physiological demands of a riding session comprising different types of recreational horse riding in females. METHODS Sixteen female recreational riders (aged 17-54 years) completed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test to determine peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and a 45 minute riding session based upon a British Horse Society Stage 2 riding lesson (including walking, trotting, cantering and work without stirrups). Oxygen consumption (VO2), from which metabolic equivalent (MET) and energy expenditure values were derived, was measured throughout. RESULTS The mean VO2 requirement for trotting/cantering (18.4 ± 5.1 ml.kg-1.min-1; 52 ± 12% VO2peak; 5.3 ± 1.1 METs) was similar to walking/trotting (17.4 ± 5.1 ml.kg-1.min-1; 48 ± 13% VO2peak; 5.0 ± 1.5 METs) and significantly higher than for work without stirrups (14.2 ± 2.9 ml.kg-1.min-1; 41 ± 12% VO2peak; 4.2 ± 0.8 METs) (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The oxygen cost of different activities typically performed in a recreational horse riding session meets the criteria for moderate intensity exercise (3-6 METs) in females, and trotting combined with cantering imposes the highest metabolic demand. Regular riding could contribute to the achievement of the public health recommendations for physical activity in this population.
    • Parents’ expectations and experiences of the 6-week baby check: a qualitative study in primary care

      Gilworth, Gill; Milton, Sarah; Chater, Angel M.; Nazareth, Irwin; Roposch, Andreas; Green, Judith; King's College London; University of Bedfordshire; University College London (Royal College of General Practitioners, 2020-11-18)
      Background The Newborn and Infant Physical Examination (NIPE) programme requires all babies to have a comprehensive health check at 6–8 weeks of age. These are typically completed by GPs. Although person-centred care has achieved prominence in maternity care policy in recent years, there is limited empirical evidence on what parents and/or carers expect from the check, and how far experiences meet their needs. Aim  To explore the expectations and experiences of parents attending their GP for a baby check. Design &amp; setting A qualitative study was undertaken in primary care in London. Method Content analysis was undertaken of transcripts of semi-structured interviews. Interviews were conducted with a total of 16 participants (14 mothers and two fathers) who had recently attended for a 6-week check for their baby. Results Despite the availability of plentiful sources of general advice on infants’ health and development, a thorough check by a trusted GP was an important milestone for most parents. They had few specific expectations of the check in terms of what examinations were undertaken, but even experienced parents anticipated reassurance about their baby’s normal development. Many also hoped for reassurance about their own parenting. Parents appreciated GPs who explained what they were doing during the examination; space to raise any concerns; and combined mother and baby checks. Referrals to secondary care were generally experienced as reassuring rather than a source of anxiety. Conclusion The baby check meets needs beyond those of the NIPE screening programme. Protecting the time for a thorough consultation is important for parents at what can be a vulnerable time.
    • Perceived barriers and facilitators to breaking up sitting time among desk-based office workers: a qualitative investigation using the TDF and COM-B

      Ojo, Samson Oluseye; Bailey, Daniel Paul; Hewson, David; Chater, Angel M.; University of Bedfordshire (MDPI, 2019-08-14)
      High amounts of sedentary behaviour, such as sitting, can lead to adverse health consequences. Interventions to break up prolonged sitting in the workplace have used active workstations, although few studies have used behaviour change theory. This study aimed to combine the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and the Capability, Opportunity, and Motivation to Behaviour system (COM-B) to investigate perceived barriers and facilitators to breaking up sitting in desk-based office workers. Semi-structured interviews with 25 desk-based employees investigated barriers and facilitators to breaking up sitting in the workplace. Seven core inductive themes were identified: ‘Knowledge-deficit sitting behaviour’, ‘Willingness to change’, ‘Tied to the desk’, ‘Organisational support and interpersonal influences’, ‘Competing motivations’, ‘Emotional influences’, and ‘Inadequate cognitive resources for action’. These themes were then deductively mapped to 11 of the 14 TDF domains and five of the six COM-B constructs. Participants believed that high amounts of sitting had adverse consequences but lacked knowledge regarding recommendations and were at times unmotivated to change. Physical and social opportunities were identified as key influences, including organisational support and height-adjustable desks. Future research should identify intervention functions, policy categories and behaviour change techniques to inform tailored interventions to change sitting behaviour of office workers. View Full-Text
    • Perceived influences on reducing prolonged sitting in police staff: a qualitative investigation using the Theoretical Domains Framework and COM-B model

      Brierley, Marsha L.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Bailey, Daniel Paul; Every, Sofie A.; Staines, Taylor A.; Chater, Angel M.; ; University of Bedfordshire; University College London; Brunel University (Biomed Central, 2021-11-19)
      Background: Workplace interventions have shown promise for reducing sitting in office workers. Police office staff remain an understudied population group that work within a disciplined organisation with distinctive work tasks around public safety, potentially affecting their capability, opportunity, and motivation to change sitting behaviour. This study aimed to assess the perceived influences on reducing workplace sitting in non-operational, desk-based police staff in order to derive theoretical determinants for behaviour change. Methods: Ten police staff from a single police force in Bedfordshire, England [eight female; 39.5±11.5 years] took part in face-to-face semi-structured interviews lasting 46±11 minutes on average. Thematic analysis identified key themes which were then mapped onto the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and linked to the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B) model. Results: Seven themes were identified: ‘Work tasks are seated’, ‘Social norm is to sit’, ‘Belief in ability to regulate behaviour’, ‘Knowledge of health risks’, ‘Organisational support’, ‘Impact on productivity’, and ‘Perceived autonomy for sitting reduction’. Conclusions: Awareness of behaviour and health impacts (Capability), social and physical support to sit less (Opportunity), and habit formation techniques (Motivation) are recommended considerations in sitting reduction workplace interventions for police staff.
    • Physical activity duration but not energy expenditure differs between daily and intermittent breakfast consumption in adolescent girls: a randomized crossover trial

      Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Wells, Emma K.; Crawford, Natasha S.G.; Afeef, Sahar M.O.; Tolfrey, Keith (Oxford University Press, 2018-02-27)
      Background: It is not known whether breakfast frequency affects physical activity (PA) in children or adolescents. Objective: This study examined the effect of daily compared with intermittent breakfast consumption on estimated PA energy expenditure (PAEE) in adolescent girls. Methods: Using a randomized crossover design, 27 girls (age 12.4 ± 0.5 y, body mass index 19.3 ± 3.0 kg∙m-2) completed two, 7-day conditions. A standardized breakfast (~1674 kJ) was consumed every day before 09:00 in the daily breakfast consumption (DBC) condition. The standardized breakfast was consumed on only three days before 09:00 in the intermittent breakfast consumption (IBC) condition alternating with breakfast omission on the remaining four days (i.e., only water consumed before 10:30). Combined heart rate-accelerometry was used to estimate PAEE throughout each condition. Statistical analyses were completed using condition by time of day repeated measures analysis of variance. The primary outcome was PAEE and the secondary outcome was time spent in PA. Results: Daily estimated PAEE from sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous intensities and total PAEE were not significantly different between the conditions. The condition by time of day interaction for sedentary time (P = 0.05) indicated that the girls spent 11.5 min/d more time sedentary in IBC compared with DBC during 15:30-bedtime (P = 0.04). Light PA was 19.8 min/d higher during DBC compared with IBC (P = 0.05), which was accumulated during wake-10:30 (P = 0.04) and 15:30-bedtime (P = 0.03). There were no significant differences in time spent in MPA or VPA between the conditions. Conclusions: Adolescent girls spent more time in light PA before 10:30 and after school and spent less time sedentary after school when a standardized breakfast was consumed daily compared with intermittently across seven days. However, breakfast manipulation did not affect estimated daily PAEE. 
    • Physical activity for the benefit of mental health outcomes in young people: a focus on parental bereavement

      Chater, Angel M.; Williams, Jane; Shorter, Gillian; Howlett, Neil; University of Bedfordshire; University of Ulster; University of Hertfordshire (BASES, 2020-06-13)
      First published in The Sport and Exercise Scientist, Issue 64, Summer 2020. Published by the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences - www.bases.org.uk”
    • Physical activity levels and motivational responses of boys and girls: a comparison of direct instruction and tactical games models of games teaching in physical education

      Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Harvey, Stephen; Savory, Louise A.; Fairclough, Stuart J.; Kozub, Stephen A.; Kerr, Catherine J. (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2014-10-21)
      The purpose of this study was to independently determine the levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and self-determined motivation of both boys and girls as they participated in prolonged units of invasion games (i.e. 6–12 lessons) through two pedagogical models: direct instruction and the tactical games model (TGM). It was hypothesized that given the differences in domain interaction and lesson structure, both boys and girls would gain higher levels of physical activity (PA) and possess higher quality motivation during TGM-based lessons when compared to direct instruction lessons. Seventy-two children aged 11–12 years (42 boys, 30 girls) were randomly assigned to either a control or intervention group (TGM). Children wore RT3® triaxial accelerometers over a 12 week period to objectively measure time spent in MVPA. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) tool was completed during each lesson to additionally assess lesson context information and teacher behaviour. SDT questionnaires were also completed, pre and post-intervention. Boys in the TGM condition displayed significantly higher levels of MVPA in both rugby and football activities in comparison to the control group although no significant differences in motivation were noted post-intervention. While girls in the TGM condition recorded comparable PA levels in the football sessions, they recorded significantly lower PA activity levels in the netball lessons. There were no significant differences in girls’ motivation post-intervention. It is recommended that future studies build on this research by continuing to examine PA and the quality of student motivation while using GCAs over prolonged unit lengths (i.e. greater than 12 lessons) using structural equation modelling techniques to assess the relationships between, and mediating influences of, SDT constructs on PA levels.
    • Physical education contributes to total physical activity levels and predominantly in higher intensity physical activity categories

      Kerr, Catherine J.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Charman, Sarah J.; Harvey, Stephen; Savory, Louise A.; Fairclough, Stuart J.; Govus, Andrew (Sage, 2016-10-04)
      Children’s engagement in physical activity of a vigorous intensity or higher is more effective at promoting cardiorespiratory fitness than moderate physical activity. It remains unclear how higher intensity physical activity varies between days when schoolchildren participate in physical education (PE) than on non-PE days. The purpose of this study was to assess how PE contributes to sedentary behaviour and the intensity profile of physical activity accumulated on PE-days than on non-PE days. 53 schoolchildren (36 girls, 11.7 ± 0.3 years) completed 5-day minute-by-minute habitual physical activity monitoring using triaxial accelerometers to determine time spent sedentary (<1.5 METs) and in light (1.5-2.9 METs), moderate (3-5.9 METs), vigorous (6-8.9 METs), hard (9-11.9 METs) and very hard intensity (≥12 METs) physical activity on PE-days and non-PE days. Sedentary time was higher on non-PE days than on PE-days (mean difference: 62 minutes, p < 0.001). Hard and very hard intensity physical activity was significantly higher on PE days compared with non-PE days (mean total difference: 33 minutes, all significant at p < 0.001). During the PE lesson, boys spent more time in hard (p < 0.01) and very hard (p < 0.01) physical activity compared to girls. Schoolchildren spent significantly more time in higher intensity physical activity and significantly less time sedentary on PE-days than on non-PE days. As well as reducing sedentary behaviour, the opportunity to promote such health-promoting higher intensity physical activity in the school setting warrants further investigation.