• Lay beliefs on assisted reproduction technology in the UK and Greece: a repertory grid study

      Triantafillidou, A.; Ardino, V.; Asirnakopoulou, K.; Chater, Angel M.; University of Bedfordshire (2008-09-30)
      Background: This study explored cultural differences in the attitudes of UK and Greek lay people towards Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART). Methods: Using a Personal Construct Explanatory Model (Kelly, 1955) and Life Repertory Grids, we gathered data from N¼10 Greek and N¼10 British people. The majority (N¼17) were female and 40% were 36–45 years old. Data were analysed through a Principal Components Analysis and a Content Analysis. Findings: We found both similarities and differences between British and Greek people. Happiness, Control, Family, and Stress were among the main Components and Categories identified. The extent, however, to which the Components and Categories were identified in the two samples varied widely. Discussion: Cultural influences play an important role in shaping people’s views towards ART. It is argued that where Health Psychologists provide ART related consultancy or educational programmes, such activities may benefit from a culturally sensitive approach.
    • Left ventricular remodeling in rugby is a physiological adaptation to exercise: a pilot study conducted with high-level athletes

      Rato, Nuno Dias; Richards, Joanna C.; University of Bedfordshire; University of Maia (Springer, 2021-10-11)
      Purpose Literature examining left ventricular (LV) structural adaptations to combined strength and endurance training is inconsistent. Rugby is a sport that combines these two exercise modalities, both during training and match play. This study aimed to explore differences in LV structure between high-level rugby players and untrained controls. Body composition analysis was performed to determine the most appropriate indexing variable for LV mass (LVM) and understand if increases in LV represent either a training-related physiological adaptation or reflect the groups’ anthropometric differences. Methods A cross-sectional design compared 10 rugby players and 10 untrained age-matched, male controls. Body composition was obtained by bioelectrical impedance. M-mode echocardiographic imaging was performed on the LV from the parasternal long axis view. Results Significantly greater end-diastolic interventricular septum, LV internal diameter, posterior wall thickness, LVM and LVM/fat-free mass (FFM) (p < 0.05) were found in rugby players compared to age-matched controls. Moreover, Pearson’s correlation tests revealed FFM to be the body composition variable with the strongest correlation to LVM (r = 0.775, p < 0.001). Conclusion The differences in LV structure between groups suggest that the combined endurance and strength training that rugby athletes are subjected to, induce a process of concentric and eccentric enlargement of the LV structure. Furthermore, the association found with FFM, suggests it to be the most appropriate body scaling variable to index to LVM and, thus, should be considered when describing increases in LVM. The present research suggests that increased LVM in the athletes group represents true physiological adaptations to training.
    • Left ventricular speckle tracking-derived cardiac strain and cardiac twist mechanics in athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled studies

      Beaumont, Alexander; Grace, Fergal; Richards, Joanna C.; Hough, John; Oxborough, David; Sculthorpe, Nicholas (Springer, 2016-11-26)
      Background The athlete’s heart is associated with physiological remodelling as a consequence of repetitive cardiac loading. Exercise training effect on left ventricular (LV) cardiac strain and twist mechanics are equivocal and no meta-analysis has been conducted to date. Objective The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is, (1) to review the literature pertaining to different forms of athletic training on cardiac strain and twist mechanics; (2) to determine the influence of traditional and contemporary sporting classifications on cardiac strain and twist mechanics. Design  Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data Sources PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science and ScienceDirect. Inclusion criteria Controlled studies of aged matched male participants aged 18-45years that used 2-D speckle tracking with a defined athlete sporting discipline and a control group not engaged in training programmes. Data Extraction and Analysis Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Random effects meta-analyses, subgroup analyses and meta-regressions. Results Thirteen studies of 955 participants; (controls n=355; athletes n=600) were included. Meta-analyses showed no athlete-control differences in LV strain or twist mechanics. However, moderator analyses showed greater LV twist in high static, low dynamic athletes (d= -0.76, 95% CI -1.32 to -0.20, p<0.01) compared with controls. Peak untwisting velocity (PUV) was greater in high static, low dynamic athletes (d= -0.43, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.03, p<0.05) but less than controls in high dynamic, high static athletes (d= 0.79, 95% CI 0.002 to 1.58, p=0.05). Elite endurance athletes had significantly less twist and apical rotation than controls (d= 0.63, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.09, p<0.01; d= 0.64, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.00, p=0.001, respectively) yet no differences in basal rotation compared with controls. Meta-regressions showed LV mass index was positively associated with global longitudinal (b= 0.01, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.02, p<0.05) and apical circumferential strain (b= 0.01, 95% CI -0.001 to 0.01, p=0.05), while systolic blood pressure was negatively associated with PUV (b= -0.06, 95% CI -0.13 to -0.001, p=0.05).  Conclusion Echocardiographic 2-D speckle tracking can identify subtle physiological adaptations to cardiac strain and twist mechanics between athletes and healthy controls. Differences in STE derived parameters can be identified using suitable sporting categorisations.
    • Left ventricular twist mechanics during incremental cycling and knee extension exercise in healthy men

      Beaumont, Alexander; Hough, John; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Richards, Joanna C. (Springer Verlag, 2016-12-05)
      Purpose: The objective of the present study was to investigate left ventricular (LV) twist mechanics in response to incremental cycling and isometric knee extension exercises. Methods: Twenty-six healthy male participants (age = 30.42 ± 6.17 years) were used to study peak twist mechanics at rest and during incremental semi-supine cycling at 30 and 60% work rate maximum (W) and during short duration (15 s contractions) isometric knee extension at 40 and 75% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Results: Data presented as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range). LV twist increased from rest to 30% W (13.21° ± 4.63° to 20.04° ± 4.76°, p < 0.001) then remained unchanged. LV systolic and diastolic twisting velocities progressively increased with exercise intensity during cycling from rest to 60% W (twisting, 88.21° ± 20.51° to 209.05° ± 34.56° s, p < 0.0001; untwisting, −93.90 (29.62)° to −267.31 (104.30)° s, p < 0.0001). During the knee extension exercise, LV twist remained unchanged with progressive intensity (rest 13.40° ± 4.80° to 75% MVC 16.77° ± 5.54°, p > 0.05), whilst twisting velocity increased (rest 89.15° ± 21.77° s to 75% MVC 124.32° ± 34.89° s, p < 0.01). Untwisting velocity remained unchanged from rest [−90.60 (27.19)° s] to 40% MVC (p > 0.05) then increased from 40 to 75% MVC [−98.44 (43.54)° s to −138.42 (73.29)° s, p < 0.01]. Apical rotations and rotational velocities were greater than basal during all conditions and intensities (all p < 0.01). Conclusion: Cycling increased LV twist to 30% W which then remained unchanged thereafter, whereas twisting velocities showed further increases to greater intensities. A novel finding is that LV twist was unaffected by incremental knee extension, yet systolic and diastolic twisting velocities augmented with isometric exercise.
    • Let’s talk about death openly: when the world is grieving, please don’t walk on eggshells.

      Chater, Angel M.; University of Bedfordshire (British Psychological Society, 2020-05-13)
      A blog on bereavement and physical activity Health Psychologist Angel Chater has spoken openly about bereavement over the last two decades. Here, she urges society to recognise and be open about loss.
    • Lifestyle sports delivery and sustainability: clubs, communities and user-managers

      King, Katherine; Church, Andrew (Taylor & Francis, 2017-02-22)
      Lifestyle and informal sports have been recognised by policy makers as offering opportunities to increase participation in physical activity, particularly amongst hard to reach groups. Lifestyle sports are, however, double edged in their potential to achieve these goals. Their playful and non-traditional features may attract new participants less interested in traditional sports but the very liquidity of these activities may mean that the engagement of participants is fragmented and not sustained beyond a particular period in their lives. This article presents the perspective of mountain biking user-managers; those involved in the delivery, clubs and communities of mountain bikers across the United Kingdom. Findings suggest that whilst lifestyle sport communities are dependent on the work of formalised clubs to gain access to the funding and resources they need to sustain their activities, core participants will not always want to have to liaise or become involved formally within a club structure. In addition, clubs will not succeed in delivering sustained activities in line with sport policy to increase and maintain participation by relying on individual grants and without the support of an active informal user community. Accounts highlight the importance of engaging informal user communities with a sense of ownership such as locals to ensure new participants are integrated and the community is able to replenish.
    • Live high, train low - influence on resting and post-exercise hepcidin levels

      Govus, Andrew; Peeling, P.; Abbiss, Chris R.; Lawler, N.G.; Swinkels, D.W.; Laarakkers, C.M.; Thompson, K.G.; Peiffer, Jeremiah J.; Gore, C.J.; Garvican-Lewis, L.A. (2016-03-31)
      ) was measured via CO rebreathing 1 week before and after 14 days of hypoxia. Hepcidin was suppressed after 2 (Cohen's d = -2.3, 95% confidence interval: [-2.9, -1.6]) and 14 days of normobaric hypoxia (d = -1.6 [-2.6, -0.6]). Hepcidin increased from baseline, 3 h post-exercise in normoxia (d = 0.8 [0.2, 1.3]) and hypoxia (d = 0.6 [0.3, 1.0]), both before and after exposure (normoxia: d = 0.7 [0.3, 1.2]; hypoxia: d = 1.3 [0.4, 2.3]). In conclusion, 2 weeks of normobaric hypoxia suppressed resting hepcidin levels, but did not alter the post-exercise response in either normoxia or hypoxia, compared with the pre-exposure response.
    • Long-term outcomes following the MEND 7-13 child weight management program

      Kolotourou, Maria; Radley, Duncan; Gammon, Catherine; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Chadwick, Paul; Sacher, Paul M.; Mytime Active; University College London; Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust; University of Derby; et al. (MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2015-06-02)
      Background: In the current study, we report outcomes 2.4 years from baseline in a random subsample of overweight and obese children who attended MEND 7-13 programs delivered in UK community settings under service level conditions. Methods: The study employed an uncontrolled pre-follow-up design. A total of 165 children were measured. Outcomes included anthropometry, parental perception of emotional distress, body esteem, and self-esteem. Results: Overall, there were significant improvements in all outcomes apart from BMI z-score. In boys, BMI z-score, waist circumference z-score, and psychometrics all improved. In girls, there were no statistically significant differences at 2.4 years, except for body esteem. Conclusions: In real-world settings, the MEND intervention, when delivered by nonspecialists, may result in modest, yet positive, long-term outcomes. Subsequent research should focus on improving the outcome effect size, providing effective behavior change maintenance strategies, and further investigating the reasons behind the observed gender differences.
    • Looking beyond what's broken: towards an appreciative research agenda for physical education and sport pedagogy

      Enright, Eimear; Hill, Joanne; Sandford, Rachel; Gard, Michael (Taylor & Francis, 2014-04-22)
      Despite the volume of research devoted to the many ills that beset the pedagogical field of physical education and sport, we begin by arguing that there has been insufficient attention given to the way scholars conceptualise change and imagine bringing it about. In particular, we point to a tendency within the field to prioritise problems—what’s broken—and suggest that this tendency harbours a self-fulfilling logic. Although somewhat oversold by some of its advocates, we then draw on Appreciative Inquiry (AI) as a potential intellectual resource for new agenda setting in physical education and sport pedagogy (PESP) research. AI invites researchers to prioritise the positive in the research contexts they study with a view to discovering and generating stories about success that research participants and scholars alike might build on.We argue that an appreciative agenda calls for more flexible and open communication about the start and imagined end points of our research, and a greater emphasis on collaboration that takes seriously the capacity of research participants to be the authors of change and the source of new directions in PESP inquiry.
    • Lower extremity stiffness: considerations for testing, performance enhancement, and injury risk

      Brazier, Jon; Maloney, Sean J.; Bishop, Chris; Read, Paul; Turner, Anthony; City and Islington College; University of Bedfordshire; Middlesex University; Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (NSCA National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2019-04-01)
      Brazier, J, Maloney, S, Bishop, C, Read, PJ, and Turner, AN. Lower extremity stiffness: considerations for testing, performance enhancement, and injury risk. J Strength Cond Res 33(4): 1156-1166, 2019 - Force-deformation characteristics of the lower limb have been associated with athletic performance and may modulate the risk of injury. Despite these known associations, measurements of lower extremity stiffness are not commonly administered by strength and conditioning coaches. This review provides an overview of the available literature pertaining to the effects of lower extremity stiffness on physical performance and injury risk. Practical methods of monitoring and training stiffness are also discussed. The cumulative body of evidence indicates that increases in lower extremity stiffness are associated with heightened performance in athletic tasks such as hopping, jumping, throwing, endurance running, sprinting, and changing direction. Relationships with injury are less conclusive because both excessive and insufficient limb stiffness have been postulated to increase risk. Thus, the optimal level of stiffness seems to be dependent on the anthropometry and physical capabilities of the athlete, in addition to sport-specific activity demands. Training interventions can positively enhance lower extremity stiffness, including isometric, eccentric, and isotonic strength training and plyometrics. Complex training also seems to provide a potent stimulus and may be more effective than the use of singular training modes. For plyometric activities, it is recommended that coaches use a developmental sequence of exercises with increasing eccentric demand to provide an appropriate stimulus based on the training age and technical competency of the athlete.
    • Lower limb stiffness testing in athletic performance: a critical review

      Maloney, Sean J.; Fletcher, Iain M.; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2018-05-16)
      Stiffness describes the resistance of a body to deformation. In regards to athletic performance, a stiffer leg-spring would be expected to augment performance by increasing utilisation of elastic energy. Two-dimensional spring-mass and torsional spring models can be applied to model whole-body (vertical and/or leg stiffness) and joint stiffness. Various tasks have been used to characterise stiffness, including hopping, gait, jumping, sledge ergometry and change of direction tasks. Appropriate levels of reliability have been reported in most tasks, although vary between investigations. Vertical stiffness has demonstrated the strongest reliability across tasks and may be more sensitive to changes in high-velocity running performance than leg stiffness. Joint stiffness demonstrates the weakest reliability, with ankle stiffness more reliable than knee stiffness. Determination of stiffness has typically necessitated force plate analyses, however, validated field-based equations permit determination of whole-body stiffness without force plates. Vertical, leg and joint stiffness measures have all demonstrated relationships with performance measures. Greater stiffness is typically demonstrated with increasing intensity (i.e. running velocity or hopping frequency). Greater stiffness is observed in athletes regularly subjecting the limb to high ground reaction forces (i.e. sprinters). Careful consideration should be given to the most appropriate assessment of stiffness on a team/individual basis.
    • Mediating peer teaching for learning games: an action research intervention across three consecutive sport education seasons

      Farias, Cláudio; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.; O’Donovan, Toni; University of Porto; University of Bedfordshire; Auburn University (Routledge, 2017-12-08)
      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide an integrated analysis of a teacher’s peer-teaching mediation strategies, the student-coaches’ instruction, and the students’ gameplay development across 3 consecutive seasons of sport education. Method: Twenty-six 7th-grade students participated in 3 consecutive sport education seasons of invasion games (basketball, handball, and soccer). The research involved 3 action research cycles, 1 per season, and each cycle included the processes of planning, acting and monitoring, reflecting, and fact finding. Data collection consisted of videotape and audiotape records of all 47 lessons, a reflective field diary kept by the first author in the role of teacher-researcher, and a total of 24 semistructured focus-group interviews. Trustworthiness criteria for assuring the quality of qualitative research included extensive data triangulation, stakeholders’ crosschecking, and collaborative interpretational analysis. Results: Through the application of systematic preparation strategies, student-coaches were able to successfully conduct team instruction that resulted in students’ tactical development and improved performance. Aspects such as the study of predominant configurations of players’ gameplay and similar tactical principles across games within the same category prevented a setback in the complexity of the learning content addressed at the beginning of each season. Players also showed an increasing ability to adapt gameplay to game conditions. Conclusions: While sport education has the capacity to develop competent players, different levels of teacher guidance and learners’ instructional responsibility are necessary when teaching tactics.
    • Metabolic responses to carbohydrate ingestion during exercise: associations between carbohydrate dose and endurance performance

      Newell, Michael; Wallis, Gareth A.; Hunter, Angus M.; Tipton, Kevin D.; Galloway, Stuart D.R.; ; University of Birmingham; University of Stirling; University of Westminster (MDPI, 2018-01-03)
      Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion during exercise lasting less than three hours improves endurance exercise performance but there is still debate about the optimal dose. We utilised stable isotopes and blood metabolite profiles to further examine metabolic responses to CHO (glucose only) ingestion in the 20–64 g·h−1 range, and to determine the association with performance outcome. In a double-blind, randomized cross-over design, male cyclists (n = 20, mean ± SD, age 34 ± 10 years, mass 75.8 ± 9 kg, peak power output 394 ± 36 W, VO2max 62 ± 9 mL·kg−1·min−1) completed four main experimental trials. Each trial involved a two-hour constant load ride (185 ± 25 W) followed by a time trial, where one of three CHO beverages, or a control (water), were administered every 15 min, providing 0, 20, 39 or 64 g CHO·h−1. Dual glucose tracer techniques, indirect calorimetry and blood analyses were used to determine glucose kinetics, exogenous CHO oxidation (EXO), endogenous CHO and fat oxidation; and metabolite responses. Regression analysis revealed that total exogenous CHO oxidised in the second hour of exercise, and suppression of serum NEFA concentration provided the best prediction model of performance outcome. However, the model could only explain ~19% of the variance in performance outcome. The present data demonstrate that consuming ~40 g·h−1 of CHO appears to be the minimum ingestion rate required to induce metabolic effects that are sufficient to impact upon performance outcome. These data highlight a lack of performance benefit and few changes in metabolic outcomes beyond an ingestion rate of 39 g·h−1. Further work is required to explore dose-response effects of CHO feeding and associations between multiple metabolic parameters and subsequent performance outcome.
    • Metabolism and exercise during youth

      Tolfrey, Keith; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Smallcombe, J.; Loughborough University; University of Bedfordshire (HUMAN KINETICS PUBL INC, 2017-02-01)
      Three publications were selected based on the strength of the research questions, but also because they represent different research designs that are used with varying degrees of frequency in the pediatric literature. The first, a prospective, longitudinal cohort observation study from 7 to 16 years with girls and boys reports an intrinsic reduction in absolute resting energy expenditure after adjustment for lean mass, fat mass, and biological maturity. The authors suggest this could be related to evolutionary energy conservation, but may be. problematic now that food energy availability is so abundant. The second focuses on the effect of acute exercise on neutrophil reactive oxygen species production and inflammatory markers in independent groups of healthy boys and men. The authors suggested the boys experienced a "sensitized" neutrophil response stimulated by the exercise bout compared with the men; moreover, the findings provided information necessary to design future trials in this important field. In the final study, a dose-response design was used to examine titrated doses of high intensity interval training on cardiometabolic outcomes in adolescent boys. While the authors were unable to identify a recognizable dose-response relationship, there are several design strengths in this study, which was probably underpowered.
    • Middle and elementary school students’ changes in self-determined motivation in a basketball unit taught using the Tactical Games Model

      Harvey, Stephen; Gil-Arias, Alexander; Smith, Megan L.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Ohio University; Rey Juan Carlos University; West Virginia University; University of Bedfordshire (de Gruyter, 2017-10-17)
      Studies examining student motivation levels suggest that this is a significant factor in students’ engagement in physical education and may be positively affected when teachers employ alternative pedagogical models such as game-centered approaches (GCAs). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in self-determined motivation of students as they participated in a GCA-basketball unit taught using the Tactical Games Model (TGM). Participants were 173 students (84 girls), 79 middle school (45 girls) and 94 (39 girls) elementary school students from four seventh and five fourth/fifth grade co-educational classes. Two teachers taught 32 (middle) and 33 (elementary) level one TGM basketball lessons. Need satisfaction and self-determined motivation data were collected using a previously validated instrument, while lesson context and teacher behavior data were recorded using systematic observation instruments. Repeated measures MANOVAs were employed to examine pre-posttest differences. Results revealed a significant main effect for time in need satisfaction for both middle (relatedness increased) and elementary school students (autonomy decreased) and a significant main effect in self-determined motivation for middle school students only (introjected regulation, external regulation, and amotivation all increased). Approximately 48%/42% (middle/elementary) of lesson time was game play, 22%/22% skill practice, 17%/17% management, and 13%/19% knowledge. The primary teacher behaviors used were instruction, management, specific observation, corrective feedback and modelling. Results indicate that it is important for future research to pay greater attention to the contextual factors associated with the application of the TGM, such as the students’ previous exposure to TGM lessons, and the teachers’ training and experience in utilizing the TGM. Indeed, results of the present study demonstrate that a longer-term commitment to the TGM is necessary to reduce controlling teacher behaviors, which will lead to positive changes in students’ need satisfaction and self-determined motivation. Future research is therefore needed to embrace this challenge to provide an increased evidence-base for GCAs such as the TGM.
    • Mixed-methods pre-match cooling improves simulated soccer performance in the heat : cooling during simulated soccer

      Aldous, Jeffrey William Frederick; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Akubat, Ibrahim; Stringer, Charlotte Anne; Abt, Grant; Taylor, Lee; University of Bedfordshire; Qatar University; Newman University; University of Hull; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2018-07-24)
      This investigation examined the effects of three pre-match and half-time cooling manoeuvres on physical performance and associated physiological and perceptual responses in eight University soccer players during a non-motorised treadmill based individualised soccer-specific simulation [intermittent soccer performance test (iSPT)] at 30oC. Four randomised experimental trials were completed; following 30-min (pre-match) and 15-min (half-time) cooling manoeuvres via: (1) ice slurry ingestion (SLURRY); (2) ice-packs placed on the quadriceps and hamstrings (PACKS); (3) mixed-methods (MM; PACKS and SLURRY concurrently); or no-cooling (CON). In iSPT first half, a moderate increase in total (Mean ± Standard Deviation: 108 ± 57m, qualitative inference: most likely, Cohen’s d: 0.87, 90%CL: ±0.31), high-speed (56 ± 46m, very likely, 0.68 ±0.38) and variable run (15 ± 5m, very likely, 0.81 ±0.47) distance covered was reported in MM compared with CON. Additionally, pre-match reductions in thermal sensation (-1.0 ± 0.5, most likely, -0.91 ±0.36), rectal (-0.6 ± 0.1oC, very likely, -0.86 ±0.35) and skin temperature (-1.1 ± 0.3oC, very likely, -0.88 ±0.42) continued throughout iSPT first half. Physical performance during iSPT first half was unaltered in SLURRY and PACKS compared to CON. Rectal temperature was moderately increased in SLURRY at 45-min (0.2 ± 0.1oC, very likely, 0.67 ±0.36). Condition did not influence any measure in iSPT second half compared to CON. Only MM pre-match cooling augmented physical performance during iSPT first half, likely due to peripheral and central thermoregulatory factors favourably influencing first half iSPT performance. Further practical half-time cooling manoeuvres which enhance second half performance are still required.
    • Modifying adherence-related beliefs in inflammatory bowel disorder: randomized controlled trial of an online intervention

      Chapman, S.; Sibelli, A.; Bondarek, P.; Horne, R.; Forbes, A.; Driscoll, R.; Chater, Angel M. (2014-08-31)
    • Muscle reaction time during a simulated lateral ankle sprain after wet-ice application or cold-water immersion

      Thain, Peter K.; Bleakley, Christopher M.; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; University of Hertfordshire; Ulster University; University of Bedfordshire (NATL ATHLETIC TRAINERS ASSOC INC, 2015-07-01)
      Context: Cryotherapy is used widely in sport and exercise medicine to manage acute injuries and facilitate rehabilitation. The analgesic effects of cryotherapy are well established; however, a potential caveat is that cooling tissue negatively affects neuromuscular control through delayed muscle reaction time. This topic is important to investigate because athletes often return to exercise, rehabilitation, or competitive activity immediately or shortly after cryotherapy.Objective: To compare the effects of wet-ice application, cold-water immersion, and an untreated control condition on peroneus longus and tibialis anterior muscle reaction time during a simulated lateral ankle sprain.Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial.Setting: University of Hertfordshire human performance laboratory.Patients or Other Participants: A total of 54 physically active individuals (age = 20.1 +/- 1.5 years, height = 1.7 +/- 0.07 m, mass = 66.7 +/- 5.4 kg) who had no injury or history of ankle sprain.Intervention(s): Wet-ice application, cold-water immersion, or an untreated control condition applied to the ankle for 10 minutes.Main Outcome Measure(s): Muscle reaction time and muscle amplitude of the peroneus longus and tibialis anterior in response to a simulated lateral ankle sprain were calculated. The ankle-sprain simulation incorporated a combined inversion and plantar-flexion movement.Results: We observed no change in muscle reaction time or muscle amplitude after cryotherapy for either the peroneus longus or tibialis anterior (P < .05).Conclusions: Ten minutes of joint cooling did not adversely affect muscle reaction time or muscle amplitude in response to a simulated lateral ankle sprain. These findings suggested that athletes can safely return to sporting activity immediately after icing. Further evidence showed that ice can be applied before ankle rehabilitation without adversely affecting dynamic neuromuscular control. Investigation in patients with acute ankle sprains is warranted to assess the clinical applicability of these interventions.
    • Muscle-damaging exercise 48 h prior to a maximal incremental exercise treadmill test reduces time to exhaustion: is it time to reconsider our pretest procedures?

      Chrismas, Bryna C.; Taylor, Lee; Siegler, Jason C.; Midgley, Adrian W.; ; Qatar University; University of Bedfordshire; University of Western Sydney; Edge Hill University (Taylor and Francis Inc., 2016-11-15)
      Pretest guidelines typically stipulate that no exercise should be performed 48 h prior to a maximal incremental exercise (Formula presented.) test. However, no study has specifically investigated if this timescale alters key outcome variables associated with (Formula presented.). Twenty apparently healthy males split into two equal groups performed (Formula presented.) during three visits (visits 1–(Formula presented.) EXP1, 2–(Formula presented.) EXP2 and 4–(Formula presented.) EXP3). The experimental group only, performed muscle-damaging exercise during visit 3. From (Formula presented.) EXP2 to (Formula presented.) EXP3 average time to exhaustion (TTE) decreased by 45 s (9%) (p &lt; 0.01), maximum blood lactate decreased by 1.2 mmol/L (11%) (p = 0.03), and perceived readiness decreased by 8 mm (18%) (p = 0.01). There were no changes in any (Formula presented.) variables in the control group (p ≥ 0.37). Performing (Formula presented.) 48 h following muscle-damaging exercise impairs specific, but not all, physiological outcome variables.
    • Negative psychological experiences and saliva secretory immunoglobulin A in field hockey players

      Taylor, Ian M.; Turner, James E.; Gleeson, Michael; Hough, John (Taylor and Francis Inc., 2014-11-11)
      Understanding psychological factors that affect immunity in sport might help to reduce infection risk in athletes. The present study examined within-person changes and individual differences in perceived coach control, intentions to drop out, and saliva secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA). Thirty-two field hockey players completed questionnaires and provided saliva samples over a 2-month period. Within-person increases in individuals’ perceptions of psychological control and intentions to drop out were positively associated with SIgA concentration. Individual differences in control or drop-out intentions were not associated with SIgA. Interventions in athletes to prevent immune disturbances and reduce infection should consider these psychological factors.