• The health benefits of horse riding in the UK

      Church, Andrew; Taylor, Becky; Maxwell, Neil S.; Gibson, Oliver R.; Twomey, Rosemary (The British Horse Society, 2010-01-01)
      Key findings:The physical health benefits of horse riding and associated activities: 1. Horse riding and activities associated with horse riding, such asmucking out, expend sufficient energy to be classed as moderateintensity exercise. 2. Regular periods of trotting in a riding session may enhance the energyexpended and associated health benefits. 3. More than two thirds (68 percent) of questionnaire respondentsparticipate in horse riding and associated activities for 30 minutes ormore at least three times a week. Sport England estimate that such alevel of sporting activity will help an individual achieve or exceed thegovernment{ extquoteright}s recommended minimum level of physical activity. 4. A range of evidence indicates the vast majority (90 percent plus) ofhorse riders are female and more than a third (37 percent) of the femaleriders who took part in the survey were above 45 years of age. Horseriding is especially well placed to play a valuable role in initiatives toencourage increased physical activity amongst women of all ages. 5. Amongst the horse riders who took part in the survey, 39 percent hadtaken no other form of physical activity in the last four weeks. Thishighlights the importance of riding to these people, who might otherwisebe sedentary. 6. Horse riders with a long-standing illness or disability who took part inthe survey are able to undertake horse riding and associated activitiesat the same self-reported level of frequency and physical intensity asthose without such an illness or disability. The psychological and social benefits of horse riding: 1. Horse riding stimulates mainly positive psychological feelings. 2. Horse riders are strongly motivated to take part in riding by the senseof well-being they gain from interacting with horses. This importantpositive psychological interaction with an animal occurs in a very fewsports. 3. Being outdoors and in contact with nature is an important motivationfor the vast majority of horse riders.
    • Health psychology, behavioural science, and Covid-19 disease prevention

      Chater, Angel M.; Whittaker, Ellie; Lewis, Lesley; Arden, Madelynne A.; Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Chadwick, Paul; Drury, John; Epton, Tracy; Hart, Jo; Kamal, Atiya; et al. (British Psychological Society, 2021-02-02)
      ‘This is a pre-publication version of the following article: [Chater A, Whittaker E, Lewis L, Arden MA, Byrne-Davis L, Chadwick P, Drury J, Epton T, Hart J, Kamal A, McBride E, O'Connor D, Shorter G, Swanson V, Armitage C (2021) 'Health psychology, behavioural science, and Covid-19 disease prevention', Health Psychology Update, (in press).]’ In March 2020 the president of the British Psychological Society (BPS) reached out to member networks to join forces on a BPS COVID-19 co-ordinating group. Members of this group were tasked to lead different work-streams highlighting psychology’s role during the pandemic. One work-stream focused on ‘Behavioural Science and Disease Prevention’. It was clear that understanding behaviour and anticipating public responses to changes in policies, public messaging and guidelines would be key to improving health outcomes. This work-stream focused on developing clear guidance to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and identifying psychological evidence to promote best practice in the design of sustainable behavioural interventions. This includes both immediate infection control behaviours aimed at reducing virus transmission, such as hand washing, physical-distancing and self-isolation, and behaviours that may have been influenced during the pandemic, such as physical activity, eating behaviour, substance use and healthcare use, which will have far reaching impacts on future health. This article provides an overview of the core guidance and practical examples of its application in a public health setting.
    • Health-Based Physical Education – a framework for promoting active lifestyles in children and young people. Part 1: Introducing a new pedagogical model for Health-Based Physical Education

      Bowler, Mark; Sammon, Paul; (Assocation for Physical Education, 2020-11-19)
      HBPE is one framework that can support physical educators to promote young people’s positive physical activity attitudes and behaviours. In part 1, we present a rationale for new ‘PE-for-health pedagogies’ (Armour & Harris, 2013) – new ways of teaching about physical activity. We subsequently justify the foundations of HBPE, including the model’s major theme and goals, and the underlying theories and important assumptions for practitioners. In part 2, we provide a range of practical examples and identify key considerations to illustrate how HBPE can be effectively applied to help promote positive physical activity behaviour.
    • Health-Based Physical Education – a framework for promoting active lifestyles in children and young people. Part 2: Health-Based Physical Education in practice

      Sammon, Paul; Bowler, Mark (Association for Physical Education, 2020-11-19)
      Building on part 1, where we introduced a new pedagogical model for Health-Based Physical Education (HBPE), the primary aim of this article is to illustrate how the model may be implemented in the PE curriculum to help support all children and young people to develop positive physical activity behaviours. Specifically, we consider the model’s critical features for teaching and learning, followed by some key planning considerations, including learning intentions, assessment strategies and how the model can potentially be modified to reflect specific contexts during implementation.
    • A healthy contribution

      Johnston, Marie; Weinman, John; Chater, Angel M. (British Psychological Society, 2011-12-31)
      Marie Johnston, John Weinman and Angel Chater introduce a special feature to mark the founding of the Society’s Health Psychology Section 25 years ago
    • Heat acclimation attenuates physiological strain and the HSP72, but not HSP90α, mRNA response to acute normobaric hypoxia

      Gibson, Oliver R.; Turner, Gareth; Tuttle, James A.; Taylor, Lee; Watt, Peter W.; Maxwell, Neil S.; University of Bedfordshire; University of Brighton (American Physiological Society, 2015-10-15)
      Heat acclimation (HA) attenuates physiological strain in hot conditions via phenotypic and cellular adaptation. The aim of this study was to determine whether HA reduced physiological strain, and heat shock protein (HSP) 72 and HSP90α mRNA responses in acute normobaric hypoxia. Sixteen male participants completed ten 90-min sessions of isothermic HA (40°C/40% relative humidity) or exercise training [control (CON); 20°C/40% relative humidity]. HA or CON were preceded (HYP1) and proceeded (HYP2) by a 30-min normobaric hypoxic exposure [inspired O2 fraction = 0.12; 10-min rest, 10-min cycling at 40% peak O2 uptake (V̇o2 peak), 10-min cycling at 65% V̇o2 peak]. HA induced greater rectal temperatures, sweat rate, and heart rates (HR) than CON during the training sessions. HA, but not CON, reduced resting rectal temperatures and resting HR and increased sweat rate and plasma volume. Hemoglobin mass did not change following HA nor CON. HSP72 and HSP90α mRNA increased in response to each HA session, but did not change with CON. HR during HYP2 was lower and O2 saturation higher at 65% V̇o2 peak following HA, but not CON. O2 uptake/HR was greater at rest and 65% V̇o2 peak in HYP2 following HA, but was unchanged after CON. At rest, the respiratory exchange ratio was reduced during HYP2 following HA, but not CON. The increase in HSP72 mRNA during HYP1 did not occur in HYP2 following HA. In CON, HSP72 mRNA expression was unchanged during HYP1 and HYP2. In HA and CON, increases in HSP90α mRNA during HYP1 were maintained in HYP2. HA reduces physiological strain, and the transcription of HSP72, but not HSP90α mRNA in acute normobaric hypoxia.
    • High intensity interval training (HIIT) improves resting blood pressure, metabolic (MET) capacity and heart rate reserve without compromising cardiac function in sedentary aging men

      Grace, Fergal; Herbert, Peter; Elliot, Adrian D.; Richards, Joanna C.; Beaumont, Alexander; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Federation University; University of Wales Trinity Saint David; University of Adelaide; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-05-13)
      Background: This study examined a programme of pre-conditioning exercise with subsequent high intensity interval training (HIIT) on blood pressure, echocardiography, cardiac strain mechanics and maximal metabolic (MET) capacity in sedentary (SED) aging men compared with age matched masters athletes (LEX). Methods: Using a STROBE compliant observational design, 39 aging male participants (SED; n=22, aged 62.7± 5.2 yrs) (LEX; n = 17, aged= 61.1 ± 5.4 yrs) were recruited to a study that necessitated three distinct assessment phases; enrolment (Phase A), following pre-conditioning exercise in SED (Phase B), then following 6 weeks of HIIT performed once every five days by both groups before reassessment (Phase C). Hemodynamic, echocardiographic and cardiac strain mechanics were obtained at rest and maximal cardiorespiratory and chronotropic responses were obtained at each measurement phase. Results: The training intervention improved systolic, mean arterial blood pressure, rate pressure product and heart rate reserve (each P b 0.05) in SED and increased MET capacity in both SED and LEX (P b 0.01) which was amplified by HIIT. Echocardiography and cardiac strain measures were unremarkable apart from trivial increase to intra-ventricular septum diastole (IVSd) (P b 0.05) and decrease to left ventricular internal dimension diastole (LVId) (P b 0.05) in LEX following HIIT. Conclusions: A programme of preconditioning exercise with HIIT induces clinically relevant improvements in blood pressure, rate pressure product and encourages recovery of heart rate reserve in SED, while improving maximal MET capacity in both SED and LEX without inducing any pathological cardiovascular remodeling. These data add to the emerging repute of HIIT as a safe and promising exercise prescription to improve cardiovascular function and metabolic capacity in sedentary aging.
    • Hot and hypoxic environments inhibit simulated soccer performance and exacerbate performance decrements when combined.

      Aldous, Jeffrey William Frederick; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Akubat, Ibrahim; Dascombe, Ben; Abt, Grant; Taylor, Lee; University of Bedfordshire; Qatar University; Newman University; La Trobe University; et al. (Frontiers Media, 2016-01-12)
      The effects of heat and/or hypoxia have been well-documented in match-play data. However, large match-to-match variation for key physical performance measures makes environmental inferences difficult to ascertain from soccer match-play. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the hot (HOT), hypoxic (HYP) and hot-hypoxic (HH) mediated-decrements during a non-motorised treadmill based soccer-specific simulation. Twelve male University soccer players completed three familiarisation sessions and four randomised crossover experimental trials of the intermittent Soccer Performance Test (iSPT) in normoxic-temperate (CON: 18oC 50% rH), HOT (30oC; 50% rH), HYP (1,000m; 18oC 50% rH) and HH (1,000m; 30oC; 50% rH). Physical performance and its performance decrements, body temperatures (rectal, skin and estimated muscle temperature), heart rate (HR), arterial blood oxygen saturation (SaO2), perceived exertion, thermal sensation (TS), body mass changes, blood lactate and plasma volume were all measured. Performance decrements were similar in HOT and HYP [Total Distance (-4%), High-speed distance (~-8%) and variable run distance (~-12%) covered] and exacerbated in HH [total distance (-9%), high-speed distance (-15%) and variable run distance (-15%)] compared to CON. Peak sprint speed, was 4% greater in HOT compared with CON and HYP and 7% greater in HH. Sprint distance covered was unchanged (p > 0.05) in HOT and HYP and only decreased in HH (-8%) compared with CON. Body mass (-2%), temperatures (+2-5%) and TS (+18%) were altered in HOT. Furthermore, SaO2 (-8%) and HR (+3%) were changed in HYP. Similar changes in body mass and temperatures, HR, TS and SaO2 were evident in HH to HOT and HYP, however, blood lactate (p < 0.001) and plasma volume (p < 0.001) were only significantly altered in HH. Perceived exertion was elevated (p < 0.05) by 7% in all conditions compared with CON. Regression analysis identified that absolute TS and absolute rise in skin and estimated muscle temperature (r = 0.82, r = 0.84 r = 0.82, respectively; p <0.05) predicted the hot-mediated-decrements in HOT. The hot, hypoxic and hot-hypoxic environments impaired physical performance during iSPT. Future interventions should address the increases in TS and body temperatures, to attenuate these decrements on soccer performance.
    • How effective is community physical activity promotion in areas of deprivation for inactive adults with cardiovascular disease risk and/or mental health concerns? Study protocol for a pragmatic observational evaluation of the 'Active Herts' physical activity programme

      Howlett, Neil; Jones, Andy; Bain, Lucy; Chater, Angel M.; University of Hertfordshire; University of East Anglia; University of Bedfordshire; University College London (BMJ, 2017-11-25)
      Introduction There is a high prevalence of inactive adults in the UK, and many suffer from conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) or poor mental health. These coexist more frequently in areas of higher socioeconomic deprivation. There is a need to test the effectiveness, acceptability and sustainability of physical activity programmes. Active Herts uses novel evidence-based behaviour change techniques to target physical inactivity. Methods and analysis Active Herts is a community physical activity programme for inactive adults aged 16+ with one or more risk factors for CVD and/or a mild to moderate mental health condition. This evaluation will follow a mixed-methods longitudinal (baseline, and 3-month, 6-month and 12-month follow-ups) design. Pragmatic considerations mean delivery of the programme differs by locality. In two areas programme users will receive a behaviour change technique booklet, regular consultations, a booster phone call, motivational text messages and signposting to 12 weeks of exercise classes. In another two areas programme users will also receive 12 weeks of free tailored exercise classes, with optional exercise ‘buddies’ available. An outcome evaluation will assess changes in physical activity as the primary outcome, and sporting participation, sitting, well-being, psychological capability and reflective motivation as secondary outcomes. A process evaluation will explore the views of stakeholders, delivery staff and programme leads. Economic evaluation will examine the programme costs against the benefits gained in terms of reduced risk of morbidity. Ethics and dissemination This study was been approved by the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee at the University of East Anglia. Informed written consent will be obtained from programme users in the evaluation. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at conferences, and shared through the study website and local community outlets.
    • How PETE comes to matter in the performance of social justice education

      Ovens, Alan; Flory, Sara B.; Sutherland, Sue; Philpot, Rod; Walton-Fisette, Jennifer L.; Hill, Joanne; Phillips, Sharon; Flemons, Michelle; University of Auckland; University of South Florida; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2018-05-06)
      Background: For over four decades there have been calls for physical education (PE) and physical education teacher education (PETE) to address social inequality and foster social justice. Yet, as numerous studies demonstrate, attempts to educate for social justice in PETE are infrequent and rarely comprehensive. This raises the question why it appears to be possible in some situations but not others, and for some students and not others.    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the multiple socio-political networks or assemblages in which PETE is embedded and explore how these shape the possibilities for students to engage with the concept of social justice and sociocultural issues when learning to teach PE. Two research questions guided this study: How does an orientation for social justice education within education policy affect the standards for enacting PETE programs? How is social justice education encouraged within PETE programs? Methodology: Methodology: Drawing from a broader study of over 70 key personnel in more than 40 PETE programs, we examined how faculty in PETE understand their professional world, identify their subjective meanings of their experiences, and address sociocultural issues (SCI) and social justice education (SJE) within PETE. Data sources included an initial survey, a semi-structured interview, and program artifacts. We analyze the ways that SJE/SCI was represented in three national settings (England, the United States, and New Zealand) and identified common themes. Results:  Examination of each national setting reveals ways that SJE and SCI were enabled and constrained across the national, programmatic, and individual level in each of the countries. The coherence of explicit National policy and curricula, PETE program philosophies, and the presence of multiple individual interests in social justice served to reify a sociocultural agenda. Conversely possibilities were nullified by narrow or general National Standards, programs that failed to acknowledge sociocultural interests, and the absence of a critical mass of actors with a socio-critical orientation. These differences in assemblage culminated in variations in curriculum time that served to restrict or enable the breadth, frequency, and consistency of the messages surrounding SCI in PETE Conclusion: These findings highlight the importance of acknowledging socio-political networks where PETE operates. The agency of PETEs to enact pedagogies that foreground sociocultural interests is contingent on congruity of the networks. The authors caution that although the ‘perfect storm’ of conditions have a profound influence of the possibility of transformational learning of SCI in PETE, this arrangement is always temporary, fluid, and subject to changes in any of the three network levels. Additionally, the success of PETE in enabling graduating PE teachers to recognize the inequities that may be reinforced through the ‘hidden curriculum’ and to problematize the subject area is contingent on the expectations of the schools in which they teach.     
    • Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA transcription is characterised by large, sustained changes in core temperature during heat acclimation

      Gibson, Oliver R.; Tuttle, James A.; Watt, Peter W.; Maxwell, Neil S.; Taylor, Lee; ; Brunel University; University of Brighton; University of Bedfordshire; Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital; et al. (Springer, 2016-08-11)
      Increased intracellular heat shock protein-72 (Hsp72) and heat shock protein-90α (Hsp90α) have been implicated as important components of acquired thermotolerance, providing cytoprotection during stress. This experiment determined the physiological responses characterising increases in Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA on the first and tenth day of 90-min heat acclimation (in 40.2 °C, 41.0 % relative humidity (RH)) or equivalent normothermic training (in 20 °C, 29 % RH). Pearson’s product-moment correlation and stepwise multiple regression were performed to determine relationships between physiological [e.g. (Trec, sweat rate (SR) and heart rate (HR)] and training variables (exercise duration, exercise intensity, work done), and the leukocyte Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA responses via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) (n = 15). Significant (p &lt; 0.05) correlations existed between increased Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA (r = 0.879). Increased core temperature was the most important criteria for gene transcription with ΔTrec (r = 0.714), SR (r = 0.709), Trecfinal45 (r = 0.682), area under the curve where Trec ≥ 38.5 °C (AUC38.5 °C; r = 0.678), peak Trec (r = 0.661), duration Trec ≥ 38.5 °C (r = 0.650) and ΔHR (r = 0.511) each demonstrating a significant (p &lt; 0.05) correlation with the increase in Hsp72 mRNA. The Trec AUC38.5 °C (r = 0.729), ΔTrec (r = 0.691), peak Trec (r = 0.680), Trecfinal45 (r = 0.678), SR (r = 0.660), duration Trec ≥ 38.5 °C (r = 0.629), the rate of change in Trec (r = 0.600) and ΔHR (r = 0.531) were the strongest correlate with the increase in Hsp90α mRNA. Multiple regression improved the model for Hsp90α mRNA only, when Trec AUC38.5 °C and SR were combined. Training variables showed insignificant (p > 0.05) weak (r &lt; 0.300) relationships with Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA. Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA correlates were comparable on the first and tenth day. When transcription of the related Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA is important, protocols should rapidly induce large, prolonged changes in core temperature.
    • “I had to pop a wheelie and pay extra attention in order not to fall:” embodied experiences of two wheelchair tennis athletes transgressing ableist and gendered norms in disability sport and university spaces

      Lynch, Shrehan; Hill, Joanne; ; University of East London; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2020-02-20)
      When bodies move in certain contexts, it can mean very different things for different people. In our society, some bodies are more valued than others, and detrimentally, this can mean that certain types of bodies are ostracized and segregated to the outskirts of production economies and society. Dis/ability sport spaces, able-bodied sports spaces and able-bodied university spaces have been an under-researched area when considering how the body moves throughout these spaces for elite wheelchair athletes taking part in university courses. To learn more, this paper drew on feminist poststructuralism and new materialist perspectives and shared an insight into how two athletes with dis/abilities transgressed abled and gendered norms in different spaces and how they positioned themselves as athletic bodies and disabled bodies in these spaces. Employing a post-critical ethnographic design, we found that dependent on the space a dis/abled body is in constant flux as to when it feels marginalised and different (typically able-bodied spaces) and when it feels included, valued, and strong (typically dis/abled spaces). Significantly, the materiality of the institutional structures of universities, founded upon historic aesthetics of beauty dictated the physical spaces the athletes entered and created spaces of exclusion based on capitalist and ableist ideologies. When bodies move in certain contexts, it can mean very different things for different people. In our society, some bodies are more valued than others, and detrimentally, this can mean that certain types of bodies are ostracized and segregated to the outskirts of production economies and society. Dis/ability sport spaces, able-bodied sports spaces and able-bodied university spaces have been an under-researched area when considering how the body moves throughout these spaces for elite wheelchair athletes taking part in university courses. To learn more, this paper drew on feminist poststructuralism and new materialist perspectives and shared an insight into how two athletes with dis/abilities transgressed abled and gendered norms in different spaces and how they positioned themselves as athletic bodies and disabled bodies in these spaces. Employing a post-critical ethnographic design, we found that dependent on the space a dis/abled body is in constant flux as to when it feels marginalised and different (typically able-bodied spaces) and when it feels included, valued, and strong (typically dis/abled spaces). Significantly, the materiality of the institutional structures of universities, founded upon historic aesthetics of beauty dictated the physical spaces the athletes entered and created spaces of exclusion based on capitalist and ableist ideologies. 
    • ‘If you miss the ball, you look like a total muppet!’ Boys investing in their bodies in physical education and sport

      Hill, Joanne (Taylor & Francis, 2013-08-15)
      Connections have been drawn between masculinity, muscularity and physical or social status in sport. Not only are sporting bodies often related to masculinity but also to whiteness, leading to the devaluing of Asian boys’ bodies and sporting experiences. This paper draws on three British Asian teenage boys’ visual and verbal narratives to enquire how they negotiate these connections in their physical education and recreational sport experiences. Bourdieu’s notion of capital is used to make sense of boys’ ways of investing in their bodies to manage their status in school. Drawing from focus-group interviews which used participant-driven photography and photo elicitation techni- ques, the research indicates how three boys invested in their bodies by doing particular types of physical activity that would enable them to develop muscularity, fitness and/or motor competence, to attain or retain physical and social capital in school. Along the way, they add pertinent comments on the intersections of masculinity and ethnicity in constructing and performing a sporting body. Keywords:
    • The impact of active workstations on workplace productivity and performance: a systematic review

      Ojo, Samson Oluseye; Bailey, Daniel Paul; Chater, Angel M.; Hewson, David; University of Bedfordshire (2018-02-27)
      Active workstations have been recommended for reducing sedentary behavior in the workplace. It is important to understand if the use of these workstations has an impact on worker productivity. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effect of active workstations on workplace productivity and performance. A total of 3303 articles were initially identified by a systematic search and seven articles met eligibility criteria for inclusion. A quality appraisal was conducted to assess risk of bias, confounding, internal and external validity, and reporting. Most of the studies reported cognitive performance as opposed to productivity. Five studies assessed cognitive performance during use of an active workstation, usually in a single session. Sit-stand desks had no detrimental effect on performance, however, some studies with treadmill and cycling workstations identified potential decreases in performance. Many of the studies lacked the power required to achieve statistical significance. Three studies assessed workplace productivity after prolonged use of an active workstation for between 12 and 52 weeks. These studies reported no significant effect on productivity. Active workstations do not appear to decrease workplace performance. View Full-Text
    • The impact of different environmental conditions on cognitive function: a focused review

      Taylor, Lee; Watkins, Samuel L.; Marshall, Hannah; Dascombe, Ben; Foster, Josh; Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital; University of Bedfordshire; University of Newcastle, Australia (Frontiers Media S.A., 2016-01-06)
      Cognitive function defines performance in objective tasks that require conscious mental effort. Extreme environments, namely heat, hypoxia, and cold can all alter human cognitive function due to a variety of psychological and/or biological processes. The aims of this Focused Review were to discuss; (1) the current state of knowledge on the effects of heat, hypoxic and cold stress on cognitive function, (2) the potential mechanisms underpinning these alterations, and (3) plausible interventions that may maintain cognitive function upon exposure to each of these environmental stressors. The available evidence suggests that the effects of heat, hypoxia, and cold stress on cognitive function are both task and severity dependent. Complex tasks are particularly vulnerable to extreme heat stress, whereas both simple and complex task performance appear to be vulnerable at even at moderate altitudes. Cold stress also appears to negatively impact both simple and complex task performance, however, the research in this area is sparse in comparison to heat and hypoxia. In summary, this focused review provides updated knowledge regarding the effects of extreme environmental stressors on cognitive function and their biological underpinnings. Tyrosine supplementation may help individuals maintain cognitive function in very hot, hypoxic, and/or cold conditions. However, more research is needed to clarify these and other postulated interventions.
    • Impact of intensified training and carbohydrate supplementation on immunity and markers of overreaching in highly trained cyclists

      Svendsen, Ida S.; Killer, Sophie C.; Carter, James M.; Randell, Rebecca K.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.; Gleeson, Michael; ; Loughborough University; PepsiCo Global Nutrition R&D (Springer Verlag, 2016-02-23)
      Purpose: To determine effects of intensified training (IT) and carbohydrate supplementation on overreaching and immunity. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 13 male cyclists (age 25 ± 6 years, (Formula presented.) 72 ± 5 ml/kg/min) completed two 8-day periods of IT. On one occasion, participants ingested 2 % carbohydrate (L-CHO) beverages before, during and after training sessions. On the second occasion, 6 % carbohydrate (H-CHO) solutions were ingested before, during and after training, with the addition of 20 g of protein in the post-exercise beverage. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after incremental exercise to fatigue on days 1 and 9. Results: In both trials, IT resulted in decreased peak power (375 ± 37 vs. 391 ± 37 W, P &lt; 0.001), maximal heart rate (179 ± 8 vs. 190 ± 10 bpm, P &lt; 0.001) and haematocrit (39 ± 2 vs. 42 ± 2 %, P &lt; 0.001), and increased plasma volume (P &lt; 0.001). Resting plasma cortisol increased while plasma ACTH decreased following IT (P &lt; 0.05), with no between-trial differences. Following IT, antigen-stimulated whole blood culture production of IL-1α was higher in L-CHO than H-CHO (0.70 (95 % CI 0.52–0.95) pg/ml versus 0.33 (0.24–0.45) pg/ml, P &lt; 0.01), as was production of IL-1β (9.3 (95 % CI 7–10.4) pg/ml versus 6.0 (5.0–7.8) pg/ml, P &lt; 0.05). Circulating total leukocytes (P &lt; 0.05) and neutrophils (P &lt; 0.01) at rest increased following IT, as did neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and percentage CD4+ lymphocytes (P &lt; 0.05), with no between-trial differences. Conclusion: IT resulted in symptoms consistent with overreaching, although immunological changes were modest. Higher carbohydrate intake was not able to alleviate physiological/immunological disturbances.
    • The impact of neurological disability and sensory loss on mindfulness practice

      Finlay, K. A.; Chater, Angel M.; Hearn, J.; University of Reading; University of Bedfordshire; Manchester Metropolitan University (Taylor and Francis, 2021-02-23)
      Objectives Mindfulness-based approaches are increasingly recommended in the management of medical conditions associated with sensory loss and absence, such as Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Functional Neurological Disorder (FND). Yet the implications of undertaking practices such as body scanning when living with sensory loss have not been considered. This study aimed to explore the impact of sensory loss on the practice and experience of mindfulness in qualified mindfulness teachers with SCI/FND/MS. Methods Eight mindfulness teachers (5 females, 3 males) with SCI/FND/MS, sensory loss and wheelchair use were recruited from mindfulness teacher databases. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were undertaken, lasting between 50 and 93 min. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Idiographic analyses for descriptive, linguistic and conceptual themes were completed before cross-case analyses. Results Analyses resulted in two superordinate themes: (1) Adopting your Body; and (2) Sensation without Loss. These themes reflected the challenge of overcoming initial resistance to areas of the body with sensory disruption, building a relationship with the whole body, such that sensory awareness could be visualised and experienced without proprioception. Conclusions Mindfulness offers a unique approach to accepting and working with the body after paralysis or sensory loss. Fundamental to the use of mindfulness with such populations, is the prioritisation of inclusive sensory language and exploring sensory absence as well as sensory presence. The cognitive and emotional outcomes of body scanning may be uniquely elevated in populations with neurophysiological disorders, highlighting the benefits of mindfulness for adaptive and protective self-management.
    • The impact of playing in matches while injured on injury surveillance findings in professional football

      Hammond, Lucy E.; Lilley, J.M.; Pope, G.D.; Ribbans, W.J.; (Blackwell Munksgaard, 2013-10-10)
      This study aimed to analyze the frequency, nature, and consequences of footballers playing matches while injured, and to examine the impact on injury surveillance findings. High levels of inter-rater reliability and content validity were established for a tool designed to document players who were already injured at the start of a match. The tool was implemented in three English football teams (a Championship, League 1, and League 2 team) for one season, using a "time loss" definition of injury. One hundred forty-three matches were surveyed, revealing 102 match appearances by players who were already injured. Almost half of all games featured at least one injured player, with episodes of playing with injury occurring more frequently and lasting longer in League 2 players compared with higher level players. No association was observed between the number of injured players starting matches and match outcome [χ2(4, N=143)=3.27, P=0.514]. Fifteen percent of all injury episodes captured were only through prospective documentation of playing while injured. The findings show that both traumatic and overuse injuries are managed by footballers through competitive matches, and have important implications for aiding understanding of the epidemiology of injury in professional football..
    • Implicit and explicit pedagogical practices related to sociocultural issues and social justice in physical education teacher education programs

      Walton-Fisette, Jennifer L.; Philpot, Rod; Phillips, Sharon; Flory, Sara B.; Hill, Joanne; Sutherland, Sue; Flemons, Michelle; Kent State University; University of Auckland; Hofstra University; et al. (Taylor & Francis (Routledge): SSH Titles, 2018-05-03)
      Background: For many years, scholars in PETE have argued for the importance of educating pre-service teachers (PSTs) about equality (e.g., Evans 1990), sociocultural perspectives and issues (e.g., Cliff, Wright and Clarke, 2009; Author 2014) and critical pedagogy (e.g., Fernandez-Balboa 1997; Philpot 2015). Despite this advocacy, we would argue that there are significant differences in how faculty teach about sociocultural issues, and for, social justice. The pedagogical actions through which Physical Education Teacher Educators (PETEs) do this work is the focus of this paper. Purpose: We investigated the pedagogical approaches and strategies used by PETE faculty to address and educate PSTs about social justice and sociocultural issues related to gender, race, sexuality, (dis)ability, socioeconomic status and religion in their individual PETE programs. In this study, we draw on transformational pedagogy (Ukpokodu 2009; Ovens 2017) as a framework for theorizing the data. Through this study, we highlight the pedagogical practices espoused as those that engender transformative learning. Data collection and analysis: Data for this interpretive qualitative research study was collected primarily through in-depth semi-structured interviews with over 70 PETEs who work in 48 PETE programs across Australia, Canada, England, Ireland New Zealand, Sweden, and the United States. Furthermore, an informational survey was used to gather demographic data of the participants. The participants, all current PETEs, had a wide range of professional experiences, which included the length of time in the profession, the type of institution employed, educational backgrounds and courses taught. Data analysis was completed using the processes of content analysis and the constant comparative method (Corbin and Strauss 2008). Findings: Three major themes represent the findings. In the first theme, ‘Intentional and Explicit Pedagogies’ we provide descriptions of the approaches and strategies used by PETEs in this study that were planned in advance of the learning experiences. In the second theme, ‘Teachable Moments’ we provide examples of how PETEs utilized ‘teachable moments’ in implicit and explicit ways to educate PSTs about sociocultural issues. The third theme, ‘Resistance and Constraints’ captures the individual challenges PETE faculty faced within their courses if, and when, they teach for equity and social justice. The findings suggest that social justice struggles to find an explicit presence within many PETE programs and that educating PSTs about sociocultural issues and social justice is lacking in many PETE programs.
    • In pursuit of control and happiness: the psychological way to a lower body mass index, but hold the dieting!

      Chater, Angel M.; Cook, Erica Jane (2010-08-31)
      Background: Obesity continues to present a major public health concern (NHS, 2008). This study aimed to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the affective states: happiness, anxiety and depression, alongside self efficacy and eating behaviours. It further aimed to identify if these components influence overeating behaviour, a factor that is empirically linked to a high BMI (Macht, 2008). Method: Data was collected from 104 adults (76% female), mean age 38.48 (SD = 12.47) years, who completed questionnaires which measured happiness, depression, anxiety, generalised self efficacy, dietary restraint, emotional eating and binge eating. Height and weight were also taken to calculate BMI, which ranged from 16.41-44.38 with a mean BMI of 26.92 (SD = 5.98). Results: Findings confirm that there are significant relationships between personal control, affective states, eating behaviours and BMI. Generalised self efficacy and happiness were revealed as predominant psychological factors, correlating with all variables (p < .001). Controlling for age and gender, generalised self efficacy explained the variance in emotional eating by 16%, binge eating by 12% and BMI by 19%. Dietary restraint accounted for 66% of the variance in binge eating behaviour and was also the highest predictor of BMI (R2 = .45), with depression explaining a further 9%. Finally, investigating the influence of emotional eating, negative affect (R2 = .32) and dietary restraint (R2 = .07) were revealed to be the most significant predictors. Conclusion: Evidence presented here highlights the importance for behavioural medicine to consider the influence of self efficacy and affect when tailoring weight loss interventions, while also exercising caution over the negative influence of dieting behaviour.