• Factors influencing the prescribing behaviour of independent prescriber optometrists: a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework

      Spillane, Daniel; Courtenay, Molly; Chater, Angel M.; Family, Hannah; Whitaker, Angela; Acton, Jennifer H. (Wiley, 2021-02-20)
      Purpose: Whilst the number of independent prescriber optometrists in the United Kingdom is increasing, there is limited evidence describing the experiences of these individuals. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) provides an evidence-based approach to understand determinants of behaviour. This conceptual framework can enable mapping to the COM-B behaviour change model and the wider Behaviour Change Wheel to develop interventions to optimise behaviourchange and healthcare processes more systematically. The study aimed to use the TDF to identify the factors that influence independent prescribing behaviour, and to map these findings to the COM-B system to elucidate the relevant intervention functions, in order to identify the support required by optometrist prescribers. Methods: Using a qualitative design, semi-structured interviews based on the TDF were undertaken with independent prescriber optometrists. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes inductively, which were then deductively mapped to the TDF and then linked to the COM-B. Results: Sixteen participants (9 male; median age 45 years, range 28–65 years), based in community (n = 10) and hospital (n = 6) settings, were interviewed. Eleven of the TDF domains were found to influence prescribing behaviour. Findings highlighted the need for good communication with patients (TDF domain: Skills, COM-B: Capability); confidence (TDF domain: Beliefs about capabilities, COM-B: Motivation); good networks and relationships with other healthcare professionals, e.g., general practitioners (TDF domain: Social influences, COM-B: Opportunity; TDF domain: Social/professional role and identity, COM-B: Motivation); the need for appropriate structure for remuneration (TDF domain: Reinforcement, COM-B: Motivation; TDF domain: Social/professional role and identity, COM-B: Motivation); and the provision of professional guidelines (TDF domain: Knowledge, COM-B: Capability; TDF domain: Environmental context and resources, COM-B Opportunity). Conclusions: Having identified theory-derived influencers on prescribing decisions by optometrists, the findings can be used to develop a structured intervention, such as a support package to help optimise prescribing by optometrists, with the ultimate goal of eye care quality improvement.
    • Field based reliability and validity of the Bioharness (TM) multivariable monitoring device

      Johnstone, James A.; Ford, Paul A.; Hughes, Gerwyn T.G.; Watson, Tim; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Garrett, Andrew T.; University of Hertfordshire; University of Hull; British Olympic Association (JOURNAL SPORTS SCIENCE & MEDICINE, 2012-12-01)
      The Bioharness (TM) device is designed for monitoring physiological variables in free-living situations but has only been proven to be reliable and valid in a laboratory environment. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the Bioharness (TM) using a field based protocol. Twenty healthy males participated. Heart rate (HR), breathing frequency (BF) and accelerometry (ACC) were assessed by simultaneous measurement of two Bioharness (TM) devices and a test-retest of a discontinuous incremental walk-jog-run protocol (4 -11 km.h(-1)) completed in a sports hall. Adopted precision of measurement devices were; HR: Polar T31 (Polar Electro), BF: Spirometer (Cortex Metalyser), ACC: Oxygen expenditure (Cortex Metalyser). For all data, precision of measurement reported good relationships (r = 0.61 to 0.67, p < 0.01) and large Limits of Agreement for HR (>79.2 b.min(-1)) and BF (>54.7 br.min(-1)). ACC presented excellent precision (r = 0.94, p < 0.01). Results for HR (r = similar to 0.91, p < 0.01: CV < 7.6) and ACC (r > 0.97, p < 0.01; CV <14.7) suggested these variables are reliable. BF presented more variable data (r = 0.46-0.61, p < 0.01; CV < 23.7). As velocity of movement increased (> 8 km.h(-1)) data became more erroneous. A data cleaning protocol removed gross errors in the data analysis and subsequent reliability and validity statistics improved across all variables. In conclusion, the Bioharness (TM) HR and ACC variables have demonstrated reliability and validity in a field setting, though data collected at higher velocities should be treated with caution. Measuring human physiological responses in a field based environment allows for more ecologically valid data to be collected and devices such as the Bioharness (TM) could be used by exercise professionals to begin to further investigate this area.
    • Fueling for the field: nutrition for jumps, throws, and combined events

      Sygo, Jennifer; Killer, Sophie C.; Glass, Alicia Kendig; Stellingwerff, Trent; (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2019-03-31)
      Athletes participating in the athletics (track and field) events of jumps, throws, and combined events (CEs; seven-event heptathlon and 10-event decathlon) engage in training and competition that emphasize speed and explosive movements, requiring optimal power-weight ratios. While these athletes represent a wide range of somatotypes, they share an emphasis on Type IIa and IIx muscle fiber typing. In general, athletes competing in jumps tend to have a lower body mass and may benefit from a higher protein (1.5-1.8 g PRO·kg−1·day−1) and lower carbohydrate (3-6 g CHO·kg−1·day−1) diet. Throwers tend to have a higher body mass, but with considerable differences between events. Their intense, whole-body training program suggests higher PRO requirements (1.5-2.2 g PRO·kg−1·day−1), while CHO needs (per kg) are similar to jumpers. The CE athletes must strike a balance between strength and muscle mass for throws and sprints, while maintaining a low enough body mass to maximize performance in jumps and middle-distance events. CE athletes may benefit from a higher PRO (1.5-2 g PRO·kg−1·day−1) and moderate CHO (5-8 g CHO·kg−1·day−1) diet with good energy availability to support multiple daily training sessions. Since they compete over 2 days, well-rehearsed competition-day fueling and recovery strategies are imperative for CE athletes. Depending on their events' bioenergetic demands, athletes in throws, jumps, and CE may benefit from the periodized use of ergogenic aids, including creatine, caffeine, and/or beta-alanine. The diverse training demands, physiques, and competitive environments of jumpers, throwers, and CE athletes necessitate nutrition interventions that are periodized throughout the season and tailored to the individual needs of the athlete.
    • Full gait cycle analysis of lower limb and trunk kinematics and muscle activations during walking in participants with and without ankle instability

      Northeast, Lynsey; Gautrey, Charlotte N.; Bottoms, Lindsay; Hughes, Gerwyn T.G.; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Greenhalgh, Andrew; University of Hertfordshire; University of San Francisco; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2018-06-07)
      Background: Chronic ankle instability (CAI) has previously been linked to altered lower limb kinematics and muscle activation characteristics during walking, though little research has been performed analysing the full time-series across the stance and swing phases of gait. Research question: The aim of this study was to compare trunk and lower limb kinematics and muscle activity between those with chronic ankle instability and healthy controls. Methods: Kinematics and muscle activity were measured in 18 (14 males, 4 females) healthy controls (age 22.4 ± 3.6 years, height 177.8 ± 7.6 cm, mass 70.4 ± 11.9 kg, UK shoe size 8.4 ± 1.6), and 18 (13 males, 5 females) participants with chronic ankle instability (age 22.0 ± 2.7 years, height 176.8 ± 7.9 cm, mass 74.1 ± 9.6 kg, UK shoe size 8.1 ± 1.9) during barefoot walking trials, using a combined Helen Hayes and Oxford foot model. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was recorded for the tibialis anterior and gluteus medius. Full curve statistical parametric mapping was performed using independent and paired-samples T-tests. Results: No significant differences were observed in kinematic or sEMG variables between or within groups for the duration of the swing phase of gait. A significantly increased forefoot-tibia inversion was seen in the CAI affected limb when compared to the CAI unaffected limb at 4-16% stance (p = 0.039). No other significant differences were observed. Significance: There appears to be no differences in muscle activation and movement between CAI and healthy control groups. However, participants with CAI exhibited increased inversion patterns during the stance phase of gait in their affected limb compared to their unaffected limb. This may predispose those with CAI to episodes of giving way and further ankle sprains.
    • Gender and school-level differences in students' moderate and vigorous physical activity levels when taught basketball through the tactical games model

      Harvey, Stephen; Smith, Megan L.; Song, Yang; Robertson, David; Brown, Renee; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; West Virginia University; University of Bedfordshire (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2016-10-04)
      The Tactical Games Model (TGM) prefaces the cognitive components of physical education (PE), which has implications for physical activity (PA) accumulation. PA recommendations suggest students reach 50% moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). However, this criterion does not indicate the contribution from vigorous physical activity (VPA). Consequently, this study investigated: a) the effects of TGM delivery on MVPA/VPA and, b) gender/school level differences. Participants were 78 seventh and 96 fourth/fifth grade coeducational PE students from two different schools. Two teachers taught 24 (middle) and 30 (elementary) level one TGM basketball lessons. Students wore Actigraph GT3× triaxial accelerometers. Data were analyzed using four one-way ANOVAs. Middle school boys had significantly higher MVPA/VPA (34.04/22.37%) than girls (25.14/15.47%). Elementary school boys had significantly higher MVPA/VPA (29.73/18.33%) than girls (23.03/14.33%). While TGM lessons provide a context where students can accumulate VPA consistent with national PA recommendations, teachers need to modify lesson activities to enable equitable PA participation.
    • Gender, age and physical activity representation in children's colouring books (Representación del género, la edad y la actividad física en libros para colorear infantiles)

      Martínez Bello, Vladimir; Hill, Joanne; ; Universidad de Valencia; University of Bedfordshire (Revistas Universidad de León, 2020-06-24)
      Despite publishing houses recognizing the importance of ensuring equal representation of all people in curricular materials and scholars also noting their importance in teaching children gendered behaviours, it is still common to find stereotypically gendered non-coeducational curriculum materials in the international market. The aim of this study is to determine the representation of female and male characters in the illustrations of six colouring books published in the United Kingdom entitled “Books for Girls” and “Books for Boys”. A quantitative content analysis, and a supporting qualitative discourse analysis were carried out. This paper examines the effect of constructing gender difference in children’s colouring books. Gender bias in early childhood education poses the risk of perpetuating a manifestation of inequality.
    • Girls’ active identities: navigating othering discourses of femininity, bodies and physical education

      Hill, Joanne (Taylor & Francis, 2015-09-01)
      Within physical education and sport, girls must navigate discourses of valued athletic and gendered bodies that marginalise or ‘other’ non-normative performances through systems of surveillance and punishment. The purpose of this paper is to share girls’ perspectives on how these discourses affected their gender performances and activity engagement. Students aged 13-14 in one ethnically diverse UK secondary school were invited to create a photo diary of the physical activities they engaged in. Photo elicitation interviews in small groups followed. The girls positioned themselves as physically active but had to carefully manage their activity choices and gender performances in a single-sex physical education environment that regulated deviation from the fit, slender, girly girl. Although the girls demonstrate the difficulty of resisting, they indicate moments of positioning themselves against norms that suggest the possibilities of shifting gendering processes. The paper points out the importance of listening to ‘other’ girls’ narratives in building positive physical education engagements.
    • Global and regional left ventricular circumferential strain during incremental cycling and isometric knee extension exercise

      Beaumont, Alexander; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Hough, John; Unnithan, Viswanath; Richards, Joanna C. (Wiley, 2018-04-16)
      Background: The objective of this study was to investigate left ventricular (LV) circumferential strain responses to incremental cycling and isometric knee extension exercises. Methods: Twenty-six healthy male participants (age = 30 ± 6 years) were used to study LV global (GCS) and regional circumferential strain at the apex (ACS) and base (BCS) during incremental cycling at 30% and 60% work rate maximum (Wmax) and short-duration (15 seconds contractions) isometric knee extensions at 40% and 75% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Results: During cycling (n = 22), GCS increased progressively from rest to 60% Wmax (−22.85 ± 3.26% to −29.87 ± 2.59%, P < .01). ACS increased from rest to 30% Wmax (−26.29 ± 4.84% to −36.84 ± 6.94%, P < .01) and then remained unchanged to 60% Wmax (−40.72 ± 4.06%, P = .068). BCS decreased from rest to 30% Wmax (−19.41 ± 2.79 to −17.51 ± 4.66%, P = .05) and then remained unchanged to 60% Wmax. During isometric knee extension (n = 23), GCS decreased from rest to 40% MVC (−22.63 ± 3.46 to −20.10 ± 2.78%, P < .05) and then remained unchanged to 75% MVC. Similarly, BCS decreased from rest to 40% MVC (−19.21 ± 2.58% to −13.55 ± 3.45%, P < .01) and then remained unchanged, whereas ACS did not change with exercise intensity (rest, −26.05 ± 5.34%; 40% MVC, −26.64 ± 4.53% and 75% MVC −27.22 ± 5.34%, all P > .05). Conclusion: Global circumferential strain increased stepwise during incremental cycling, mediated by the apex with trivial changes at the base. In contrast, GCS decreased during the isometric knee extension to 40% MVC and then plateaued, due to decreased BCS as ACS was maintained. A novel finding is that the GCS response appears to be exercise modality dependant and is the consequence of region-specific changes.
    • The health benefits of horse riding in the UK

      Church, Andrew; Taylor, Becky; Maxwell, Neil S.; Gibson, Oliver R.; Twomey, Rosemary (The British Horse Society, 2010-01-01)
      Key findings:The physical health benefits of horse riding and associated activities: 1. Horse riding and activities associated with horse riding, such asmucking out, expend sufficient energy to be classed as moderateintensity exercise. 2. Regular periods of trotting in a riding session may enhance the energyexpended and associated health benefits. 3. More than two thirds (68 percent) of questionnaire respondentsparticipate in horse riding and associated activities for 30 minutes ormore at least three times a week. Sport England estimate that such alevel of sporting activity will help an individual achieve or exceed thegovernment{ extquoteright}s recommended minimum level of physical activity. 4. A range of evidence indicates the vast majority (90 percent plus) ofhorse riders are female and more than a third (37 percent) of the femaleriders who took part in the survey were above 45 years of age. Horseriding is especially well placed to play a valuable role in initiatives toencourage increased physical activity amongst women of all ages. 5. Amongst the horse riders who took part in the survey, 39 percent hadtaken no other form of physical activity in the last four weeks. Thishighlights the importance of riding to these people, who might otherwisebe sedentary. 6. Horse riders with a long-standing illness or disability who took part inthe survey are able to undertake horse riding and associated activitiesat the same self-reported level of frequency and physical intensity asthose without such an illness or disability. The psychological and social benefits of horse riding: 1. Horse riding stimulates mainly positive psychological feelings. 2. Horse riders are strongly motivated to take part in riding by the senseof well-being they gain from interacting with horses. This importantpositive psychological interaction with an animal occurs in a very fewsports. 3. Being outdoors and in contact with nature is an important motivationfor the vast majority of horse riders.
    • Health psychology, behavioural science, and Covid-19 disease prevention

      Chater, Angel M.; Whittaker, Ellie; Lewis, Lesley; Arden, Madelynne A.; Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Chadwick, Paul; Drury, John; Epton, Tracy; Hart, Jo; Kamal, Atiya; et al. (British Psychological Society, 2021-02-02)
      ‘This is a pre-publication version of the following article: [Chater A, Whittaker E, Lewis L, Arden MA, Byrne-Davis L, Chadwick P, Drury J, Epton T, Hart J, Kamal A, McBride E, O'Connor D, Shorter G, Swanson V, Armitage C (2021) 'Health psychology, behavioural science, and Covid-19 disease prevention', Health Psychology Update, (in press).]’ In March 2020 the president of the British Psychological Society (BPS) reached out to member networks to join forces on a BPS COVID-19 co-ordinating group. Members of this group were tasked to lead different work-streams highlighting psychology’s role during the pandemic. One work-stream focused on ‘Behavioural Science and Disease Prevention’. It was clear that understanding behaviour and anticipating public responses to changes in policies, public messaging and guidelines would be key to improving health outcomes. This work-stream focused on developing clear guidance to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and identifying psychological evidence to promote best practice in the design of sustainable behavioural interventions. This includes both immediate infection control behaviours aimed at reducing virus transmission, such as hand washing, physical-distancing and self-isolation, and behaviours that may have been influenced during the pandemic, such as physical activity, eating behaviour, substance use and healthcare use, which will have far reaching impacts on future health. This article provides an overview of the core guidance and practical examples of its application in a public health setting.
    • Health-Based Physical Education – a framework for promoting active lifestyles in children and young people. Part 1: Introducing a new pedagogical model for Health-Based Physical Education

      Bowler, Mark; Sammon, Paul; (Assocation for Physical Education, 2020-11-19)
      HBPE is one framework that can support physical educators to promote young people’s positive physical activity attitudes and behaviours. In part 1, we present a rationale for new ‘PE-for-health pedagogies’ (Armour &amp; Harris, 2013) – new ways of teaching about physical activity. We subsequently justify the foundations of HBPE, including the model’s major theme and goals, and the underlying theories and important assumptions for practitioners. In part 2, we provide a range of practical examples and identify key considerations to illustrate how HBPE can be effectively applied to help promote positive physical activity behaviour.
    • Health-Based Physical Education – a framework for promoting active lifestyles in children and young people. Part 2: Health-Based Physical Education in practice

      Sammon, Paul; Bowler, Mark (Association for Physical Education, 2020-11-19)
      Building on part 1, where we introduced a new pedagogical model for Health-Based Physical Education (HBPE), the primary aim of this article is to illustrate how the model may be implemented in the PE curriculum to help support all children and young people to develop positive physical activity behaviours. Specifically, we consider the model’s critical features for teaching and learning, followed by some key planning considerations, including learning intentions, assessment strategies and how the model can potentially be modified to reflect specific contexts during implementation.
    • A healthy contribution

      Johnston, Marie; Weinman, John; Chater, Angel M. (British Psychological Society, 2011-12-31)
      Marie Johnston, John Weinman and Angel Chater introduce a special feature to mark the founding of the Society’s Health Psychology Section 25 years ago
    • Heat acclimation attenuates physiological strain and the HSP72, but not HSP90α, mRNA response to acute normobaric hypoxia

      Gibson, Oliver R.; Turner, Gareth; Tuttle, James A.; Taylor, Lee; Watt, Peter W.; Maxwell, Neil S.; University of Bedfordshire; University of Brighton (American Physiological Society, 2015-10-15)
      Heat acclimation (HA) attenuates physiological strain in hot conditions via phenotypic and cellular adaptation. The aim of this study was to determine whether HA reduced physiological strain, and heat shock protein (HSP) 72 and HSP90α mRNA responses in acute normobaric hypoxia. Sixteen male participants completed ten 90-min sessions of isothermic HA (40°C/40% relative humidity) or exercise training [control (CON); 20°C/40% relative humidity]. HA or CON were preceded (HYP1) and proceeded (HYP2) by a 30-min normobaric hypoxic exposure [inspired O2 fraction = 0.12; 10-min rest, 10-min cycling at 40% peak O2 uptake (V̇o2 peak), 10-min cycling at 65% V̇o2 peak]. HA induced greater rectal temperatures, sweat rate, and heart rates (HR) than CON during the training sessions. HA, but not CON, reduced resting rectal temperatures and resting HR and increased sweat rate and plasma volume. Hemoglobin mass did not change following HA nor CON. HSP72 and HSP90α mRNA increased in response to each HA session, but did not change with CON. HR during HYP2 was lower and O2 saturation higher at 65% V̇o2 peak following HA, but not CON. O2 uptake/HR was greater at rest and 65% V̇o2 peak in HYP2 following HA, but was unchanged after CON. At rest, the respiratory exchange ratio was reduced during HYP2 following HA, but not CON. The increase in HSP72 mRNA during HYP1 did not occur in HYP2 following HA. In CON, HSP72 mRNA expression was unchanged during HYP1 and HYP2. In HA and CON, increases in HSP90α mRNA during HYP1 were maintained in HYP2. HA reduces physiological strain, and the transcription of HSP72, but not HSP90α mRNA in acute normobaric hypoxia.
    • High intensity interval training (HIIT) improves resting blood pressure, metabolic (MET) capacity and heart rate reserve without compromising cardiac function in sedentary aging men

      Grace, Fergal; Herbert, Peter; Elliot, Adrian D.; Richards, Joanna C.; Beaumont, Alexander; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Federation University; University of Wales Trinity Saint David; University of Adelaide; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-05-13)
      Background: This study examined a programme of pre-conditioning exercise with subsequent high intensity interval training (HIIT) on blood pressure, echocardiography, cardiac strain mechanics and maximal metabolic (MET) capacity in sedentary (SED) aging men compared with age matched masters athletes (LEX). Methods: Using a STROBE compliant observational design, 39 aging male participants (SED; n=22, aged 62.7± 5.2 yrs) (LEX; n = 17, aged= 61.1 ± 5.4 yrs) were recruited to a study that necessitated three distinct assessment phases; enrolment (Phase A), following pre-conditioning exercise in SED (Phase B), then following 6 weeks of HIIT performed once every five days by both groups before reassessment (Phase C). Hemodynamic, echocardiographic and cardiac strain mechanics were obtained at rest and maximal cardiorespiratory and chronotropic responses were obtained at each measurement phase. Results: The training intervention improved systolic, mean arterial blood pressure, rate pressure product and heart rate reserve (each P b 0.05) in SED and increased MET capacity in both SED and LEX (P b 0.01) which was amplified by HIIT. Echocardiography and cardiac strain measures were unremarkable apart from trivial increase to intra-ventricular septum diastole (IVSd) (P b 0.05) and decrease to left ventricular internal dimension diastole (LVId) (P b 0.05) in LEX following HIIT. Conclusions: A programme of preconditioning exercise with HIIT induces clinically relevant improvements in blood pressure, rate pressure product and encourages recovery of heart rate reserve in SED, while improving maximal MET capacity in both SED and LEX without inducing any pathological cardiovascular remodeling. These data add to the emerging repute of HIIT as a safe and promising exercise prescription to improve cardiovascular function and metabolic capacity in sedentary aging.
    • Hot and hypoxic environments inhibit simulated soccer performance and exacerbate performance decrements when combined.

      Aldous, Jeffrey William Frederick; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Akubat, Ibrahim; Dascombe, Ben; Abt, Grant; Taylor, Lee; University of Bedfordshire; Qatar University; Newman University; La Trobe University; et al. (Frontiers Media, 2016-01-12)
      The effects of heat and/or hypoxia have been well-documented in match-play data. However, large match-to-match variation for key physical performance measures makes environmental inferences difficult to ascertain from soccer match-play. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the hot (HOT), hypoxic (HYP) and hot-hypoxic (HH) mediated-decrements during a non-motorised treadmill based soccer-specific simulation. Twelve male University soccer players completed three familiarisation sessions and four randomised crossover experimental trials of the intermittent Soccer Performance Test (iSPT) in normoxic-temperate (CON: 18oC 50% rH), HOT (30oC; 50% rH), HYP (1,000m; 18oC 50% rH) and HH (1,000m; 30oC; 50% rH). Physical performance and its performance decrements, body temperatures (rectal, skin and estimated muscle temperature), heart rate (HR), arterial blood oxygen saturation (SaO2), perceived exertion, thermal sensation (TS), body mass changes, blood lactate and plasma volume were all measured. Performance decrements were similar in HOT and HYP [Total Distance (-4%), High-speed distance (~-8%) and variable run distance (~-12%) covered] and exacerbated in HH [total distance (-9%), high-speed distance (-15%) and variable run distance (-15%)] compared to CON. Peak sprint speed, was 4% greater in HOT compared with CON and HYP and 7% greater in HH. Sprint distance covered was unchanged (p > 0.05) in HOT and HYP and only decreased in HH (-8%) compared with CON. Body mass (-2%), temperatures (+2-5%) and TS (+18%) were altered in HOT. Furthermore, SaO2 (-8%) and HR (+3%) were changed in HYP. Similar changes in body mass and temperatures, HR, TS and SaO2 were evident in HH to HOT and HYP, however, blood lactate (p < 0.001) and plasma volume (p < 0.001) were only significantly altered in HH. Perceived exertion was elevated (p < 0.05) by 7% in all conditions compared with CON. Regression analysis identified that absolute TS and absolute rise in skin and estimated muscle temperature (r = 0.82, r = 0.84 r = 0.82, respectively; p <0.05) predicted the hot-mediated-decrements in HOT. The hot, hypoxic and hot-hypoxic environments impaired physical performance during iSPT. Future interventions should address the increases in TS and body temperatures, to attenuate these decrements on soccer performance.
    • How effective is community physical activity promotion in areas of deprivation for inactive adults with cardiovascular disease risk and/or mental health concerns? Study protocol for a pragmatic observational evaluation of the 'Active Herts' physical activity programme

      Howlett, Neil; Jones, Andy; Bain, Lucy; Chater, Angel M.; University of Hertfordshire; University of East Anglia; University of Bedfordshire; University College London (BMJ, 2017-11-25)
      Introduction There is a high prevalence of inactive adults in the UK, and many suffer from conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) or poor mental health. These coexist more frequently in areas of higher socioeconomic deprivation. There is a need to test the effectiveness, acceptability and sustainability of physical activity programmes. Active Herts uses novel evidence-based behaviour change techniques to target physical inactivity. Methods and analysis Active Herts is a community physical activity programme for inactive adults aged 16+ with one or more risk factors for CVD and/or a mild to moderate mental health condition. This evaluation will follow a mixed-methods longitudinal (baseline, and 3-month, 6-month and 12-month follow-ups) design. Pragmatic considerations mean delivery of the programme differs by locality. In two areas programme users will receive a behaviour change technique booklet, regular consultations, a booster phone call, motivational text messages and signposting to 12 weeks of exercise classes. In another two areas programme users will also receive 12 weeks of free tailored exercise classes, with optional exercise ‘buddies’ available. An outcome evaluation will assess changes in physical activity as the primary outcome, and sporting participation, sitting, well-being, psychological capability and reflective motivation as secondary outcomes. A process evaluation will explore the views of stakeholders, delivery staff and programme leads. Economic evaluation will examine the programme costs against the benefits gained in terms of reduced risk of morbidity. Ethics and dissemination This study was been approved by the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee at the University of East Anglia. Informed written consent will be obtained from programme users in the evaluation. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at conferences, and shared through the study website and local community outlets.
    • How PETE comes to matter in the performance of social justice education

      Ovens, Alan; Flory, Sara B.; Sutherland, Sue; Philpot, Rod; Walton-Fisette, Jennifer L.; Hill, Joanne; Phillips, Sharon; Flemons, Michelle; University of Auckland; University of South Florida; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2018-05-06)
      Background: For over four decades there have been calls for physical education (PE) and physical education teacher education (PETE) to address social inequality and foster social justice. Yet, as numerous studies demonstrate, attempts to educate for social justice in PETE are infrequent and rarely comprehensive. This raises the question why it appears to be possible in some situations but not others, and for some students and not others.    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the multiple socio-political networks or assemblages in which PETE is embedded and explore how these shape the possibilities for students to engage with the concept of social justice and sociocultural issues when learning to teach PE. Two research questions guided this study: How does an orientation for social justice education within education policy affect the standards for enacting PETE programs? How is social justice education encouraged within PETE programs? Methodology: Methodology: Drawing from a broader study of over 70 key personnel in more than 40 PETE programs, we examined how faculty in PETE understand their professional world, identify their subjective meanings of their experiences, and address sociocultural issues (SCI) and social justice education (SJE) within PETE. Data sources included an initial survey, a semi-structured interview, and program artifacts. We analyze the ways that SJE/SCI was represented in three national settings (England, the United States, and New Zealand) and identified common themes. Results:  Examination of each national setting reveals ways that SJE and SCI were enabled and constrained across the national, programmatic, and individual level in each of the countries. The coherence of explicit National policy and curricula, PETE program philosophies, and the presence of multiple individual interests in social justice served to reify a sociocultural agenda. Conversely possibilities were nullified by narrow or general National Standards, programs that failed to acknowledge sociocultural interests, and the absence of a critical mass of actors with a socio-critical orientation. These differences in assemblage culminated in variations in curriculum time that served to restrict or enable the breadth, frequency, and consistency of the messages surrounding SCI in PETE Conclusion: These findings highlight the importance of acknowledging socio-political networks where PETE operates. The agency of PETEs to enact pedagogies that foreground sociocultural interests is contingent on congruity of the networks. The authors caution that although the ‘perfect storm’ of conditions have a profound influence of the possibility of transformational learning of SCI in PETE, this arrangement is always temporary, fluid, and subject to changes in any of the three network levels. Additionally, the success of PETE in enabling graduating PE teachers to recognize the inequities that may be reinforced through the ‘hidden curriculum’ and to problematize the subject area is contingent on the expectations of the schools in which they teach.     
    • Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA transcription is characterised by large, sustained changes in core temperature during heat acclimation

      Gibson, Oliver R.; Tuttle, James A.; Watt, Peter W.; Maxwell, Neil S.; Taylor, Lee; ; Brunel University; University of Brighton; University of Bedfordshire; Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital; et al. (Springer, 2016-08-11)
      Increased intracellular heat shock protein-72 (Hsp72) and heat shock protein-90α (Hsp90α) have been implicated as important components of acquired thermotolerance, providing cytoprotection during stress. This experiment determined the physiological responses characterising increases in Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA on the first and tenth day of 90-min heat acclimation (in 40.2 °C, 41.0 % relative humidity (RH)) or equivalent normothermic training (in 20 °C, 29 % RH). Pearson’s product-moment correlation and stepwise multiple regression were performed to determine relationships between physiological [e.g. (Trec, sweat rate (SR) and heart rate (HR)] and training variables (exercise duration, exercise intensity, work done), and the leukocyte Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA responses via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) (n = 15). Significant (p &lt; 0.05) correlations existed between increased Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA (r = 0.879). Increased core temperature was the most important criteria for gene transcription with ΔTrec (r = 0.714), SR (r = 0.709), Trecfinal45 (r = 0.682), area under the curve where Trec ≥ 38.5 °C (AUC38.5 °C; r = 0.678), peak Trec (r = 0.661), duration Trec ≥ 38.5 °C (r = 0.650) and ΔHR (r = 0.511) each demonstrating a significant (p &lt; 0.05) correlation with the increase in Hsp72 mRNA. The Trec AUC38.5 °C (r = 0.729), ΔTrec (r = 0.691), peak Trec (r = 0.680), Trecfinal45 (r = 0.678), SR (r = 0.660), duration Trec ≥ 38.5 °C (r = 0.629), the rate of change in Trec (r = 0.600) and ΔHR (r = 0.531) were the strongest correlate with the increase in Hsp90α mRNA. Multiple regression improved the model for Hsp90α mRNA only, when Trec AUC38.5 °C and SR were combined. Training variables showed insignificant (p > 0.05) weak (r &lt; 0.300) relationships with Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA. Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA correlates were comparable on the first and tenth day. When transcription of the related Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA is important, protocols should rapidly induce large, prolonged changes in core temperature.
    • “I had to pop a wheelie and pay extra attention in order not to fall:” embodied experiences of two wheelchair tennis athletes transgressing ableist and gendered norms in disability sport and university spaces

      Lynch, Shrehan; Hill, Joanne; ; University of East London; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2020-02-20)
      When bodies move in certain contexts, it can mean very different things for different people. In our society, some bodies are more valued than others, and detrimentally, this can mean that certain types of bodies are ostracized and segregated to the outskirts of production economies and society. Dis/ability sport spaces, able-bodied sports spaces and able-bodied university spaces have been an under-researched area when considering how the body moves throughout these spaces for elite wheelchair athletes taking part in university courses. To learn more, this paper drew on feminist poststructuralism and new materialist perspectives and shared an insight into how two athletes with dis/abilities transgressed abled and gendered norms in different spaces and how they positioned themselves as athletic bodies and disabled bodies in these spaces. Employing a post-critical ethnographic design, we found that dependent on the space a dis/abled body is in constant flux as to when it feels marginalised and different (typically able-bodied spaces) and when it feels included, valued, and strong (typically dis/abled spaces). Significantly, the materiality of the institutional structures of universities, founded upon historic aesthetics of beauty dictated the physical spaces the athletes entered and created spaces of exclusion based on capitalist and ableist ideologies. When bodies move in certain contexts, it can mean very different things for different people. In our society, some bodies are more valued than others, and detrimentally, this can mean that certain types of bodies are ostracized and segregated to the outskirts of production economies and society. Dis/ability sport spaces, able-bodied sports spaces and able-bodied university spaces have been an under-researched area when considering how the body moves throughout these spaces for elite wheelchair athletes taking part in university courses. To learn more, this paper drew on feminist poststructuralism and new materialist perspectives and shared an insight into how two athletes with dis/abilities transgressed abled and gendered norms in different spaces and how they positioned themselves as athletic bodies and disabled bodies in these spaces. Employing a post-critical ethnographic design, we found that dependent on the space a dis/abled body is in constant flux as to when it feels marginalised and different (typically able-bodied spaces) and when it feels included, valued, and strong (typically dis/abled spaces). Significantly, the materiality of the institutional structures of universities, founded upon historic aesthetics of beauty dictated the physical spaces the athletes entered and created spaces of exclusion based on capitalist and ableist ideologies.