• Editorial: Sedentary behaviour in human health and disease

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; University of Bedfordshire (Frontiers Media, 2017-11-07)
    • Effect of breakfast omission and consumption on energy intake and physical activity in adolescent girls: a randomised controlled trial

      Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Plekhanova, Tatiana; Mandila, D.; Lekatis, Y.; Tolfrey, Keith; University of Bedfordshire; Loughborough University (Cambridge University Press, 2017-09-13)
      It is not known if breakfast consumption is an effective intervention for altering daily energy balance in adolescents when compared with breakfast omission. This study examined the acute effect of breakfast consumption and omission on free-living energy intake (EI) and physical activity (PA) in adolescent girls. Using an acute randomised crossover design, forty girls (age 13.3 ± 0.8 y, body mass index 21.5 ± 5.0 kg∙m-2) completed two, 3-day conditions in a randomised, counter-balanced order: no breakfast (NB) and standardised (~1962 kJ) breakfast (SB). Dietary intakes were assessed using food diaries combined with digital photographic records and PA was measured via accelerometry throughout each condition. Statistical analyses were completed using repeated measures analysis of variance. Post-breakfast EI was 483 ± 1309 kJ/d higher in NB vs. SB (P=0.025), but total daily EI was 1479 ± 1311 kJ/d higher in SB vs. NB (P<0.0005). Daily carbohydrate, fibre and protein intakes were higher in SB vs. NB (P<0.0005), whereas daily fat intake was not different (P=0.405). Effect sizes met the minimum important difference of ≥0.20 for all significant effects. Breakfast manipulation did not affect post-breakfast macronutrient intakes (P≥0.451) or time spent sedentary or in PA (P≥0.657). In this sample of adolescent girls, breakfast omission increased post-breakfast free-living EI, but total daily EI was greater when a standardised breakfast was consumed. We found no evidence that breakfast consumption induces compensatory changes in PA. Further experimental research is required to determine the effects of extended periods of breakfast manipulation in young people.
    • The effect of different environmental conditions on the decision-making performance of soccer goal line officials

      Watkins, Samuel L.; Castle, Paul C.; Mauger, Alexis R.; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Fitch, Natalie; Aldous, Jeffrey William Frederick; Brewer, John; Midgley, Adrian W.; Taylor, Lee (Taylor and Francis Inc., 2014-10-08)
      Goal line officials (GLO) are exposed to extreme environmental conditions when employed to officiate in professional European soccer cup competitions. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of such environments on GLO decision-making ability. Thirteen male participants were exposed to three conditions: cold (-5°C, 50% relative humidity (RH)); temperate (18°C, 50% RH); and hot (30°C, 50% RH) for 90 min per condition, with a 15 min half-time break after 45 min. Decision-making ability was assessed throughout the 90 min exposure. Core and skin temperatures were recorded throughout. Decision making was improved during exposure to the temperate condition when compared with the cold (mean difference = 12.5%; 95% CI = 1.1%, 23.9%; P = 0.031). Regression analysis indicated that as skin temperature increases so does decision-making ability. Exposure to cold conditions diminished the decision-making ability of GLO.
    • The effect of dimple error on the horizontal launch angle and side spin of the golf ball during putting

      Richardson, Ashley K; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Hughes, Gerwyn T.G.; University of Abertay Dundee; University of Bedfordshire; University of Hertfordshire (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2016-03-16)
      This study aimed to examine the effect of the impact point on the golf ball on the horizontal launch angle and side spin during putting with a mechanical putting arm and human participants. Putts of 3.2m were completed with a mechanical putting arm (four putter-ball combinations, total of 160 trials) and human participants (two putter-ball combinations, total of 337 trials). The centre of the dimple pattern (centroid) was located and the following variables were measured: distance and angle of the impact point from the centroid and surface area of the impact zone. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify whether impact variables had significant associations with ball roll variables, horizontal launch angle and side spin. Significant associations were identified between impact variables and horizontal launch angle with the mechanical putting arm but this was not replicated with human participants. The variability caused by dimple error was minimal with the mechanical putting arm and not evident with human participants. Differences between the mechanical putting arm and human participants may be due to the way impulse is imparted on the ball. Therefore it is concluded that variability of impact point on the golf ball has a minimal effect on putting performance.
    • The effect of expertise on coordination variability during a discrete multi-articular action

      Jones, Rebecca Louise; Robins, M. (2017-09-20)
      Introduction When investigating the relationship between task expertise and movement variability, contrasting findings have been reported in scientific literature (e.g. Darling and Cooke, 1987; Wilson, et al., 2008; Robins, et al., 2008). These equivocal reports could be due, to task constraints influencing variability magnitudes. Whilst some research has used static accuracy-based tasks (Darling and Cooke, 1987), more complex, dynamic multi-articular movements tasks have also been used (Wilson, et al., 2008; Robins, et al., 2008). Currently there is a lack of research examining task expertise-movement variability during such dynamic movement tasks, and ultimately how movement variability can be used functionally to satisfy the specific constraints on action. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of expertise and coordination variability during a dynamic basketball shooting task. Methods Male university basketball players (n=8) with varying basketball experience (scoring between 35-80% of pre-test shots) performed 20 shots from a distance of 4.25 metres after a dribbling movement of 6.5 metres. Kinematic data was collected from a seven-camera motion capture system sampling at 200Hz. 14mm reflective markers attached to upper limb anatomical landmarks allowed calculation of shoulder, elbow and wrist angular displacements. Coordination variability for the wrist-elbow, elbow-shoulder, and wrist-shoulder joint couplings were produced using the normalised root mean squared difference (NoRMS) approach. Providing a metric by which the degree of consistency may be assessed, as such, one measure of stability of the underlying coordination. Quadratic regression analysis was used to identify the potential relationship between joint coupling coordination variability and shooting score. Results The quadratic regression values for the wrist-elbow joint coupling was 0.1609 (p=0.48), elbow-shoulder, 0.1109 (p=0.66), and wrist-shoulder, 0.6467 (p=0.02) with respect to shooting performance score. Discussion Similar to previous research, task performance and coordination variability demonstrated an U-shaped relationship (Wilson, et al., 2008). Intermediate skilled participants displayed the lowest coordination variability; whilst higher skilled participants demonstrated higher functional variability owing to adapting to perturbations (Hamill, 1999). Least skilled participants revealed variability that is less functional and evident of less stable movement patterns. Additional research is needed, to further understand the task expertise-movement variability relationship for different task constraints
    • The effect of movement variability on putting proficiency during the golf putting stroke

      Richardson, Ashley K; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Hughes, Gerwyn T.G.; Abertay University; University of Bedfordshire; University of San Francisco (SAGE Publications Inc., 2018-04-04)
      Movement variability has been considered important to execute an effective golf swing yet is comparatively unexplored regarding the golf putt. Movement variability could potentially be important considering the small margins of error between a successful and a missed putt. The aim of this study was to assess whether variability of body segment rotations influence putting performance (ball kinematic measures). Eight golfers (handicap range 0–10) performed a 3.2 m level putt wearing retro-reflective markers which were tracked using a three-dimensional motion analysis system sampling at 120 Hz. Ball roll kinematics were recorded using Quintic Ball Roll launch monitor. Movement (segment) variability was calculated based on a scalene ellipsoid volume concept and correlated with the coefficient of variation of ball kinematics. Statistical analysis showed no significant relationships between segment variability and putting proficiency. One significant relationship was identified between left forearm variability and horizontal launch angle, but this did not result in deficits in putting success. Results show that performance variability in the backswing and downswing is not related to putting proficiency or the majority of ball roll measures. Differing strategies may exist where certain golfers may have more fluid movement patterns thereby effectively utilising variability of movement. Therefore, golf instructors should consider movement variability when coaching the golf putt.
    • The effect of pre and per-cooling on intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Scott, Jake; Gordon, Ralph; Tyler, Chris; Aldous, Jeffrey William Frederick; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2021-05)
      Systematic review and meta-analysis protocol for a PhD study.
    • The effect of repetitive ankle perturbations on muscle reaction time and muscle activity

      Thain, Peter K.; Hughes, Gerwyn T.G.; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Birmingham City University; University of San Francisco; University of Bedfordshire; University of Hertfordshire (Elsevier Ltd, 2016-07-15)
      The use of a tilt platform to simulate a lateral ankle sprain and record muscle reaction time is a well-established procedure. However, a potential caveat is that repetitive ankle perturbation may cause a natural attenuation of the reflex latency and amplitude. This is an important area to investigate as many researchers examine the effect of an intervention on muscle reaction time. Muscle reaction time, peak and average amplitude of the peroneus longus and tibialis anterior in response to a simulated lateral ankle sprain (combined inversion and plantar flexion movement) were calculated in twenty-two physically active participants. The 40 perturbations were divided into 4 even groups of 10 dominant limb perturbations. Within-participants repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were conducted to assess the effect of habituation over time for each variable. There was a significant reduction in the peroneus longus average amplitude between the aggregated first and last 10 consecutive ankle perturbations (F = 3.90, P = 0.03, ɳ  = 0.16). Authors should implement no more than a maximum of 30 consecutive ankle perturbations (inclusive of practice perturbations) in future protocols simulating a lateral ankle sprain in an effort to avoid significant attenuation of muscle activity.
    • Effect of tyrosine ingestion on cognitive and physical performance utilising an intermittent soccer performance test (iSPT) in a warm environment

      Coull, Nicole; Watkins, Samuel L.; Aldous, Jeffrey William Frederick; Warren, Lee K.; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Dascombe, Ben; Mauger, Alexis R.; Abt, Grant; Taylor, Lee (Springer, 2014-10-19)
      Abstract Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tyrosine (TYR) ingestion on cognitive and physical performance during soccer-specific exercise in a warm environment. Methods Eight male soccer players completed an individualised 90 min soccer-simulation intermittent soccer performance test (iSPT), on a non-motorised treadmill, on two occasions, within an environmental chamber (25 °C, 40 % RH). Participants ingested tyrosine (TYR; 250 mL sugar free drink plus 150 mg kg body mass−1 TYR) at both 5 h and 1 h pre-exercise or a placebo control (PLA; 250 mL sugar free drink only) in a double-blind, randomised, crossover design. Cognitive performance (vigilance and dual-task) and perceived readiness to invest physical effort (RTIPE) and mental effort (RTIME) were assessed: pre-exercise, half-time, end of half-time and immediately post-exercise. Physical performance was assessed using the total distance covered in both halves of iSPT. Results Positive vigilance responses (HIT) were significantly higher (12.6 ± 1.7 vs 11.5 ± 2.4, p = 0.015) with negative responses (MISS) significantly lower (2.4 ± 1.8 vs 3.5 ± 2.4, p = 0.013) in TYR compared to PLA. RTIME scores were significantly higher in the TYR trial when compared to PLA (6.7 ± 1.2 vs 5.9 ± 1.2, p = 0.039). TYR had no significant (p > 0.05) influence on any other cognitive or physical performance measure. Conclusion The results show that TYR ingestion is associated with improved vigilance and RTIME when exposed to individualised soccer-specific exercise (iSPT) in a warm environment. This suggests that increasing the availability of TYR may improve cognitive function during exposure to exercise-heat stress.
    • The effect of varying intensities of lower limb eccentric muscle contractions on left ventricular function

      Howlett, Luke A.; O'Sullivan, Kyle; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Richards, Joanna C.; University of Bedfordshire; University of the West of Scotland; University of Leeds (Springer, 2020-01-16)
      The effect of eccentric (ECC) resistance exercise (RE) on myocardial mechanics is currently unknown. This study investigated ECC RE at varying intensities on left ventricular (LV) function using LV strain (ε), wall stress and haemodynamic parameters. Twenty-four healthy male volunteers completed ECC leg extensions at 20%, 50% and 80% of their ECC maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), whilst receiving echocardiograms. Global longitudinal ɛ, strain rate (SR), longitudinal tissue velocity, heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), LV wall stress and rate pressure product (RPP) were assessed at baseline and during exercise. Left ventricular global ɛ, systolic SR and wall stress remained unchanged throughout. Systolic blood pressure (sBP), MAP and RPP increased at 80% and 50% intensities compared to rest (P < 0.01). Eccentric RE increased HR and peak late diastolic SR at all intensities compared to rest (P < 0.02). The findings suggest acute ECC RE may not alter main parameters of LV function, supporting future potential for wider clinical use. However, future studies must investigate the impact of multiple repetitions and training on LV function. PURPOSE METHOD RESULTS CONCLUSION
    • Effective behaviour change techniques in the prevention and management of childhood obesity

      Martin, J.; Chater, Angel M.; Lorencatto, F. (Nature Publishing Group, 2013-10-31)
      Rates of childhood obesity are increasing, and it is essential to identify the active components of interventions aiming to prevent and manage obesity in children. A systematic review of behaviour change interventions was conducted to find evidence of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) that are most effective in changing physical activity and/or eating behaviour for the prevention or management of childhood obesity. An electronic search was conducted for randomised controlled trials published between January 1990 and December 2009. Of 4309 titles and abstracts screened, full texts of 135 articles were assessed, of which 17 published articles were included in this review. Intervention descriptions were coded according to the behaviour-specific CALO-RE taxonomy of BCTs. BCTs were identified and compared across obesity management (n=9) vs prevention (n=8) trials. To assess the effectiveness of individual BCTs, trials were further divided into those that were effective (defined as either a group reduction of at least 0.13 body mass index (BMI) units or a significant difference in BMI between intervention and control groups at follow-up) vs non-effective (reported no significant differences between groups). We reliably identified BCTs utilised in effective and non-effective prevention and management trials. To illustrate the relative effectiveness of each BCT, effectiveness ratios were calculated as the ratio of the number of times each BCT was a component of an intervention in an effective trial divided by the number of times they were a component of all trials. Results indicated six BCTs that may be effective components of future management interventions (provide information on the consequences of behaviour to the individual, environmental restructuring, prompt practice, prompt identification as role model/position advocate, stress management/emotional control training and general communication skills training), and one that may be effective in prevention interventions (prompting generalisation of a target behaviour). We identified that for management trials, providing information on the consequences of behaviour in general was a feature of non-effective interventions and for prevention trials, providing information on the consequences of behaviour in general, providing rewards contingent on successful behaviour and facilitating social comparison were non-effective. To design effective behaviour change programmes for the prevention and management of childhood obesity, we would recommend utilising the BCTs identified as effective in this review. The impact on intervention effectiveness of combining BCTs should be the topic of further research.
    • The effectiveness of sedentary behaviour reduction workplace interventions on cardiometabolic risk markers: A systematic review

      Brierley, Marsha L.; Chater, Angel M.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Bailey, Daniel Paul; University of Bedfordshire (Springer Nature, 2019-08-19)
      Background Sedentary behaviour is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Objectives The aims of this work were to systematically review the effects of workplace sedentary behaviour reduction interventions on cardiometabolic risk markers (primary aim) and identify the active behaviour change techniques (BCTs) by which these interventions work (secondary aim). Methods A systematic search of 11 databases for articles published up to 12 April 2019 yielded a total of 4255 unique titles, with 29 articles being identified for inclusion. Interventions were rated as very promising, quite promising or non-promising based on their effects on cardiometabolic risk markers compared with baseline and/or a comparison arm. Interventions were coded for BCTs used. To assess the relative effectiveness of BCTs, a promise ratio was calculated as the frequency of a BCT appearing in all promising interventions divided by its frequency of appearance in all non-promising interventions. Results A narrative synthesis included 29 published studies of varying study design and comprised of 30 interventions. Risk of bias was high for blinding and allocation concealment, moderate for random sequence generation, and low for outcome assessment. Nine interventions were very promising, 11 were quite promising, 10 were non-promising, and 10 active control groups did not experience cardiometabolic changes. Significant sedentary behaviour reductions were present in all but five studies where cardiometabolic risk markers improved. The BCTs of social comparison, problem solving, demonstration of the behaviour, goal setting (behaviour), behaviour substitution, and habit reversal, demonstrated moderate to high promise ratios. Conclusions Workplace interventions show promise for improving cardiometabolic risk markers. The BCTs with the greatest promise of cardiometabolic risk marker improvements included social comparison, those related to individual habits, and behaviour goals.
    • The effectiveness of sedentary behaviour reduction workplace interventions on cardiometabolic risk markers: a systematic review and assessment of behaviour change techniques.

      Brierley, Marsha L.; Chater, Angel M.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Bailey, Daniel Paul; University of Bedfordshire (2019-07-17)
      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the effects of sedentary workplace interventions on cardiometabolic health and identify the active behaviour change techniques (BCTs) by which these interventions work. Background: Prolonged sitting is a risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. Office work responsibilities are becoming increasingly deskbound and dependent on technology, which can result in high exposure to prolonged sitting. Reducing this risk through theory-based interventions is a public health priority. Methods: A systematic search of 11 databases in June 2017 yielded 3618 unique titles with 21 articles being identified for inclusion. Interventions were rated as very promising, quite promising or non-promising based on their effects on cardiometabolic risk markers compared with baseline and/or a control group. Interventions were coded for BCTs used. To assess the relative effectiveness of behaviour change techniques, a promise ratio was calculated as the frequency of BCT appearing in all promising interventions divided by its frequency of appearance in all non-promising interventions. Conclusions: A narrative synthesis included 21 published studies of varying study design and comprised 22 interventions. Risk of bias was high for blinding, allocation concealment and baseline differences, but low for outcome assessment. Six interventions were very promising, eleven were quite promising, five were non-promising. The BCTs of social comparison, adding objects to the environment, and habit formation demonstrated the highest promise ratios. Workplace interventions showed promise for improving cardiometabolic health. Promising BCTs concerning social, environmental, and habitual influences should be considered for future interventions.
    • Effects of a competitive soccer match on jump performance and interlimb asymmetries in elite academy soccer players

      Bromley, Tom; Turner, Anthony; Read, Paul; Lake, Jason; Maloney, Sean J.; Chavda, Shyam; Bishop, Chris (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2021-06-01)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a competitive soccer match on jump performance and interlimb asymmetries over incremental time points during a 72-hour period. Fourteen elite adolescent players from a professional English category 3 academy performed single-leg countermovement jumps pre, post, 24-, 48-, and 72-hour post-match on a single force platform. Eccentric impulse, concentric impulse, peak propulsive force, jump height, peak landing force, and landing impulse were monitored throughout. Interlimb asymmetries were also calculated for each metric as the percentage difference between limbs. Significant negative changes (p &lt; 0.05) in jump performance were noted for all metrics at all time points, with the exception of jump height. Interlimb asymmetries were metric-dependent and showed very large increases, specifically post-match, with a trend to reduce back toward baseline values at the 48-hour time point for propulsive-based metrics. Asymmetries for landing metrics did not peak until the 24-hour time point and again reduced toward baseline at 48-hour time point. This study highlights the importance of monitoring distinct jump metrics, as jump height alone was not sensitive enough to show significant changes in jump performance. However, interlimb asymmetries were sensitive to fatigue with very large increases post-match. More frequent monitoring of asymmetries could enable practitioners to determine whether existing imbalances are also associated with reductions in physical performance or increased injury risk.
    • The effects of artificial surface temperature on mechanical properties and player kinematics during landing and acceleration

      Charalambous, Laura H.; von Lieres Und Wilkau, Hans Christian; Potthast, Wolfgang; Irwin, Gareth; University of Bedfordshire; Cardiff Metropolitan University; German Sport University Cologne (Elsevier, 2015-06-12)
      Artificial turf is considered a feasible global alternative to natural turf by many sports governing bodies. Consequently, its ability to provide a safe and consistent playing surface regardless of climate becomes essential. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of artificial surface temperature on: (1) mechanical properties of the turf and (2) the kinematics of a turf-sport related movement. Two identical artificial turf pitches were tested: one with a cold surface temperature (1.8°C-2.4°C) and one with a warm surface temperature (14.5°C-15.2°C). Mechanical testing was performed to measure the surface properties. Four amateur soccer players performed a hurdle jump to sprint acceleration movement, with data (contact time, step length and hip, knee and ankle kinematics) collected using CODASport (200 Hz).  = 0.002) of the initial step after the landing were significantly longer on the warm surface. In addition, significant range of motion and joint angular velocity differences were found. These findings highlight different demands placed on players due to the surface temperature and suggest a need for coaches, practitioners, and sports governing bodies to be aware of these differences. Background Methods Results Conclusion
    • Effects of breaking up prolonged sitting following low and high glycaemic index breakfast consumption on glucose and insulin concentrations

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Maylor, Benjamin D.; Orton, Charlie J.; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2017-05-12)
      Purpose: Breaking up prolonged sitting can attenuate the postprandial rise in glucose and insulin. Whether such effects are dependent of the glycaemic index (GI) of the consumed carbohydrate is unknown. This study examined the acute effects of breaking up prolonged sitting following a low GI and a high GI breakfast on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. Procedures: Fourteen adult males aged 22.1 ± 1.2 years completed four, 4 h experimental conditions: high GI breakfast followed by uninterrupted sitting (HGI-SIT), low GI breakfast followed by uninterrupted sitting (LGI-SIT), high GI breakfast followed by 2 min activity breaks every 20 min (HGI-ACT), and low GI breakfast followed by 2 min activity breaks every 20 min (LGI-ACT). Positive incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for glucose and insulin (mean [95% CI]) for each 4h experimental condition was calculated. Statistical analyses were completed using linear mixed models. Results: The sitting × breakfast GI interaction was not significant for glucose positive iAUC (P=0.119). Glucose positive iAUC (mmol/L4 h−1) was significantly lower in the activity breaks conditions than the uninterrupted sitting conditions (2.07 [2.24, 2.89] vs. 2.56 [1.74, 2.40], respectively, P=0.004) and significantly lower in the low GI conditions than the high GI conditions (2.13 [1.80, 2.45] vs. 2.51 [2.18, 2.84], respectively, P=0.022). Insulin concentrations did not differ between conditions (P ≥ 0.203). Conclusions: Breaking up prolonged sitting and lowering breakfast GI independently reduced postprandial glucose responses. This indicates that interrupting prolonged sitting and reducing dietary GI are beneficial approaches for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk.
    • Effects of concurrent activation potentiation on countermovement jump performance

      Mullane, Michael; Maloney, Sean J.; Chavda, Shyam; Williams, Steven; Turner, Anthony; ; Middlesex University; University of Bedfordshire (NSCA National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2015-12-31)
      The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of concurrent activation potentiation (CAP) on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. Twenty-four resistance-trained males (mean ± SD; age: 25 ± 4 years, body mass: 78.7 ± 10.3 kg) performed a CMJ on a force plate under 4 different conditions: (a) a control condition where the CMJ was performed with hands on hips and lips pursed, thus preventing jaw or fist contraction from occurring, (b) a jaw condition where the CMJ was performed with maximal contraction of the jaw, (c) a fist condition where the CMJ was performed with maximal contraction of the fists, and (d) a combined condition where the CMJ was performed with maximal contraction of both jaw and fists. Jump height (JH), peak force (PF), rate of force development (RFD), and time to peak force (TTPF) were calculated from the vertical force trace. There was no significant difference in PF (p 0.88), TTPF (p 0.96), JH (p 0.45), or RFD (p 0.06) between the 4 conditions. Effect size (ES) comparisons suggest a potential for CMJ with fist and jaw contraction (BOTH condition) to augment both PF (2.4%; ES: 0.62) and RFD (9.9%; ES: 0.94) over a normal CMJ (NORM condition). It is concluded that CAP by singular and combined contractions has no significant impact on CMJ performance; however, substantial interindividual variation in response to CAP was observed, and such techniques may therefore warrant consideration on an individual basis.
    • Effects of exercise, cognitive, and dual-task interventions on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Cooke, Samuel; Pennington, Kyla; Jones, Arwel; Bridle, Christopher; Smith, Mark F.; Curtis, Ffion; (Public Library of Science, 2020-05-14)
      Introduction Previous evidence has shown significant effects of exercise, cognitive and dual-task training for improving cognition in healthy cohorts. The effects of these types of interventions in type 2 diabetes mellitus is unclear. The aim of this research was to systematically review evidence, and estimate the effect, of exercise, cognitive, and dual-task interventions on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method Electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and MEDLINE were searched for ongoing and completed interventional trials investigating the effect of either an exercise, cognitive or dual-task intervention on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results Nine trials met the inclusion criteria–one dual-task, two cognitive, and six exercise. Meta-analyses of exercise trials showed no significant effects of exercise on measures of executive function (Stroop task, SMD = -0.31, 95% CI -0.71–0.09, P = 0.13, trail making test part A SMD = 0.28, 95% CI -0.20–0.77 P = 0.25, trail making test part B SMD = -0.15, 95% CI -0.64–0.34 P = 0.54, digit symbol SMD = 0.09, 95% CI -0.39–0.57 P = 0.72), and memory (immediate memory SMD = 0.20, 95% CI -0.28–0.69, P = 0.41 and delayed memory SMD = -0.06, 95% CI -0.55–0.42, P = 0.80). A meta-analysis could not be conducted using cognitive or dual-task data, but individual trials did report a favourable effect of interventions on cognition. Risk of bias was considered moderate to high for the majority of included trials. Conclusions Meta-analyses of exercise trials identified a small effect size (0.31), which whilst not significant warrants further investigation. Larger and more robust trials are needed that report evidence using appropriate reporting guidelines (e.g. CONSORT) to increase confidence in the validity of results.
    • Effects of frequency and duration of interrupting sitting on cardiometabolic markers

      Maylor, Benjamin D.; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Stensel, David J.; Orton, Charlie J.; Bailey, Daniel Paul; University of Bedfordshire (Thieme, 2019-09-09)
    • Effects of interrupting sitting with use of a treadmill desk versus prolonged sitting on postural stability

      Charalambous, Laura H.; Champion, Rachael B.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Bailey, Daniel Paul; University of Bedfordshire (Thieme, 2019-10-07)
      High amounts of sitting increase the risk of non-communicable disease and mortality. Treadmill desks make it possible to reduce sitting during the desk-based worker's day. This study investigated the acute effect on postural stability of interrupting prolonged sitting with an accumulated 2-h of light-intensity treadmill desk walking. Twenty-one sedentary adults participated in this randomized acute crossover trial, with two 6.5 h conditions: 1) uninterrupted sitting and 2) interrupted sitting with accumulated 2 h light-intensity treadmill desk walking. Pre- and post-condition, participants performed four postural stability tests on a pressure plate (bipedal and unipedal standing stance, eyes open and eyes closed). Anteroposterior center of pressure amplitude showed a significant condition x time interaction in bipedal eyes closed (F(1,20)=4.62, p=0.046) and unipedal eyes open (F(1,20)=9.42, p=0.006) tests, and mediolateral center of pressure amplitude in bipedal eyes closed (F(1,20)=6.12, p=0.023) and bipedal eyes open (F(1,12)=5.55, p=0.029) tests. In the significant interactions, amplitude increased pre to post condition in the uninterrupted sitting condition. The accumulated 2 h light-intensity treadmill desk walking ameliorated the negative effect of 6.5 h prolonged sitting on postural sway, supporting workplace treadmill desk use.