• Can physical activity support grief outcomes in individuals who have been bereaved? a systematic review

      Williams, Jane; Shorter, Gillian; Howlett, Neil; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Chater, Angel M.; University of Bedfordshire; Queen’s University Belfast; University of Hertfordshire (Springer, 2021-03-06)
      Background: In 2018, there were 616,014 registered deaths in the United Kingdom (UK). Grief is a natural consequence. Many mental health concerns, which can be identified as grief outcomes (e.g. anxiety and depression) in those who have experienced a bereavement, can be improved through physical activity. The objective of this review was to identify from the existing literature if physical activity can benefit grief outcomes in individuals who have been bereaved. Methods: A systematic review of nine databases was performed. Included studies (qualitative and quantitative) explored physical activity to help individuals (of any age) who had experienced a human bereavement (excluding national loss). Results: From 1299 studies screened, 25 met the inclusion criteria, detailing eight types of bereavement (parental (n=5), spousal (n=6), patient (n=4), pre-natal (n=3), later life (n=1), caregiver (n=1), multiple (n=4) and non-defined (n=1). Activities including yoga, running, walking, and martial arts were noted as beneficial. Physical activity allowed a sense of freedom, to express emotions, provided a distraction, and an escape from grief, while enhancing social support. Conclusion: There is some evidence that physical activity may provide benefit for the physical health and psychological wellbeing of those who have been bereaved, including when the loss has happened at a young age. This review is timely, given the wide-scale national loss of life due to COVID-19 and extends knowledge in this area. More research is needed to explore the benefits of physical activity for those who have been bereaved. In particular there is a need for well-designed interventions which are tailored to specific activities, populations and grief outcomes.
    • Can physical activity support young people after the death of a parent? the BABYSTEPs project

      Chater, Angel M.; Williams, Jane; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Howlett, Neil; Shorter, Gillian; University of Bedfordshire; University of Hertfordshire; Ulster University (2019-09-10)
      Background: Annually, 41,000 UK children and young people are parentally bereaved. Grief is an individual process and must be supported properly.  Many mental health aspects that cross over with grief outcomes (i.e. anxiety and depression) can be improved through physical activity. Yet there is limited research investigating whether physical activity can support bereaved individuals with their grief and what services are currently available. Methods: A systematic review of the literature (10 databases) and service provision (5 search engines) was performed.  Empirical studies (qualitative and quantitative) had to explore physical activity (of any type) to help individuals (of any age) who had experienced a bereavement (of any human, other than national loss).  Organisations which provide bereavement support to young people were contacted (via questionnaire and telephone) to record details about their service and if they offer physical activity support. Results: From 564 studies screened, 20 met the inclusion criteria, with 5 reporting using physical activity to support parental bereavement.  Running and martial arts were noted as types of beneficial activity.  Of the 373 organisations identified, 26 provided physical activity support (i.e. residential retreats, football) for bereaved young people.  Conclusion: There is evidence that physical activity can support the wellbeing of young people who have been parentally bereaved.  However, this evidence is limited, with just a small number of organisations offering physical activity.  There is a clear need for more research and services to understand and increase the use of physical activity to support young people following the death of their parent.
    • Cardiometabolic response to a single high-intensity interval exercise session versus breaking up sedentary time with fragmented high-intensity interval exercise

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Orton, Charlie J.; Maylor, Benjamin D.; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K. (Thieme, 2019-02-04)
      This study compared the effects of interrupting prolonged sedentary time with high-intensity physical activity (SED-ACT), a volume and duration-matched high-intensity interval exercise session followed by prolonged sedentary time (HIIE), and prolonged uninterrupted sedentary time (SED) on postprandial glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations. Twelve sedentary and inactive, but otherwise healthy, adults completed three, 6.5 h conditions in an incomplete counterbalanced order. During SED, participants sat continuously. For HIIE, participants completed 10 x 60 s cycling bouts at 90% maximum oxygen update (V̇O2max) with 1 min active recovery between bouts. In SED-ACT, 60 s cycling bouts at 90% V̇O2max were completed every 30 min (10 times in total) with 30 s of active recovery immediately before and after. Standardised meals were consumed at 0 h and 3 h and capillary blood samples were collected fasted and every 30 min. Compared with SED, postprandial glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was significantly lower in SED-ACT by 1.91 mmol/L∙6.5 h (p=0.022) and triglyceride iAUC was significantly lower in HIIE by 1.02 mmol/L∙6.5 h (p=0.030). Interrupting sedentary time with high-intensity physical activity can lower postprandial glucose concentrations, whereas a HIIE session can lower postprandial triglyceride concentrations.
    • Cardiovascular disease risk marker responses to breaking up prolonged sedentary time in individuals with paraplegia: the Spinal Cord Injury Move More (SCIMM) randomised crossover laboratory trial protocol

      Withers, Thomas M.; Croft, Louise; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.; Dunstan, David W.; Leicht, Christof A.; Bailey, Daniel Paul (BMJ, 2018-06-22)
      Introduction: Sedentary behaviour is a distinct risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and could partly explain the increased prevalence of CVD in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Interrupting prolonged sitting periods with regular short bouts of walking acutely suppresses postprandial glucose and lipids in able-bodied individuals. However, the acute CVD risk marker response to breaking up prolonged sedentary time in people with SCI has not been investigated. Methods and analysis: A randomised two-condition laboratory crossover trial will compare: 1) breaking up prolonged sedentary time with 2 min moderate-intensity arm crank activity every 20 min, with 2) uninterrupted prolonged sedentary time (control) in people with SCI. Outcomes will include acute effects on postprandial glucose, insulin, lipids and blood pressure. Blood samples will be collected and blood pressure measured at regular intervals during each 5.5 h condition. Ethics and dissemination: This study was approved by the Cambridge South NHS Research Ethics Committee. This research will help determine if breaking up prolonged sedentary time could be effective in lowering CVD risk in people with SCI. The findings of the research will be published in a peer review journal and disseminated to relevant user groups. Trial registration: The study is registered as a clinical trial on the ISRCTN register (trial ID: ISRCTN51868437).  
    • Carnosine in health and disease

      Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Sale, Craig; Jones, Rebecca Louise; Nottingham Trent University; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2018-03-04)
      Carnosine was originally discovered in skeletal muscle, where it exists in larger amounts than in other tissues. The majority of research into the physiological roles of carnosine have been conducted on skeletal muscle. Given this and the potential for muscle carnosine content to be increased with supplementation, there is now a large body of research examining the ergogenic effects (or otherwise) of carnosine. More recent research, however, points towards a potential for carnosine to exert a wider range of physiological effects in other tissues, including the brain, heart, pancreas, kidney and cancer cells. Taken together, this is suggestive of a potential for carnosine to have therapeutic benefits in health and disease, although this is by no means without complication. Herein, we will provide a review of the current literature relating to the potential therapeutic effects of carnosine in health and disease.
    • Carnosine: from exercise performance to health

      Jones, Rebecca Louise (2017-09-20)
    • Changing the stability conditions in a back squat: the effect on maximum load lifted and erector spinae muscle activity

      Fletcher, Iain M.; Bagley, Ashley; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2014-12-01)
      The aim of this study was to identify how changes in the stability conditions of a back squat affect maximal loads lifted and erector spinae muscle activity.  Fourteen male participants performed a Smith Machine squat (SM), the most stable condition, a Barbell back squat (BB) and Tendo-Destabilising Bar squat (TBB), the least stable condition.  A one repetition max (1-RM) was established in each squat condition, before electromyography (EMG) activity of the erector spinae was measured at 85% of 1-RM. Results indicated that the SM squat 1-RM load was significantly (p = 0.006) greater (10.9%) than BB squat, but no greater than TBB squat.  EMG results indicated significantly greater (p < 0.05) muscle activation in the TBB condition compared to other conditions.  The BB squat produced significantly greater (p = 0.036) EMG activity compared to the SM squat.  A greater stability challenge applied to the torso seems to increase muscle activation.  The maximum loads lifted in the most stable and unstable squats were similar.  However, the lift with greater stability challenge required greatest muscle activation.   The implications of this study may be important for training programmes; coaches wishing to challenge trunk stability, while their athletes lift maximal loads designed to increase strength.
    • Chronic probiotic supplementation with or without glutamine does not influence the eHsp72 response to a multi-day ultra-endurance exercise event

      Marshall, Hannah; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Suckling, Craig Anthony; Roberts, Justin D.; Foster, Josh; Taylor, Lee; ; University of Bedfordshire; Qatar University; Anglia Ruskin University; et al. (Canadian Science Publishing, 2017-05-01)
      Probiotic and glutamine supplementation increases tissue Hsp72, but their influence on extracellular Hsp72 (eHsp72) has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic probiotic supplementation, with or without glutamine, on eHsp72 concentration before and after an ultramarathon. Thirty-two participants were split into 3 independent groups, where they ingested probiotic capsules (PRO; n = 11), probiotic + glutamine powder (PGLn; n = 10), or no supplementation (CON; n = 11), over a 12-week period prior to commencement of the Marathon des Sables (MDS). eHsp72 concentration in the plasma was measured at baseline, 7 days pre-race, 6-8 h post-race, and 7 days post-race. The MDS increased eHsp72 concentrations by 124% (F[1,3] = 22.716, p &lt; 0.001), but there was no difference in the response between groups. Additionally, PRO or PGLn supplementation did not modify pre- or post-MDS eHsp72 concentrations compared with CON (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the MDS caused a substantial increase in eHsp72 concentration, indicating high levels of systemic stress. However, chronic PRO or PGLn supplementation did not affect eHsp72 compared with control pre- or post-MDS. Given the role of eHsp72 in immune activation, the commercially available supplements used in this study are unlikely to influence this cascade.
    • Cigarette smoking reduces DNA methylation levels at multiple genomic loci but the effect is partially reversible upon cessation

      Tsaprouni, Loukia G.; Yang, Tsun-Po; Bell, Jordana; Dick, Katherine J.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Nisbet, James; Viñuela, Ana; Grundberg, Elin; Nelson, Christopher P.; Meduri, Eshwar; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2014-10-31)
      Smoking is a major risk factor in many diseases. Genome wide association studies have linked genes for nicotine dependence and smoking behavior to increased risk of cardiovascular, pulmonary, and malignant diseases. We conducted an epigenome wide association study in peripheral-blood DNA in 464 individuals (22 current smokers and 263 ex-smokers), using the Human Methylation 450 K array. Upon replication in an independent sample of 356 twins (41 current and 104 ex-smokers), we identified 30 probes in 15 distinct loci, all of which reached genome-wide significance in the combined analysis P < 5 × 10(-8). All but one probe (cg17024919) remained significant after adjusting for blood cell counts. We replicated all 9 known loci and found an independent signal at CPOX near GPR15. In addition, we found 6 new loci at PRSS23, AVPR1B, PSEN2, LINC00299, RPS6KA2, and KIAA0087. Most of the lead probes (13 out of 15) associated with cigarette smoking, overlapped regions of open chromatin (FAIRE and DNaseI hypersensitive sites) or/and H3K27Ac peaks (ENCODE data set), which mark regulatory elements. The effect of smoking on DNA methylation was partially reversible upon smoking cessation for longer than 3 months. We report the first statistically significant interaction between a SNP (rs2697768) and cigarette smoking on DNA methylation (cg03329539). We provide evidence that the metSNP for cg03329539 regulates expression of the CHRND gene located circa 95 Kb downstream of the methylation site. Our findings suggest the existence of dynamic, reversible site-specific methylation changes in response to cigarette smoking , which may contribute to the extended health risks associated with cigarette smoking.
    • Community pharmacists' views on providing a reproductive health service to women receiving opioid substitution treatment: a qualitative study using the TDF and COM-B

      Alhusein, Nour; Scott, Jenny; Neale, Jo; Chater, Angel M.; Family, Hannah; University of Bristol; University of Bath; King's College London; University of New South Wales; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2021-09-21)
      Background The absence of menstruation is common in women who use drugs. This can give a belief that conception is unlikely. When stabilised on Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST), fertility often returns, initially without realisation as ovulation precedes menstruation. This leaves women vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies. Community pharmacists (CPs) are frequently in contact with this patient group through the Supervised Consumption of OST service. This provides a timely opportunity to provide reproductive health (RH) advice. The aim of this study was to investigate pharmacists' views on providing a RH service to women receiving OST. Methods Twenty semi-structured interviews based on the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation to Behaviour (COM-B) model and the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) were conducted between 2016 and 2017. Data analysis involved deductive coding using the TDF domains. The TDF domains were mapped onto the elements of the COM-B and used in the second step to create the framework and chart the data. The third step involved re-reading and clustering the codes, and inductive themes were generated to explain the data in depth. Results Nine of the 14 TDF domains, mapped into five elements of the COM-B, were identified. Five inductive themes were generated: 1) The pharmacists' experience and knowledge of reproductive health (RH) needs of women receiving OST, 2) The pharmacists' approach to providing advice, 3) The pharmacists' perception of the relationship with women receiving OST, 4) Social influences, and 5) Environmental factors. Community pharmacists feared causing offense to women receiving OST and described requiring cues as to when the service was needed. Pharmacists' highlighted a power imbalance in the relationship with women receiving OST. This could influence how receptive this patient group would be to pharmacy RH interventions. Conclusions CPs' concerns of providing RH service could hinder a proactive service provision. Supporting good rapport and providing a structured consultation would increase the accessibility of such a service.
    • A comparison of bilateral and unilateral drop jumping tasks in the assessment of vertical stiffness

      Maloney, Sean J.; Richards, Joanna C.; Fletcher, Iain M.; University of Bedfordshire (Human Kinetics, 2018-06-01)
      This study sought to compare vertical stiffness during bilateral and unilateral drop jumping. Specifically, the intersession reliabilities and force-deformation profiles associated with each task were to be examined. On 3 occasions, following familiarization, 14 healthy males (age: 22 [2] y; height: 1.77 [0.08] m; and body mass: 73.5 [8.0] kg) performed 3 bilateral, left leg and right leg drop jumps. All jumps were performed from a drop height of 0.18 m on to a dual force plate system. Vertical stiffness was calculated as the ratio of peak ground reaction force (GRF) to the peak center of mass (COM) displacement. Unilateral drop jumping was associated with higher GRF and greater COM displacement (both Ps < .001), but vertical stiffness was not different between tasks when considering individual limbs (P = .98). A coefficient of variation of 14.6% was observed for bilateral vertical stiffness during bilateral drop jumping; values of 6.7% and 7.6% were observed for left and right limb vertical stiffness during unilateral drop jumping. These findings suggest that unilateral drop jumps may exhibit greater reliability than bilateral drop jumps while eliciting similar vertical stiffness. It is also apparent that higher GRFs during unilateral drop jumping are mitigated by increased COM displacement.
    • A comparison of methods to determine bilateral asymmetries in vertical leg stiffness

      Maloney, Sean J.; Fletcher, Iain M.; Richards, Joanna C.; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2015-07-31)
      Whilst the measurement and quantification of vertical leg stiffness (Kvert) asymmetry is of important practical relevance to athletic performance, literature investigating bilateral asymmetry in Kvert is limited. Moreover, how the type of task used to assess Kvert may affect the expression of asymmetry has not been properly determined. Twelve healthy males performed three types of performance task on a dual force plate system to determine Kvert asymmetries; the tasks were: a) bilateral hopping, b) bilateral drop jumping, and c) unilateral drop jumping. Across all three methods, Kvert was significantly different between compliant and stiff limbs (P < 0.001) with a significant interaction effect between limb and method (P = 0.005). Differences in Kvert between compliant and stiff limbs were -5.3% (P < 0.001), -21.8% (P = 0.007) and -15.1% (P < 0.001) for the bilateral hopping, bilateral drop jumping and unilateral drop jumping methods respectively. All three methods were able to detect significant differences between compliant and stiff limbs, and could be used as a diagnostic tool to assess Kvert asymmetry. Drop jumping tasks detected larger Kvert asymmetries than hopping, suggesting that asymmetries may be expressed to a greater extent in acyclic, maximal performance tasks.
    • Conceptualising social justice and sociocultural issues within physical education teacher education: international perspectives

      Hill, Joanne; Philpot, Rod; Walton-Fisette, Jennifer L.; Sutherland, Sue; Flemons, Michelle; Ovens, Alan; Phillips, Sharon; Flory, Sara B.; University of Bedfordshire; University of Auckland; et al. (Taylor and Francis, 2018-05-03)
      Background: Physical education (PE) and physical education teacher education (PETE) have a substantial literature base that advocates for students to develop a critical consciousness, appreciate multiple perspectives, and engage in actions to enhance social justice (Tinning 2016). Analysing sociocultural issues, critically reflecting on beliefs, knowledge, biography and values, and developing a sense of agency to enact change, have been recognised as an integral part of the PETE knowledge base for some time (Fernández-Balboa 1997). However, there remain differences in how social justice itself is conceptualised and enacted. Social justice is aligned heavily with critical and ‘post’ theories where taking action for justice, democracy and power are central; but social justice is also found in humanist beliefs in student-centredness and equality and has been co-opted by neoliberal forces that promote individual responsibility. While a lack of consensus is not in itself a problem (Bialystok 2014), diverse definitions might contribute to confusion (Randall and Robinson 2016) and lead to uncertainty over what and how to teach for social justice. Purpose: In order to work towards greater certainty around concepts of social justice in the PETE community, this project sought to map variations in definition and conceptualisation of social justice and sociocultural issues among physical education teacher educators (PETEs) and physical education and sport pedagogy (PESP) educators, as part of a wider project on social justice and sociocultural perspectives and practices in PETE. Methods: PETE and PESP faculty (n=72) in North America, Europe, and Australasia engaged in an in-depth interview, during which they were asked how they define social justice and sociocultural issues. Additional information about participants’ social identity was collected. A constant comparative method of analysing participants’ definitions mapped a range of concepts building on the theoretical framework of neoliberal, humanist, critical and ‘post’ approaches to social justice. Findings: The data demonstrate that there are a range of understandings about sociocultural issues and social justice. Most commonly, some participants articulated a humanist approach to social justice by encouraging their pre-service teachers (PSTs) to have awareness of equality of opportunity in relation to gender, sexuality and/or racism. Less prevalent, but strongly stated by those who conceptualised social justice in these terms, was the importance to take action for democracy, empowerment or critical reflection. The terms diversity and equality, framed in neoliberal and humanist discourses, were most commonly used within the United States (US), while critical pedagogy and alignment with critical and ‘post’ theories were more prevalent in Australia and New Zealand. Conclusion: Differences exist in the ways social justice is conceptualised in PETE. While this can be attributed to the influence of local issues, it is also reflective of what intellectual tools, such as humanism or critical theory, are available for problematising social issues. The range of non-critical concepts found raises concern that PSTs are not getting the tools to enact social justice or tackle sociocultural issues. 
    • Consent and brain trauma in schools

      White, Adam John; Robinson, S. (Taylor and Francis, 2018-01-14)
      In a recently published edition of the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, we read with interest responses given by readers on ‘how should coaches, parents and participants be informed of the risks and rewards of their participation’ (2017: 54) in sports with a risk of head trauma. Over the past decade, increasing attention has been forthcoming on the issues of traumatic brain injuries, repetitive sub-concussive traumas and the long-term, and sometimes fatal, implications of concussion (McKee et al. 2014) often focusing on contact sports, such as American Football, Ice Hockey or the various codes of Rugby.
    • Contraceptive choice and power amongst women receiving opioid replacement therapy: qualitative study

      Werthern, Helena; Alhusein, Nour; Chater, Angel M.; Scott, Jenny; Family, Hannah; Neale, Joanne; King’s College London; University of New South Wales; University of Bristol; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2021-07-26)
      ABSTRACT Background: Women receiving treatment for opioid use disorder have low levels of contraception use and high rates of unintended pregnancies, abortion and children being adopted or fostered. This paper aims to understand the relationship between contraceptive choice and power amongst women receiving Opioid Replacement Therapy (ORT). Methods: During 2016/17, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 40 women (aged 22–49 years) receiving ORT in the South of England. Data relating to the latent concept of power were inductively coded and analysed via Iterative Categorisation. Findings: The power manifested itself through six interconnected ‘fields’: i. ‘information about fertility and contraception’; ii. ‘access to contraception’; iii. ‘relationships with professionals and services’; iv. ‘relationships with male partners’; v. ‘relationships with sex work clients’; and vi. ‘life priorities and preferences’. Each field comprised examples of women’s powerlessness and empowerment. Even whenwomen appeared to have limited power or control, they sometimes managed to assert themselves. Conclusions: Power in relation to contraceptive choice is multi-faceted and multi-directional, operating at both individual and structural levels. Informed decision-making depends on the provision of clear, non-judgemental information and advice alongside easy access to contraceptive options. Additional strategies to empower women to make contraceptive choices and prevent unplanned pregnancies are recommended.
    • Culture and health

      Napier, A David; Ancarno, Clyde; Butler, Beverley; Calabrese, Joseph; Chater, Angel M.; Chatterjee, Helen; Guesnet, Francois; Horne, Robert; Jacyna, Stephen; Jadhav, Sushrut; et al. (Lancet Publishing Group, 2014-10-26)
      Planned and unplanned migrations, diverse social practices, and emerging disease vectors transform how health and wellbeing are understood and negotiated. Simultaneously, familiar illnesses—both communicable and non-communicable—continue to affect individual health and household, community, and state economies. Together, these forces shape medical knowledge and how it is understood, how it comes to be valued, and when and how it is adopted and applied. Perceptions of physical and psychological wellbeing differ substantially across and within societies. Although cultures often merge and change, human diversity assures that different lifestyles and beliefs will persist so that systems of value remain autonomous and distinct. In this sense, culture can be understood as not only habits and beliefs about perceived wellbeing, but also political, economic, legal, ethical, and moral practices and values.
    • Daily-running exercise may induce incomplete energy intake compensation: a 7-day crossover trial

      Hough, John; Esh, Christopher John; Mackie, Paul Ian; Stensel, David J.; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; University of Bedfordshire (Canadian Science Publishing, 2019-12-13)
      Understanding daily-exercise effects on energy balance is important. This study examined the effects of seven days of imposed exercise (EX) and no exercise (N-EX) on free-living energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in nine men. Free-living EI was higher in EX compared with N-EX. Total and vigorous PAEE were higher, with PAEE in sedentary activities lower, during EX compared with N-EX. Daily-running (for 7 days) induced EI compensation of ~60% exercise-induced EE.
    • Determinants of club head speed in PGA professional golfers

      Lewis, Adam L,; Ward, Nicholas; Bishop, Chris; Maloney, Sean J.; Turner, Anthony; ; Sandy Lodge golf club; England Golf; Middlesex University; University of Bedfordshire (NSCA National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2016-08-31)
      Turner, AN. Determinants of club head speed in PGA professional golfers. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2266-2270, 2016 - Club head speed (CHS) has been significantly correlated with golf performance, but only in amateurs. The purpose of this study therefore, was to investigate the relationship between field-based measures of strength and power with CHS in Professional Golfers Association (PGA) professional golfers, and further determine differences between age groups. A correlation design was used to test relationships between squat jump (SJ), seated medicine ball throw (SMBT), rotational medicine ball throw (RMBT), and CHS. Twenty participants volunteered to take part in the study (age, 31.95 ± 8.7 years; height, 182.75 ± 6.88 cm; mass, 90.47 ± 15.6 kg). Intraclass correlation coefficients reported high reliability for performance variables (r 0.85-0.95). Significant correlations (p &lt; 0.01) were found between CHS and SJ (r 0.817) and SMBT (r 0.706), but not RMBT (r 0.572). A stepwise linear regression analysis identified that SJ and SMBT explained 74% of the variance in CHS. When dividing the sample based on age, professionals &lt;30 years (n 10; 25.6 ± 2.9 years) displayed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher CHS and SJ height compared with professionals >30 (n 10; 39.7 ± 5.5 years). Correlations to CHS for &lt;30 were significant for SJ (r 0.801) and SMBT (r 0.643), but nonsignificant for RMBT. Those >30 had significant correlations to CHS not only in SMBT (r 0.881) and SJ (r 0.729), but also in RMBT (r 0.642). The results of this study suggest that SJ and SMBT have the largest contribution to CHS in PGA professional golfers. When comparing age groups, it appears that younger golfers (&lt;30 years) utilize more leg strength whereas older golfers (>30 years) utilize more upper body strength. Results suggest that strength-based leg exercises and power-based chest exercises may improve CHS in professional golfers.
    • Determinants of weekly sitting time: construct validation of an initial COM-B model and comparison of its predictive validity with the Theory of Planned Behaviour

      Howlett, Neil; Schulz, Joerg; Trivedi, Daksha; Troop, Nicholas A.; Chater, Angel M.; University of Hertfordshire; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2020-05-14)
      Objective: In relation to sitting behaviour, to investigate which theoretical domains best formed the Capability, Opportunity, and Motivation constructs of the COM-B, and compare the predictive validity to the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), taking habit strength into consideration. Design: Using a prospective design, 186 adults completed measures capturing domains from the Theoretical Domains Framework for the three COM-B constructs, and habit strength, which were examined using a formative measurement model. Predictive validity was then compared to the TPB. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported sitting behaviour. Results: Self-monitoring (behavioural regulation domain) formed Capability; subjective norm (social influences domain) formed Opportunity; intention (intentions domain), positive affect (emotion domain), and perceived behavioural control (beliefs about capabilities domain), formed Motivation. The COM-B strongly predicted sitting behaviour (27% variance explained), with Capability, Opportunity, and habit strength as key drivers. The TPB explained a large amount of variance (23%) in sitting behaviour, with intention and habit strength as key drivers. Conclusions: The behavioural regulation domain of Capability, the social influences domain of Opportunity, and habit strength were important drivers of sitting behaviour, with comparable variance predicted in the COM-B and TPB. Future research should consider this approach to conceptualise the COM-B for specific populations and behaviours.
    • Development of a sedentary behaviour workplace intervention for police staff using the behaviour change wheel

      Brierley, Marsha L.; Chater, Angel M.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Bailey, Daniel Paul; University of Bedfordshire (2019-11-01)