• Ballistic exercise as a pre-activation stimulus: a review of the literature and practical applications

      Maloney, Sean J.; Turner, Anthony; Fletcher, Iain M.; (Springer International Publishing, 2014-06-19)
      Post-activation potentiation (PAP) refers to the acute enhancement of muscular function as a direct result of its contractile history. Protocols designed to elicit PAP have commonly employed heavy resistance exercise (HRE) as the pre-activation stimulus; however, a growing body of research suggests that low-load ballistic exercises (BE) may also provide an effective stimulus. The ability to elicit PAP without the need for heavy equipment would make it easier to utilise prior to competition. It is hypothesised that BE can induce PAP given the high recruitment of type II muscle fibres associated with its performance. The literature has reported augmentations in power performance typically ranging from 2 to 5 %. The performance effects of BE are modulated by loading, recovery and physical characteristics. Jumps performed with an additional loading, such as depth jumps or weighted jumps, appear to be the most effective activities for inducing PAP. Whilst the impact of recovery duration on subsequent performance requires further research, durations of 1–6 min have been prescribed successfully in multiple instances. The effect of strength and sex on the PAP response to BE is not yet clear. Direct comparisons of BE and HRE, to date, suggest a tendency for HRE protocols to be more effective; future research should consider that these strategies must be optimised in different ways. The role of acute augmentations in lower limb stiffness is proposed as an additional mechanism that may further explain the PAP response following BE. In summary, BE demonstrates the potential to enhance performance in power tasks such as jumps and sprints. This review provides the reader with some practical recommendations for the application of BE as a pre-activation stimulus.
    • Behavioural science and disease prevention: psychological guidance.

      Chater, Angel M.; Arden, Maddy; Armitage, Chris; Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Chadwick, Paul; Drury, John; Hart, Jo; Lewis, Lesley; McBride, Emily; Perriard-Abdoh, Saskia; et al. (British Psychological Society, 2020-04-14)
      Psychology is crucial to reducing the spread of Covid-19 as it enables us to understand and change behaviour and anticipate people’s responses to changes in policy and guidelines. Behaviours are key to preventing infection and improving outcomes.
    • Beneficial postprandial lipaemic effects of interrupting sedentary time with high-intensity physical activity versus a continuous moderate-intensity physical activity bout: a randomised crossover trial

      Maylor, Benjamin D.; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Orton, Charlie J.; Bailey, Daniel Paul; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2018-05-31)
      Objectives To compare the postprandial cardiometabolic response to prolonged sitting, continuous moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) followed by prolonged sitting, and interrupting prolonged sitting with hourly high-intensity PA breaks. Design Three-condition randomised crossover trial. Methods Fourteen sedentary and inactive adults aged 29 ± 9 years took part in three, 8-h conditions: (1) prolonged sitting (SIT), (2) a continuous 30-min moderate-intensity PA bout followed by prolonged sitting (CONT-SIT), and (3) sitting interrupted hourly with 2 min 32 s high-intensity PA bouts (SIT-ACT). The treadmill PA in conditions 2 and 3 were matched for energy expenditure. Two standardised test meals were consumed during each condition. Incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for each 8-h condition was calculated for glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. Statistical analyses were completed using linear mixed models. Results Compared with SIT, SIT-ACT lowered triglyceride iAUC by 2.23 mmol/L ∙ 8 h (95% CI −4.33, −0.13) and raised HDL-C iAUC by 0.99 mmol/L ∙ 8 h (0.05, 1.93) (all p ≤ 0.038). There was no significant difference in triglyceride or HDL-C iAUC between CONT-SIT and SIT or SIT-ACT (p ≥ 0.211). There were no significant differences between conditions for glucose or insulin iAUC (p ≥ 0.504). Conclusions This study suggests that interrupting prolonged sitting with hourly high-intensity PA breaks acutely improves postprandial triglyceride and HDL-C concentrations compared with prolonged sitting, whereas a continuous moderate-intensity PA bout does not.
    • Benefits of physical activity for young people who have been parentally bereaved: a report to the Forces Children’s Trust

      Williams, Jane; Howlett, Neil; Shorter, Gillian; Chater, Angel M.; Forces Children’s Trust; University of Bedfordshire (Forces Children’s Trust, 2020-01-18)
    • Beyond transgression: mountain biking, young people and managing green spaces

      King, Katherine; Church, Andrew (Routledge, 2019-01-24)
      The importance of regular participation in physical activity in youth has seen attention turn to the role of lifestyle sports. Existing research on lifestyle sports lacks consideration of young people’s use of green spaces and the approaches of managers to conflicts in these spaces. Young people’s experiences of leisure are closely tied to those who oversee their use of leisure spaces and this paper is a rare example of research that draws upon qualitative methods from 40 mountain biking participants and 9 managers to explore both perspectives. Findings reveal young people seek opportunities for autonomy in green spaces through mountain biking but contest normative management practices. Managers recognized the benefits of engaging young people in mountain biking and discussed experimenting with various strategies to accommodate their practices. The paper therefore discusses the importance of moving beyond constructions of young people’s participation in lifestyle sports as transgressive and troublesome.
    • Bioavailability and metabolism of phenolic compounds from wholegrain wheat and aleurone-rich wheat bread

      Bresciani, Letizia; Scazzina, Francesca; Leonardi, Roberto; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Newell, Michael; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Melegari, Camilla; Ray, Sumantra; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele; et al. (Wiley, 2016-07-12)
      Scope: This work aimed at investigating absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of phenolic compounds after consumption of wholegrain bread or bread enriched with an aleurone fraction. Methods and results: Two commercially available breads were consumed by 15 participants on three occasions and matched for either the amount of ferulic acid in the bread or the amount of bread consumed. Urine was collected for 48 h from all the volunteers for phenolic metabolite quantification. Blood samples were collected for 24 h following bread consumption in five participants. A total of 12 and 4 phenolic metabolites were quantified in urine and plasma samples, respectively. Metabolites were sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugates of phenolic acids, and high concentrations of ferulic acid-4’-O-sulfate, dihydroferulic acid-4’-O-sulfate, and dihydroferulic acid-O-glucuronide were observed. The bioavailability of ferulic acid was significantly higher from the aleurone-enriched bread when all ferulic acid metabolites were accounted for. Conclusions: The study shows that low amounts of aleurone-enriched bread resulted in equivalent plasma levels of ferulic acid as wholegrain bread. This could suggest that, if the absorbed phenolic metabolites after wholegrain product intake exert health benefits, equal levels could be reached through the consumption of lower doses of refined products enriched in aleurone fraction.
    • Biochemistry of buffering capacity and ingestion of buffers in exercise and athletic performance

      Saunders, Bryan; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Dolan, Eimear; Jones, Rebecca Louise; Matthews, Joseph; Sale, Craig (Routledge International Handbooks, 2021-01-22)
    • Blunting of exercise-induced salivary testosterone in elite-level triathletes with a 10-day training camp

      Hough, John; Robertson, Caroline; Gleeson, Michael; (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2015-12-31)
      Purpose: This study examined the influence of 10 days of intensified training on salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to 30-min, high-intensity cycling (55/80) in a group of male elite triathletes. Methods: Seven elite male triathletes (age 19 ± 1 y, VO2max 67.6 ± 4.5 mL · kg-1 · min-1) completed the study. Swim distances increased by 45%. Running and cycling training hours increased by 25% and 229%, respectively. REST-Q questionnaires assessed mood status before, during, and after the training period. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before, after, and 30 min after a continuous, high-intensity exercise test. Salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations were assessed. Results: Compared with pretraining, blunted exercise-induced salivary testosterone responses to the posttraining 55/80 were found (P = .004). The absolute response of salivary testosterone concentrations to the 55/80 decreased pretraining to posttraining from 114% to 85%. No changes were found in exercise-induced salivary cortisol concentration responses to the 55/80. REST-Q scores indicated no changes in the participants' psychological stress-recovery levels over the training camp. Conclusions: The blunted exercise-induced salivary testosterone is likely due to decreased testicular testosterone production and/or secretion, possibly attributable to hypothalamic dysfunction or reduced testicular blood flow. REST-Q scores suggest that the triathletes coped well with training-load elevations, which could account for the finding of no change in the exercise-induced salivary cortisol concentration. Overall, these findings suggest that the 55/80 can detect altered exercise-induced salivary testosterone concentrations in an elite athletic population due to increased training stress. However, this alteration occurs independently of a perceived elevation of training stress.
    • Book review: Equity and Inclusion in physical education and sport, Second edition

      Hill, Joanne (Human Kinetics, 2014-07-01)
      Review of Equity and Inclusion in Physical Education and Sport, Second Edition
    • Book review: Queer bodies: sexualities, genders and fatness in physical education

      Hill, Joanne (Taylor & Francis, 2012-10-31)
      Book review of Sykes, H., (2011) Queer bodies: sexualities, genders and fatness in physical education, New York: Peter Lang 9781433111617.
    • Book review: The lady footballers: struggling to play in Victorian Britain

      Hill, Joanne (Taylor & Francis, 2012-09-11)
      Book review: Lee, JF (2008) 'The lady footballers: struggling to play in Victorian Britain' Abingdon: Routledge 978015603133
    • Breakfast consumption suppresses appetite but does not increase daily energy intake or physical activity energy expenditure when compared with breakfast omission in adolescent girls who habitually skip breakfast: a 7-day randomised crossover trial

      Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Seall, Claire; Tolfrey, Keith; ; University of Bedfordshire; Loughborough University (MDPI, 2021-11-26)
      With concerns that adolescent girls often skip breakfast, this study compared the effects of breakfast consumption versus breakfast omission on free-living physical activity (PA) energy expenditure (PAEE) and dietary intakes among adolescent girls classified as habitual breakfast skippers. The participants went through two 7-day conditions in a trial with a crossover design: daily standardised breakfast consumption (energy content: 25% of resting metabolic rate) before 09:00 (BC) and daily breakfast omission (no energy-providing nutrients consumed) until 10:30 (BO). Free-living PAEE, dietary intakes, and perceived appetite, tiredness, and energy levels were assessed. Analyses were linear mixed models. Breakfast manipulation did not affect PAEE or PA duration. Daily fibre intake was higher (p = 0.005; d = 1.31), daily protein intake tended to be higher (p = 0.092; d = 0.54), post-10:30 carbohydrate intake tended to be lower (p = 0.096; d = 0.41), and pre-10:30 hunger and fullness were lower and higher, respectively (p ≤ 0.065; d = 0.33–1.01), in BC versus BO. No other between-condition differences were found. Breakfast-skipping adolescent girls do not compensate for an imbalance in energy intake caused by breakfast consumption versus omission through subsequent changes in PAEE but may increase their carbohydrate intakes later in the day to partially compensate for breakfast omission. Furthermore, breakfast can make substantial contributions to daily fibre intake among adolescent girls.
    • Breaking barriers: using the Behavior Change Wheel to develop a tailored intervention to overcome workplace inhibitors to breaking up sitting time

      Ojo, Samson Oluseye; Bailey, Daniel Paul; Brierley, Marsha L.; Hewson, David; Chater, Angel M.; University of Bedfordshire (Springer Nature, 2019-08-16)
      Background The workplace is a prominent domain for excessive sitting. The consequences of increased sitting time include adverse health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease and poor mental wellbeing. There is evidence that breaking up sitting could improve health, however, any such intervention in the workplace would need to be informed by a theoretical evidence-based framework. The aim of this study was to use the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) to develop a tailored intervention to break up and reduce workplace sitting in desk-based workers. Methods The BCW guide was followed for this qualitative, pre-intervention development study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 office workers (26–59 years, mean age 40.9 [SD = 10.8] years; 68% female) who were purposively recruited from local council offices and a university in the East of England region. The interview questions were developed using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Transcripts were deductively analysed using the COM-B (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation – Behaviour) model of behaviour. The Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy Version 1 (BCTv1) was thereafter used to identify possible strategies that could be used to facilitate change in sitting behaviour of office workers in a future intervention. Results Qualitative analysis using COM-B identified that participants felt that they had the physical Capability to break up their sitting time, however, some lacked the psychological Capability in relation to the knowledge of both guidelines for sitting time and the consequences of excess sitting. Social and physical Opportunity was identified as important, such as a supportive organisational culture (social) and the need for environmental resources (physical). Motivation was highlighted as a core target for intervention, both reflective Motivation, such as beliefs about capability and intention and automatic in terms of overcoming habit through reinforcement. Seven intervention functions and three policy categories from the BCW were identified as relevant. Finally, 39 behaviour change techniques (BCTs) were identified as potential active components for an intervention to break up sitting time in the workplace. Conclusions The TDF, COM-B model and BCW can be successfully applied through a systematic process to understand the drivers of behaviour of office workers to develop a co-created intervention that can be used to break up and decrease sitting in the workplace. Intervention designers should consider the identified BCW factors and BCTs when developing interventions to reduce and break up workplace sitting.
    • Breaking up prolonged sitting with moderate-intensity walking improves attention and executive function in Qatari females

      Chrismas, Bryna C.; Taylor, Lee; Cherif, Anissa; Sayegh, Suzan M.; Bailey, Daniel Paul; University of Bedfordshire; Qatar University; Loughborough University; Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital (PLOS, 2019-07-12)
    • Can physical activity support grief outcomes in individuals who have been bereaved? a systematic review

      Williams, Jane; Shorter, Gillian; Howlett, Neil; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Chater, Angel M.; University of Bedfordshire; Queen’s University Belfast; University of Hertfordshire (Springer, 2021-03-06)
      Background: In 2018, there were 616,014 registered deaths in the United Kingdom (UK). Grief is a natural consequence. Many mental health concerns, which can be identified as grief outcomes (e.g. anxiety and depression) in those who have experienced a bereavement, can be improved through physical activity. The objective of this review was to identify from the existing literature if physical activity can benefit grief outcomes in individuals who have been bereaved. Methods: A systematic review of nine databases was performed. Included studies (qualitative and quantitative) explored physical activity to help individuals (of any age) who had experienced a human bereavement (excluding national loss). Results: From 1299 studies screened, 25 met the inclusion criteria, detailing eight types of bereavement (parental (n=5), spousal (n=6), patient (n=4), pre-natal (n=3), later life (n=1), caregiver (n=1), multiple (n=4) and non-defined (n=1). Activities including yoga, running, walking, and martial arts were noted as beneficial. Physical activity allowed a sense of freedom, to express emotions, provided a distraction, and an escape from grief, while enhancing social support. Conclusion: There is some evidence that physical activity may provide benefit for the physical health and psychological wellbeing of those who have been bereaved, including when the loss has happened at a young age. This review is timely, given the wide-scale national loss of life due to COVID-19 and extends knowledge in this area. More research is needed to explore the benefits of physical activity for those who have been bereaved. In particular there is a need for well-designed interventions which are tailored to specific activities, populations and grief outcomes.
    • Can physical activity support young people after the death of a parent? the BABYSTEPs project

      Chater, Angel M.; Williams, Jane; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Howlett, Neil; Shorter, Gillian; University of Bedfordshire; University of Hertfordshire; Ulster University (2019-09-10)
      Background: Annually, 41,000 UK children and young people are parentally bereaved. Grief is an individual process and must be supported properly.  Many mental health aspects that cross over with grief outcomes (i.e. anxiety and depression) can be improved through physical activity. Yet there is limited research investigating whether physical activity can support bereaved individuals with their grief and what services are currently available. Methods: A systematic review of the literature (10 databases) and service provision (5 search engines) was performed.  Empirical studies (qualitative and quantitative) had to explore physical activity (of any type) to help individuals (of any age) who had experienced a bereavement (of any human, other than national loss).  Organisations which provide bereavement support to young people were contacted (via questionnaire and telephone) to record details about their service and if they offer physical activity support. Results: From 564 studies screened, 20 met the inclusion criteria, with 5 reporting using physical activity to support parental bereavement.  Running and martial arts were noted as types of beneficial activity.  Of the 373 organisations identified, 26 provided physical activity support (i.e. residential retreats, football) for bereaved young people.  Conclusion: There is evidence that physical activity can support the wellbeing of young people who have been parentally bereaved.  However, this evidence is limited, with just a small number of organisations offering physical activity.  There is a clear need for more research and services to understand and increase the use of physical activity to support young people following the death of their parent.
    • Cardiometabolic response to a single high-intensity interval exercise session versus breaking up sedentary time with fragmented high-intensity interval exercise

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Orton, Charlie J.; Maylor, Benjamin D.; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K. (Thieme, 2019-02-04)
      This study compared the effects of interrupting prolonged sedentary time with high-intensity physical activity (SED-ACT), a volume and duration-matched high-intensity interval exercise session followed by prolonged sedentary time (HIIE), and prolonged uninterrupted sedentary time (SED) on postprandial glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations. Twelve sedentary and inactive, but otherwise healthy, adults completed three, 6.5 h conditions in an incomplete counterbalanced order. During SED, participants sat continuously. For HIIE, participants completed 10 x 60 s cycling bouts at 90% maximum oxygen update (V̇O2max) with 1 min active recovery between bouts. In SED-ACT, 60 s cycling bouts at 90% V̇O2max were completed every 30 min (10 times in total) with 30 s of active recovery immediately before and after. Standardised meals were consumed at 0 h and 3 h and capillary blood samples were collected fasted and every 30 min. Compared with SED, postprandial glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was significantly lower in SED-ACT by 1.91 mmol/L∙6.5 h (p=0.022) and triglyceride iAUC was significantly lower in HIIE by 1.02 mmol/L∙6.5 h (p=0.030). Interrupting sedentary time with high-intensity physical activity can lower postprandial glucose concentrations, whereas a HIIE session can lower postprandial triglyceride concentrations.
    • Cardiovascular disease risk marker responses to breaking up prolonged sedentary time in individuals with paraplegia: the Spinal Cord Injury Move More (SCIMM) randomised crossover laboratory trial protocol

      Withers, Thomas M.; Croft, Louise; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.; Dunstan, David W.; Leicht, Christof A.; Bailey, Daniel Paul (BMJ, 2018-06-22)
      Introduction: Sedentary behaviour is a distinct risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and could partly explain the increased prevalence of CVD in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Interrupting prolonged sitting periods with regular short bouts of walking acutely suppresses postprandial glucose and lipids in able-bodied individuals. However, the acute CVD risk marker response to breaking up prolonged sedentary time in people with SCI has not been investigated. Methods and analysis: A randomised two-condition laboratory crossover trial will compare: 1) breaking up prolonged sedentary time with 2 min moderate-intensity arm crank activity every 20 min, with 2) uninterrupted prolonged sedentary time (control) in people with SCI. Outcomes will include acute effects on postprandial glucose, insulin, lipids and blood pressure. Blood samples will be collected and blood pressure measured at regular intervals during each 5.5 h condition. Ethics and dissemination: This study was approved by the Cambridge South NHS Research Ethics Committee. This research will help determine if breaking up prolonged sedentary time could be effective in lowering CVD risk in people with SCI. The findings of the research will be published in a peer review journal and disseminated to relevant user groups. Trial registration: The study is registered as a clinical trial on the ISRCTN register (trial ID: ISRCTN51868437).  
    • Carnosine in health and disease

      Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Sale, Craig; Jones, Rebecca Louise; Nottingham Trent University; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2018-03-04)
      Carnosine was originally discovered in skeletal muscle, where it exists in larger amounts than in other tissues. The majority of research into the physiological roles of carnosine have been conducted on skeletal muscle. Given this and the potential for muscle carnosine content to be increased with supplementation, there is now a large body of research examining the ergogenic effects (or otherwise) of carnosine. More recent research, however, points towards a potential for carnosine to exert a wider range of physiological effects in other tissues, including the brain, heart, pancreas, kidney and cancer cells. Taken together, this is suggestive of a potential for carnosine to have therapeutic benefits in health and disease, although this is by no means without complication. Herein, we will provide a review of the current literature relating to the potential therapeutic effects of carnosine in health and disease.
    • Carnosine: from exercise performance to health

      Jones, Rebecca Louise (2017-09-20)