• The 30-15 intermittent fitness test: can it predict outcomes in field tests of anaerobic performance?

      Scott, Brendan R.; Hodson, Jacob A.; Govus, Andrew; Dascombe, Ben; Murdoch University; University of Newcastle, New South Wales; University of Bedfordshire; La Trobe University (Wolters Kluwer, 2017-10-29)
      This study determined whether a composite assessment of intermittent fitness could be used to quantify performance in several anaerobic tasks. Fifty-two male recreational athletes (age: 24.3 ± 4.4 years; body mass: 85.1 ± 12.2 kg; height: 180.5 ± 7.0 cm) were recruited from various team sports. Participants completed a battery of field tests to assess sprinting speed (40-m sprint), acceleration ability (10-m sprint), change of direction speed (505 test), anaerobic capacity (300-m shuttle), lower-body power (vertical jump), and repeated-sprint ability and the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test to determine the velocity of intermittent fitness (VIFT). Relationships between anaerobic tests and VIFT were quantified via Pearson product-moment correlations, and a 2-predictor model multiple linear regression estimated the predictive relationships between the exercise tests and the VIFT. Multiple linear regression showed that VIFT significantly predicted 56, 51, 44, 36, 12, and 1% of the variance in the 300-m shuttle, repeated sprint, 505- and 40-m sprint, vertical jump, and 10-m sprint tests, respectively. The 2-predictor model determined the 300-m shuttle, and repeated-sprint performance accounted for 67% of the variance in VIFT. These findings highlight that various anaerobic characteristics contribute to the intermittent fitness qualities that are quantified through VIFT. More specifically, these data indicate that VIFT is useful for tracking performance in tasks largely determined by anaerobic capacity, but may not be a good predictor of brief all-out sprinting and jumping efforts.
    • Accelerometery and heart rate responses of professional fast-medium bowlers in one-day and multi-day cricket

      Johnstone, James A.; Hughes, Gerwyn T.G.; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Ford, Paul A.; Watson, Tim; Duffield, Rob; Gordon, Dan; Roberts, Justin D.; Garrett, Andrew T.; Anglia Ruskin University; et al. (JOURNAL SPORTS SCIENCE & MEDICINE, 2017-08-08)
      The physical demands of fast-medium bowling are increasingly being recognised, yet comparative exploration of the differing demands between competitive formats (i.e. one-day [OD] versus multi-day [MD] matches) remain minimal. The aim of this study was to describe in-match physiological profiles of professional fast-medium bowlers from England across different versions of competitive matches using a multivariable wearable monitoring device. Seven professional cricket fast-medium bowlers wore the Bioharness (TM) monitoring device during matches, over three seasons (>80 hours in-match). Heart Rate (HR) and Acceleromety (ACC) was compared across match types (OD, MD) and different in-match activity states (Bowling, Between over bowling, Fielding). Peak acceleration during OD bowling was significantly higher in comparison to MD cricket ([OD vs. MD] 234.1 +/- 57.9 vs 226.6 +/- 32.9 ct.episode(-1), p < 0.05, ES = 0.11-0.30). Data for ACC were also higher during OD than MD fielding activities (p < 0.01, ES = 0.11-.30). OD bowling stimulated higher mean HR responses (143 +/- 14 vs 137 +/- 16 beats.min(-1), p < 0.05, ES = 0.21) when compared to MD matches. This increase in OD cricket was evident for both between over (129 +/- 9 vs 120 +/- 13 beats.min(-1), p < 0.01, ES = 0.11-0.50) and during fielding (115 +/- 12 vs 106 +/- 12 beats.min(-1), p < 0.01, ES = 0.36) activity. The increased HR and ACC evident in OD matches suggest greater acute physical loads than MD formats. Therefore, use of wearable technology and the findings provided give a valuable appreciation of the differences in match loads, and thus required physiological preparation and recovery in fast-medium bowlers.
    • Active Inspiration Playmakers final report

      O'Donovan, Toni M.; Ives, Helen Maria; Bowler, Mark; Sammon, Paul; Goodyear, Victoria A.; University of Bedfordshire (Playmakers/University of Bedfordshire, 2016-11-01)
      Final Report the the 'Playmakers' project; a programme within the Virgin Active 'Active Inspiration' initiative. 
    • Acute and chronic effects of foam rolling vs eccentric exercise on ROM and force output of the plantar flexors

      Aune, Anne A.G.; Bishop, Chris; Turner, Anthony; Papadopoulos, Kostas; Budd, Sarah; Richardson, Mark; Maloney, Sean J. (Routledge, 2018-06-12)
      Foam rolling and eccentric exercise interventions have been demonstrated to improve range of motion (ROM). However, these two modalities have not been directly compared. Twenty-three academy soccer players (age: 18 ± 1; height: 1.74 ± 0.08 m; body mass: 69.3 ± 7.5 kg) were randomly allocated to either a foam rolling (FR) or eccentric exercise intervention designed to improve dorsiflexion ROM. Participants performed the intervention daily for a duration of four weeks. Measurements of dorsiflexion ROM, isometric plantar flexion torque and drop jump reactive strength index were taken at baseline (pre-intervention) and at three subsequent time-points (30-min post, 24-hours post and 4-weeks post). A significant time x group interaction effect was observed for dorsiflexion (P = 0.036), but not for torque or reactive strength index. For dorsiflexion, there was a significant increase in both acute (30-min; P < 0.001) and chronic (4-week; P < 0.001) ROM for the eccentric group, whilst FR exhibited only an acute improvement (P < 0.001). Eccentric training would appear a more efficacious modality than foam rolling for improving dorsiflexion ROM in elite academy soccer players.
    • Acute effect of breakfast glycaemic index and breaking up prolonged sitting on postprandial glucose and insulin in adult males

      Maylor, Benjamin D.; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Orton, Charlie J.; Bailey, Daniel Paul (2015-11-20)
    • Acute effects of breaking up prolonged sedentary time on cardiovascular disease risk markers in adults with paraplegia

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Withers, Thomas M.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.; Dunstan, David W.; Leicht, Christof A.; Champion, Rachael B.; Charlett, Opie P.; Ferrandino, Louise; (John Wiley and Sons, 2020-04-03)
      Elevated levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers are highly prevalent in people with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Breaking up prolonged sedentary time with short, regular bouts of physical activity can reduce postprandial glucose and lipid levels in able-bodied individuals. The effects in people with paraplegia are unknown. The study aims were to examine the acute postprandial glucose (primary aim), lipid, blood pressure, and psychological responses (secondary aims) to breaking up prolonged sedentary time in individuals with paraplegia. This was a randomized crossover design trial. Fourteen participants with paraplegia (age 51 +- 9 years, trunk fat mass 44.3 +- 7.7%) took part in the following two, 5.5-hour conditions: (1) uninterrupted sedentary time (SED), and (2) sedentary time interrupted with 2 minutes of moderate-intensity arm crank ergometer physical activity every 20 minutes (SEDACT). Standardized breakfast and lunch test meals were consumed during each condition. The outcomes were compared between conditions using linear mixed models. Glucose area under the curve (AUC) was significantly lower during the lunch postprandial period in SED-ACT vs SED (incremental AUC 1.9 [95% CI 1.0, 2.7) and 3.0 [2.1, 3.9] mmol/L∙2.5 hour, respectively, P = .015, f = 0.34). There were no differences between conditions for the breakfast or total 5.5 hours postprandial periods (P > .05). Positive affect was higher in SED-ACT than SED (P = .001). Breaking up prolonged sedentary time acutely attenuates lunch postprandial glucose and improves positive affect in people with paraplegia. This may have clinical relevance for reducing CVD risk and improving psychological well-being in this population.
    • Aerobic training protects cardiac function during advancing age: a meta-analysis of four decades of controlled studies

      Beaumont, Alexander; Grace, Fergal; Richards, Joanna C.; Campbell, Amy; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; University of the West of Scotland; Federation University Australia; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2018-10-29)
      In contrast to younger athletes, there is comparatively less literature examining cardiac structure and function in older athletes. However, a progressive accumulation of studies during the past four decades offers a body of literature worthy of systematic scrutiny. We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of controlled echocardiography studies comparing left ventricular (LV) structure and function in aerobically trained older athletes (> 45 years) with age-matched untrained controls, in addition to investigating the influence of chronological age. statistic. , 95% CI 0.05-1.86, p = 0.04). Meta-regression for chronological age identified that athlete-control differences, in the main, are maintained during advancing age. Athletic older men have larger cardiac dimensions and enjoy more favourable cardiac function than healthy, non-athletic counterparts. Notably, the athlete groups maintain these effects during chronological ageing.
    • Age and gender differences in children's health perceptions and health behaviours

      Chater, Angel M.; Voegele, Claus; Worrell, Marcia; University of Bedfordshire; Roehampton University (Wiley, 2008-08-31)
      International journal of psychology Volume43, Issue3-4 Special Issue: Abstracts of the XXIX INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF PSYCHOLOGY June-August 2008 Pages 1-167
    • Anthropometric characteristics and sex influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy

      Hammond, Lucy E.; Cuttell, S.; Nunley, P.; Meyler, J.; University of Bedfordshire; Moulton College (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2014-12-28)
      This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (-60°C for 30 seconds, -110°C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (ΔT sk) were calculated. ΔT sk was significantly greater in females (12.07 ± 1.55°C) than males (10.12 ± 1.86°C; t(30) = -3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ΔT sk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and ΔT sk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols.
    • Are physical activity interventions for healthy inactive adults effective in promoting behavior change and maintenance, and which behavior change techniques are effective? : a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Howlett, Neil; Trivedi, Daksha; Troop, Nicholas A.; Chater, Angel M.; University of Hertfordshire; University College London (Springer, 2018-02-28)
      Background: Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior relate to poor health outcomes independently. Healthy inactive adults are a key target population for prevention. Purpose: This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of physical activity and/or sedentary behavior interventions, measured post-intervention (behavior change) and at follow-up (behavior change maintenance), to identify behavior change techniques (BCT) within, and report on fidelity. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, targeting healthy inactive adults, aiming to change physical activity and/or sedentary behavior, with a minimum post-intervention follow-up of 6 months, using 16 databases from 1990. Two reviewers independently coded risk of bias, the TiDieR checklist, and BCTs. Results: Twenty-six studies were included; 16 pooled for meta-analysis. Physical activity interventions were effective at changing behavior (d = .32, 95% CI .16 to .48, n=2346) and maintaining behavior change after 6 months or more (d = .21, 95% CI .12 to .30, n=2190). Sedentary behavior interventions (n=2) were not effective. At post-intervention, physical activity intervention effectiveness was associated with the BCTs ‘Biofeedback’, ‘Demonstration of the behavior’, ‘Behavior practice/rehearsal’, and ‘Graded tasks’. At follow-up, effectiveness was associated with using ‘Action planning’, ‘Instruction on how to perform the behavior’, ‘Prompts/cues’, ‘Behavior practice/rehearsal’, ‘Graded tasks’, and ‘Self-reward’. Fidelity was only documented in one study. Conclusions: Good evidence was found for behavior change maintenance effects in healthy inactive adults, and underlying BCTs. This review provides translational evidence to improve research, intervention design, and service delivery in physical activity interventions, while highlighting the lack of fidelity measurement.
    • Association between breakfast frequency and physical activity and sedentary time: a cross-sectional study in children from 12 countries

      Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Gillison, Fiona B.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Mire, Emily F.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Denstel, Kara D.; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; et al. (BMC, 2019-02-21)
      Background: Existing research has documented inconsistent findings for the associations among breakfast frequency, physical activity (PA), and sedentary time in children. The primary aim of this study was to examine the associations among breakfast frequency and objectively-measured PA and sedentary time in a sample of children from 12 countries representing a wide range of human development, economic development and inequality. The secondary aim was to examine interactions of these associations between study sites. Methods: This multinational, cross-sectional study included 6228 children aged 9-11 years from the 12 International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment sites. Multilevel statistical models were used to examine associations between self-reported habitual breakfast frequency defined using three categories (breakfast consumed 0 to 2 days/week [rare], 3 to 5 days/week [occasional] or 6 to 7 days/week [frequent]) or two categories (breakfast consumed less than daily or daily) and accelerometry-derived PA and sedentary time during the morning (wake time to 1200 h) and afternoon (1200 h to bed time) with study site included as an interaction term. Model covariates included age, sex, highest parental education, body mass index z-score, and accelerometer waking wear time. Results: Participants averaged 60 (s.d. 25) min/day in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), 315 (s.d. 53) min/day in light PA and 513 (s.d. 69) min/day sedentary. Controlling for covariates, breakfast frequency was not significantly associated with total daily or afternoon PA and sedentary time. For the morning, frequent breakfast consumption was associated with higher proportion of time in MVPA (0.3%), a higher proportion of time in light PA (1.0%) and lower min/day and proportion of time sedentary (3.4 min/day and 1.3%) than rare breakfast consumption (all p ≤ 0.05). No significant associations were found when comparing occasional with rare or frequent breakfast consumption, or daily with less than daily breakfast consumption. Very few significant interactions with study site were found. Conclusions: In this multinational sample of children, frequent breakfast consumption was associated with higher MVPA and light PA time and lower sedentary time in the morning when compared with rare breakfast consumption, although the small magnitude of the associations may lack clinical relevance.
    • Associations between breakfast frequency and adiposity indicators in children from 12 countries

      Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Gillison, F.B.; Cumming, S.; Church, T.S.; Katzmarzyk, P.T.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Champagne, C.M.; Chaput, J-P.; Denstel, K.D.; Fogelholm, M.; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2015-12-01)
      OBJECTIVES: Reports of inverse associations between breakfast frequency and indices of obesity are predominantly based on samples of children from high-income countries with limited socioeconomic diversity. Using data from the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE), the present study examined associations between breakfast frequency and adiposity in a sample of 9–11-year-old children from 12 countries representing a wide range of geographic and socio-cultural variability. METHODS: Multilevel statistical models were used to examine associations between breakfast frequency (independent variable) and adiposity indicators (dependent variables: body mass index (BMI) z-score and body fat percentage (BF%)), adjusting for age, sex, and parental education in 6941 children from 12 ISCOLE study sites. Associations were also adjusted for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns and sleep time in a sub-sample (n=5710). Where interactions with site were significant, results were stratified by site. RESULTS: Adjusted mean BMI z-score and BF% for frequent breakfast consumers were 0.45 and 20.5%, respectively. Frequent breakfast consumption was associated with lower BMI z-scores compared with occasional (P<0.0001, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.10–0.29) and rare (P<0.0001, 95% CI: 0.18–0.46) consumption, as well as lower BF% compared with occasional (P<0.0001, 95% CI: 0.86–1.99) and rare (P<0.0001, 95% CI: 1.07–2.76). Associations with BMI z-score varied by site (breakfast by site interaction; P=0.033): associations were non-significant in three sites (Australia, Finland and Kenya), and occasional (not rare) consumption was associated with higher BMI z-scores compared with frequent consumption in three sites (Canada, Portugal and South Africa). Sub-sample analyses adjusting for additional covariates showed similar associations between breakfast and adiposity indicators, but lacked site interactions. CONCLUSIONS: In a multinational sample of children, more frequent breakfast consumption was associated with lower BMI z-scores and BF% compared with occasional and rare consumption. Associations were not consistent across all 12 countries. Further research is required to understand global differences in the observed associations.
    • Associations between prolonged sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in 10–14-year-old children: the HAPPY study

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Charman, Sarah J.; Ploetz, Thomas; Savory, Louise A.; Kerr, Catherine J.; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2016-11-28)
      This study examines the association between prolonged sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in 10–14-year-old children. This cross-sectional design study analysed accelerometry-determined sedentary behaviour and physical activity collected over 7 days from 111 (66 girls) UK schoolchildren. Objective outcome measures included waist circumference, fasting lipids, fasting glucose, blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Logistic regression was used for the main data analysis. After adjustment for confounders, the odds of having hypertriglyceridaemia (P = 0.03) and an increased clustered cardiometabolic risk score (P = 0.05) were significantly higher in children who engaged in more prolonged sedentary bouts per day. The number of breaks in sedentary time per day was not associated with any cardiometabolic risk factor, but longer mean duration of daily breaks in sedentary time were associated with a lower odds of having abdominal adiposity (P = 0.04) and elevated diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.01). These associations may be mediated by engagement in light activity. This study provides evidence that avoiding periods of prolonged uninterrupted sedentary time may be important for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in children.
    • Associations of sitting behaviour patterns with cardiometabolic risk in children: the Sit Less for Health Cross-Sectional Study

      Stockwell, Stephanie L.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Weaver, Hannah M.; Hankins, Daniella J.; Bailey, Daniel Paul (2019-07-01)
    • The athletic profile of fast bowling in cricket: a review

      Johnstone, James A.; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Hughes, Gerwyn T.G.; Watson, Tim; Ford, Paul A.; Garrett, Andrew T.; Anglia Ruskin University; University of Hertfordshire; British Olympic Association; University of Hull (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2014-05-01)
      Johnstone, JA, Mitchell, ACS, Hughes, G, Watson, T, Ford, PA, and Garrett, AT. The athletic profile of fast bowling in cricket: A review. J Strength Cond Res 28(5): 1465-1473, 2014-Cricket is a global sport played in over 100 countries with elite performers attracting multimillion dollar contracts. Therefore, performers maintaining optimum physical fitness and remaining injury free is important. Fast bowlers have a vital position in a cricket team, and there is an increasing body of scientific literature that has reviewed this role over the past decade. Previous research on fast bowlers has tended to focus on biomechanical analysis and injury prevention in performers. However, this review aims to critically analyze the emerging contribution of physiological-based literature linked to fast bowling in cricket, highlight the current evidence related to simulated and competitive in-match performance, and relate this practically to the conditioning coach. Furthermore, the review considers limitations with past research and possible avenues for future investigation. It is clear with the advent of new applied mobile monitoring technology that there is scope for more ecologically valid and longitudinal exploration capturing in-match data, providing quantification of physiological workloads, and analysis of the physical demands across the differing formats of the game. Currently, strength and conditioning specialists do not have a critical academic resource with which to shape professional practice, and this review aims to provide a starting point for evidence in the specific area.
    • Autonomous and controlled motivational regulations for multiple health related behaviors: between- and within-participants analyses

      Hagger, Martin S.; Hardcastle, S. J.; Chater, Angel M.; Mallett, C.; Pal, S.; Chatzisarantis, N.L. D.; Curtin University; University of Brighton; University College London; University of Queensland (Taylor and Francis, 2014-04-30)
    • Behavioural science and disease prevention: psychological guidance.

      Chater, Angel M.; Arden, Maddy; Armitage, Chris; Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Chadwick, Paul; Drury, John; Hart, Jo; Lewis, Lesley; McBride, Emily; Perriard-Abdoh, Saskia; et al. (British Psychological Society, 2020-04-14)
      Psychology is crucial to reducing the spread of Covid-19 as it enables us to understand and change behaviour and anticipate people’s responses to changes in policy and guidelines. Behaviours are key to preventing infection and improving outcomes.
    • Beneficial postprandial lipaemic effects of interrupting sedentary time with high-intensity physical activity versus a continuous moderate-intensity physical activity bout: a randomised crossover trial

      Maylor, Benjamin D.; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Orton, Charlie J.; Bailey, Daniel Paul; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2018-05-31)
      Objectives To compare the postprandial cardiometabolic response to prolonged sitting, continuous moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) followed by prolonged sitting, and interrupting prolonged sitting with hourly high-intensity PA breaks. Design Three-condition randomised crossover trial. Methods Fourteen sedentary and inactive adults aged 29 ± 9 years took part in three, 8-h conditions: (1) prolonged sitting (SIT), (2) a continuous 30-min moderate-intensity PA bout followed by prolonged sitting (CONT-SIT), and (3) sitting interrupted hourly with 2 min 32 s high-intensity PA bouts (SIT-ACT). The treadmill PA in conditions 2 and 3 were matched for energy expenditure. Two standardised test meals were consumed during each condition. Incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for each 8-h condition was calculated for glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. Statistical analyses were completed using linear mixed models. Results Compared with SIT, SIT-ACT lowered triglyceride iAUC by 2.23 mmol/L ∙ 8 h (95% CI −4.33, −0.13) and raised HDL-C iAUC by 0.99 mmol/L ∙ 8 h (0.05, 1.93) (all p ≤ 0.038). There was no significant difference in triglyceride or HDL-C iAUC between CONT-SIT and SIT or SIT-ACT (p ≥ 0.211). There were no significant differences between conditions for glucose or insulin iAUC (p ≥ 0.504). Conclusions This study suggests that interrupting prolonged sitting with hourly high-intensity PA breaks acutely improves postprandial triglyceride and HDL-C concentrations compared with prolonged sitting, whereas a continuous moderate-intensity PA bout does not.
    • Benefits of physical activity for young people who have been parentally bereaved: a report to the Forces Children’s Trust

      Williams, Jane; Howlett, Neil; Shorter, Gillian; Chater, Angel M.; Forces Children’s Trust; University of Bedfordshire (Forces Children’s Trust, 2020-01-18)
    • Book review: Equity and Inclusion in physical education and sport, Second edition

      Hill, Joanne (Human Kinetics, 2014-07-01)
      Review of Equity and Inclusion in Physical Education and Sport, Second Edition