• Autonomous and controlled motivational regulations for multiple health related behaviors: between- and within-participants analyses

      Hagger, Martin S.; Hardcastle, S. J.; Chater, Angel M.; Mallett, C.; Pal, S.; Chatzisarantis, N.L. D.; Curtin University; University of Brighton; University College London; University of Queensland (Taylor and Francis, 2014-04-30)
    • Carnosine in health and disease

      Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Sale, Craig; Jones, Rebecca Louise; Nottingham Trent University; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2018-03-04)
      Carnosine was originally discovered in skeletal muscle, where it exists in larger amounts than in other tissues. The majority of research into the physiological roles of carnosine have been conducted on skeletal muscle. Given this and the potential for muscle carnosine content to be increased with supplementation, there is now a large body of research examining the ergogenic effects (or otherwise) of carnosine. More recent research, however, points towards a potential for carnosine to exert a wider range of physiological effects in other tissues, including the brain, heart, pancreas, kidney and cancer cells. Taken together, this is suggestive of a potential for carnosine to have therapeutic benefits in health and disease, although this is by no means without complication. Herein, we will provide a review of the current literature relating to the potential therapeutic effects of carnosine in health and disease.
    • Conceptualising social justice and sociocultural issues within physical education teacher education: international perspectives

      Hill, Joanne; Philpot, Rod; Walton-Fisette, Jennifer L.; Sutherland, Sue; Flemons, Michelle; Ovens, Alan; Phillips, Sharon; Flory, Sara B.; University of Bedfordshire; University of Auckland; et al. (Taylor and Francis, 2018-05-03)
      Background: Physical education (PE) and physical education teacher education (PETE) have a substantial literature base that advocates for students to develop a critical consciousness, appreciate multiple perspectives, and engage in actions to enhance social justice (Tinning 2016). Analysing sociocultural issues, critically reflecting on beliefs, knowledge, biography and values, and developing a sense of agency to enact change, have been recognised as an integral part of the PETE knowledge base for some time (Fernández-Balboa 1997). However, there remain differences in how social justice itself is conceptualised and enacted. Social justice is aligned heavily with critical and ‘post’ theories where taking action for justice, democracy and power are central; but social justice is also found in humanist beliefs in student-centredness and equality and has been co-opted by neoliberal forces that promote individual responsibility. While a lack of consensus is not in itself a problem (Bialystok 2014), diverse definitions might contribute to confusion (Randall and Robinson 2016) and lead to uncertainty over what and how to teach for social justice. Purpose: In order to work towards greater certainty around concepts of social justice in the PETE community, this project sought to map variations in definition and conceptualisation of social justice and sociocultural issues among physical education teacher educators (PETEs) and physical education and sport pedagogy (PESP) educators, as part of a wider project on social justice and sociocultural perspectives and practices in PETE. Methods: PETE and PESP faculty (n=72) in North America, Europe, and Australasia engaged in an in-depth interview, during which they were asked how they define social justice and sociocultural issues. Additional information about participants’ social identity was collected. A constant comparative method of analysing participants’ definitions mapped a range of concepts building on the theoretical framework of neoliberal, humanist, critical and ‘post’ approaches to social justice. Findings: The data demonstrate that there are a range of understandings about sociocultural issues and social justice. Most commonly, some participants articulated a humanist approach to social justice by encouraging their pre-service teachers (PSTs) to have awareness of equality of opportunity in relation to gender, sexuality and/or racism. Less prevalent, but strongly stated by those who conceptualised social justice in these terms, was the importance to take action for democracy, empowerment or critical reflection. The terms diversity and equality, framed in neoliberal and humanist discourses, were most commonly used within the United States (US), while critical pedagogy and alignment with critical and ‘post’ theories were more prevalent in Australia and New Zealand. Conclusion: Differences exist in the ways social justice is conceptualised in PETE. While this can be attributed to the influence of local issues, it is also reflective of what intellectual tools, such as humanism or critical theory, are available for problematising social issues. The range of non-critical concepts found raises concern that PSTs are not getting the tools to enact social justice or tackle sociocultural issues. 
    • Consent and brain trauma in schools

      White, Adam John; Robinson, S. (Taylor and Francis, 2018-01-14)
      In a recently published edition of the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, we read with interest responses given by readers on ‘how should coaches, parents and participants be informed of the risks and rewards of their participation’ (2017: 54) in sports with a risk of head trauma. Over the past decade, increasing attention has been forthcoming on the issues of traumatic brain injuries, repetitive sub-concussive traumas and the long-term, and sometimes fatal, implications of concussion (McKee et al. 2014) often focusing on contact sports, such as American Football, Ice Hockey or the various codes of Rugby.
    • The impact of neurological disability and sensory loss on mindfulness practice

      Finlay, K. A.; Chater, Angel M.; Hearn, J.; University of Reading; University of Bedfordshire; Manchester Metropolitan University (Taylor and Francis, 2021-02-23)
      Objectives Mindfulness-based approaches are increasingly recommended in the management of medical conditions associated with sensory loss and absence, such as Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Functional Neurological Disorder (FND). Yet the implications of undertaking practices such as body scanning when living with sensory loss have not been considered. This study aimed to explore the impact of sensory loss on the practice and experience of mindfulness in qualified mindfulness teachers with SCI/FND/MS. Methods Eight mindfulness teachers (5 females, 3 males) with SCI/FND/MS, sensory loss and wheelchair use were recruited from mindfulness teacher databases. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were undertaken, lasting between 50 and 93 min. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Idiographic analyses for descriptive, linguistic and conceptual themes were completed before cross-case analyses. Results Analyses resulted in two superordinate themes: (1) Adopting your Body; and (2) Sensation without Loss. These themes reflected the challenge of overcoming initial resistance to areas of the body with sensory disruption, building a relationship with the whole body, such that sensory awareness could be visualised and experienced without proprioception. Conclusions Mindfulness offers a unique approach to accepting and working with the body after paralysis or sensory loss. Fundamental to the use of mindfulness with such populations, is the prioritisation of inclusive sensory language and exploring sensory absence as well as sensory presence. The cognitive and emotional outcomes of body scanning may be uniquely elevated in populations with neurophysiological disorders, highlighting the benefits of mindfulness for adaptive and protective self-management.
    • The relationship between vertical stiffness during bilateral and unilateral hopping tests performed with different strategies and vertical jump performances

      Mohammadian, Mohammadamin; Sadeghi, Heydar; Khaleghi Tazji, Mehdi; Maloney, Sean J.; Kharazmi University; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2021-03-20)
      Vertical stiffness has been highlighted as a potential determinant of performance and may be estimated across a range of different performance tasks. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between vertical stiffness determined during 9 different hopping tests and performance of vertical jumps. Twenty healthy, active males performed vertical hopping tests with three different strategies (self-selected, maximal, and controlled) and three different limb configurations (bilateral, unilateral preferred, and unilateral non-preferred), resulting in nine different variations, during which vertical stiffness was determined. In addition, participants performed squat jump (SQJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) during which jump height, CMJ stiffness, and eccentric utilization ratio (EUR) were determined. Vertical stiffness in bilateral and unilateral preferred tasks performed with a self-selected and maximal, but not controlled, strategy was associated with stiffness in the CMJ (r = 0.61-0.64; p < 0.05). However, stiffness obtained during unilateral preferred and non-preferred hopping with self-selected strategy was negatively associated with performance in SQJ and CMJ tasks (r = -0.50 to -0.57; p < 0.05). These findings suggest that high levels of vertical stiffness may be disadvantageous to static vertical jumping performance. In addition, unilateral hopping with a self-selected strategy may be the most appropriate task variation if seeking to determine relationships with vertical jumping performance. HighlightsStiffness obtained during unilateral hopping with a preferred strategy was negatively associated with vertical jumping performancesStiffness obtained during hopping with preferred and maximal strategies was associated with stiffness obtained during a countermovement jumpIn this population, hopping stiffness may therefore be reflective of an individual's countermovement jump strategyHigh levels of stiffness may be disadvantageous to static-start vertical jumping.
    • Representations of Chinese gendered and racialised bodies in contemporary media sites

      Pang, Bonnie; Hill, Joanne; Western Sydney University; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2018-06-16)
      Social media are influential sociocultural forces that construct and transmit information about gender, health and bodies to young people in the digital age. In health and physical activity, Chinese people are often represented and positioned differently to other (minority) ethnic groups. For example, Black young people are often understood as having low academic motivations and aspirations but as ‘natural’ athletes; in contrast, Chinese young people, seen as the ‘model minority’ who excel in STEM subjects, are fragile, reserved and disinterested in physical movements. These public forms of representation may sit in opposition to the young people’s embodied identity. When these misrepresentations are internalised, issues such as micro-aggression and racism may have an impact on Chinese young people’s health and wellbeing. This paper aims to examine how Chinese bodies are gendered and racialised in contemporary social media sites (e.g. Google News, LiveJournal, Medium, Wordpress). Drawing on critical discourse analysis and Foucault’s concepts of normalisation and discursive practice, the paper will problematise the often taken-for-granted gendered and racialised stereotypes related to Chinese physicality and health on social media sites. Implications for developing future research and teaching resources in critical media health literacy for young people on issues related to gender and equity will be provided. The results affect how we understand, represent, and discuss Chinese (young) people on social media sites, thereby how Chinese young people engage, construct, and perform their embodied identities in Western, English speaking societies.
    • Tweet me, message me, like me: using social media to facilitate pedagogical change within an emerging community of practice

      Goodyear, Victoria A.; Casey, Ashley; Kirk, David; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2014-04-22)
      While e-support has been positioned as a means, to overcome some of the time and financial constraints to professional learning, it has largely failed to act as a medium for professional learning in physical education. Consequently, this paper positions teachers prior interest with social media acts as a type of ‘leverage’ for using sites such as Facebook and Twitter for professional learning purposes. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore how social media operates as a communicative space, external to the physical site of an emerging community of practice (CoP) that supported teachers' professional learning and their subsequent longer term changing practice. This study is nested within a wider longitudinal project that explores how teachers learnt and refined their use of a pedagogical innovation (Cooperative Learning) through the overarching methodology, participatory action research. Social media emerged as a form of communication that was not in the study's original design. The paper explores 2125 interactions, through Facebook and Twitter, between five physical education teachers and a facilitator over a two-year period. Through social media, the facilitator re-enforced teachers changing practice, aided the development of the practices of an emerging CoP, and by the CoP situating their use of the innovation in the virtual world, teachers were supported in changing their practice over time, and the use of the pedagogical innovation was sustained. Interactions promoted teacher inquiry, challenged teachers to develop their existing use of the innovation further and encouraged them to work together and develop shared practices. Therefore, social media is presented here as a ‘new’ method for professional learning that supports pedagogical change and overcomes some of the financial and time implications of facilitators and teachers working together.